[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS + SP) has been the first-line treatment and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) the second-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Yemen since 2005. This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs in sentinel sites in Yemen.
Eight therapeutic efficacy studies were conducted in six sentinel sites during the period 2009-2013 in Yemen. Five studies were for the evaluation of AS + SP (total of 465 patients) and three studies (total of 268 patients) for the evaluation of AL. The studies were done according to standard WHO protocol 2009 with 28-day follow-up.
In the evaluation of AS + SP, the PCR-corrected cure rate was 98 % (95 % CI 92.2-99.5 %) in one site and 100 % in all of the other four sites. In the sites where AL was evaluated, the PCR-corrected cure rate was 100 % in all the sites. All patients were negative for asexual parasitaemia on day 3 in both the AS + SP and the AL groups. There was a higher rate of clearance of gametocytaemia in the AL-treated group when compared with the AS + SP groups from day 7 onwards.
AS + SP remains the effective drug for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Yemen. AL is also highly effective and can be an appropriate alternative to AS + SP for the treatment of falciparum malaria. AL demonstrated a higher efficacy in clearing microscopic gametocytaemia than AS + SP.
Trial registration number ACTRN12610000696099.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmission of malaria across the Arabian Peninsula is governed by the diversity of dominant vectors and extreme aridity. It is likely that where malaria transmission was historically possible it was intense and led to a high disease burden. Here, we review the speed of elimination, approaches taken, define the shrinking map of risk since 1960 and discuss the threats posed to a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula using the archive material, case data and published works. From as early as the 1940s, attempts were made to eliminate malaria on the peninsula but were met with varying degrees of success through to the 1970s; however, these did result in a shrinking of the margins of malaria transmission across the peninsula. Epidemics in the 1990s galvanised national malaria control programmes to reinvigorate control efforts. Before the launch of the recent global ambition for malaria eradication, countries on the Arabian Peninsula launched a collaborative malaria-free initiative in 2005. This initiative led a further shrinking of the malaria risk map and today locally acquired clinical cases of malaria are reported only in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, with the latter contributing to over 98% of the clinical burden.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Advances in Parasitology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species identification and information on transmission pattern of malaria parasite in any malaria endemic area is key to success for a malaria control programme. In this investigation, malaria diagnosis using molecular method was used to assess the transmission pattern of malaria parasite in three malaria endemic regions: Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan.
Blood samples were collected from the patients presenting with vivax malaria from Afghanistan (n=108), Iran (n=200) and Pakistan (n=199). Malaria parasite detection was made by the gold standard (microscopy) and also nested-PCR assay, using 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) gene.
Based on microscopy method, the level of mixed infection was zero to 2.5 per cent; however, nested-PCR assay detected 6.5, 22 and 23.5 per cent mixed infections in samples collected from Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan, respectively. The present results showed that the co-infection of P. vivax with P. falciparum was frequent in malaria endemic regions of Iran and Pakistan.
The present data suggest the need for improving microscopy diagnosis method and the clinician should also have careful clinical observation, along with the reports on Giemsa- stained thick blood films, particularly in summer time when P. vivax is predominant. Also sharing information on transmission pattern of mixed infection among these countries may help in designing better control strategies for malaria.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · The Indian Journal of Medical Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the nature and extent of genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Afghanistan have been investigated by analyzing three genetic markers: csp, msp-1, and msp-3 alpha. Blood samples (n=202) were collected from patients presenting with vivax malaria from south-western (Herat) and south-eastern (Nangarhar) parts of Afghanistan, and analysed using nested-PCR/RFLP and sequencing methods. Genotyping pvmsp-1 revealed type 1, type 2 and recombinant type 3 allelic variants, with type 1 predominant in parasites in both study areas. The sequence analysis of 57 P. vivax isolates identified a total of 26 distinct alleles. Genotyping pvcsp gene showed that VK210 type (86.6%) is predominant in Afghanistan. Moreover, three major types of the pvmsp-3 alpha locus: type A, type B and type C were distinguished among Afghani isolates. The predominant fragments among Nangarhar and Herat parasites were type A (70.8% and 67.9%, respectively). PCR/RFLP products with Hha I and Alu I were detected 52 and 38 distinct variants among Nangarhar and Herat isolates, respectively. These results strongly indicate that the P. vivax populations in Afghanistan are highly diverse.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations circulating in Pakistan and Iran has been investigated by using circumsporozoite protein (csp) and merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3alpha (msp-1 and msp-3alpha) genes as genetic markers. Infected P. vivax blood samples were collected from Pakistan (n=187) and Iran (n=150) during April to October 2008, and were analyzed using nested-PCR/RFLP and sequencing methods. Genotyping pvmsp-1 (variable block 5) revealed the presence of type 1, type 2 and recombinant type 3 allelic variants, with type 1 predominant, in both study areas. The sequence analysis of 33 P. vivax isolates from Pakistan and 30 from Iran identified 16 distinct alleles each, with one allele (R-8) from Iran which was not reported previously. Genotyping pvcsp gene also showed that VK210 type is predominant in both countries. Moreover, based on the size of amplified fragment of pvmsp-3alpha, three major types: type A (1800bp), type B (1500bp) and type C (1200bp), were distinguished among the examined isolates that type A was predominant among Pakistani (72.7%) and Iranian (77.3%) parasites. PCR/RFLP products of pvmsp-3alpha with HhaI and AluI have detected 40 and 39 distinct variants among Pakistani and Iranian examined isolates, respectively. Based on these three studied genes, the rate of combined multiple genotypes were 30% and 24.6% for Pakistani and Iranian P. vivax isolates, respectively. These results indicate an extensive diversity in the P. vivax populations in both studies.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Parasitology International