[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary objective was to determine the effect of supplemental progesterone, administered via an intravaginal device (CIDR), on conception rates to timed-artificial insemination (timed-AI) in postpartum suckled Japanese Black beef cows treated with the Ovsynch protocol. A secondary objective was to compare the effects of treatments on plasma concentrations of progesterone and estradiol. Cows in the control group (Ovsynch, n=38) received a standard Ovsynch protocol (100 microg GnRH analogue on Day 0, 500 microg PGF2alpha analogue on Day 7, and 100 microg GnRH analogue on Day 9), with AI on Day 10, approximately 20 h after the second GnRH treatment. Cows in the treatment group (Ovsynch+CIDR; n=40) received a standard Ovsynch protocol plus a CIDR for 7 days (starting on Day 0). Plasma progesterone concentrations were determined on Days 0, 1, 7, 9, 10, and 17 and plasma estradiol-17beta concentrations were determined on Days 7, 9, 10, and 17. The odds ratio for likelihood of conception was 3.29 times greater (P=0.02) in the Ovsynch+CIDR group compared to Ovsynch group. The conception rate was greater (P=0.03) in the Ovsynch+CIDR group than in the Ovsynch group (72.5% versus 47.7%). Insertion of a CIDR device significantly increased plasma progesterone concentrations only on Days 1 and 7 (P<0.001 and P=0.05, respectively), but had no significant effect on plasma estradiol-17beta concentrations. Including a CIDR with the Ovsynch protocol significantly improved conception rates in postpartum suckled Japanese Black beef cows.