- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components should provide variability in satisfying a variety of domains [C. Szyperski, Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming, Addison-Wesley, 2002.], but it is not easy to develop components which can be applied to all domains. Although components are developed by analyzing many different requirements, developing components that satisfy all requirements is difficult since unexpected requirements occur during the utilization of components. Hence, providing the variability of components becomes an important prerequisite for a successful component-based application development.In this paper, we propose a variability design technique that can satisfy the business workflow requirements of many different kinds of domains. The technique addresses a method for designing the variability of the workflow in a more detailed method and uses an object-oriented mechanism and design patterns. One of the most important goals of this technique is to provide a practical process can be effectively applied in component-based application development.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR) is known to induce genotoxic damage to DNA, chromosomes, and the nucleus. However, the damage that IR causes to the nucleus has received much less attention. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in IR-induced DNA breaks and chromosomal aberrations, this study examined the role of ROS in IR-induced damage to the nucleus. Human Jurkat T cells were irradiated with gamma-rays at a dose of 2.5 Gy, which resulted in a dramatic increase in both the cellular ROS levels and the number of micronuclei. This latter event was attenuated when the IR-induced ROS were eliminated through the exogenous application of an antioxidant enzyme catalase. The ability of IR to induce the accumulation of ROS and micronucleus formation was also reduced either when the cells were irradiated in the presence of rotenone, a mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor, or when the cellular Nox1 levels were reduced by RNA interference. These results suggest that IR stimulates both the mitochondria and Nox1 to produce ROS, and that these ROS are involved in the IR-induced formation of micronuclei. IR also activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was reversed by catalase, rotenone, or Nox1 RNA interference. SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor, suppressed the IR-induced accumulation of ROS. This inhibitor consistently attenuated the IR-induced formation of micronuclei. Therefore, ROS and JNK appear to act in a positive mutual manner in IR-induced signaling processes. Overall, IR appears to induce the formation of micronuclei by inducing ROS through mitochondria, Nox1, and JNK.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Transformed Sf 9 cell line expressing antibacterial protein was constructed by using Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) immediate early gene (iel). The cell line was resistant to neomycin and expressed antibacterial protein under the control of Drosophila heat shock protein promoter. The genomic organization and expression at the transcriptional level of nuecin in the transformed cells were characterized. Nuecin was successfully expressed in the transformed cells and secreted into the media. Antibacterial activity of nuecin from the transformed cells was assayed against Escherichia coli. It indicates that nuecin secreted from the transformed cells is possible, at least in permissible concentration, to recover the cultures that have been contaminated.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we propose a way of measuring software performance metrics such as response time, throughput, and resource utilization. It is obvious that performance-related Quality of Service (QoS) is one of the important factors which are satisfied for users’ needs. The proposed approach uses UML performance profile for the performance specification and aspect-oriented paradigm for the performance measurement. Code instrumentation in AOP is a mechanism to insert source code for performance measurement into business logic code. We used AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension to the Java. AspectJ code for performance measurement is separated from Java code for functional requirements. Both AspectJ and Java code can be woven together for the performance measurement. The key component of the proposed approach is an AspectJ code generator. It creates AspectJ code for the performance measurement from the UML  models containing performance profile. KeywordsPerformance-UML performance profile-Aspect-Oriented-AspectJ
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Components should provide variability in satisfying a variety of domains , but it is not easy to develop components which can be applied to all domains. For this reason, when using time-to-market, components are slow and reusability of the components decreases. Hence, providing the variability of components becomes an important prerequisite for a successful component-based application development project. In this paper, we propose a variability design technique that can satisfy the requirements of many different kinds of domains. This technique addresses a method for designing the variability of the behavior and the workflow in a more detailed manner, and uses an object-oriented mechanism and design patterns. One of the most important goals of this technique is to provide a practical method which can be effectively applied to component-based application development.
Conference Paper: A Design Technique of CBD Meta-model Based on Graph Theory[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several component reference models for component development. However, there is few integrated and generic reference model among reference models. That results in the problem of interoperability among component designs. In this paper, we propose an integrated component meta-model to support consistency and interoperability between component designs. Also we validate a proposed meta-model through graph theory. We expect that new meta-model will be added and extended because proposed meta-model is represented with UML’s class diagram.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In general CELP type vocoders provide good speech quality around 4.8kbps. Among them, G.723.1 developed for Internet Phone and videoconferencing includes two vocoders, 5.3kbps ACELP and 6.3kbps MP-MLQ. Since 6.3kbps MP-MLQ requires large amount of computation for the fixed codebook search, it is difficult to realize real time processing for the internet-based environment. In order to improve the problem this paper proposes the new method that reduces the processing time up to about 30% of codebook search time. We first decide the grid bit, and then search the codebook. Grid bit is selected by comparison between the DC-removed original speech and synthesized speech, which is synthesized with only even or odd pulses of target vector.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Software evolution is the process of adapting an existing software system to conform to an enhanced set of requirements. Software reengineering is software evolution performed in systematic way. Especially software system is fundamentally different from developing one from scratch. Consequently, tools to support evolution must go beyond forward engineering tools. This paper presents a reengineering method and tools for software evolution or modernization. The paper briefly describes MARMI-RE methodology before presenting the individual tools and how they interoperate to support legacy system modernization. We expect that our proposed methodology can be used flexibly because it presents various scenarios of migration process.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During radiotherapy of cancer, neighboring normal cells may receive sub-lethal doses of radiation. To investigate whether such low levels of radiation modulate normal cell responses to death stimuli, primary cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to various doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of cell viability using an exclusion dye propidium iodide revealed that the irradiation up to 10 Gy killed the fibroblasts only to a minimal extent. In contrast, the cells efficiently lost their viability when exposed to 0.5-0.65 mM H(2)O(2). This type of cell death was accompanied by JNK activation, and was reversed by the use of a JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125. Interestingly, H(2)O(2) failed to kill the fibroblasts when these cells were pre-irradiated, 24 h before H(2)O(2) treatment, with 0.25-0.5 Gy of gamma-rays. These cytoprotective doses of gamma-rays did not enhance cellular capacity to degrade H(2)O(2), but elevated cellular levels of p21(Cip/WAF1), a p53 target that can suppress H(2)O(2)-induced cell death by blocking JNK activation. Consistently, H(2)O(2)-induced JNK activation was dramatically suppressed in the pre-irradiated cells. The overall data suggests that ionizing radiation can impart normal fibroblasts with a survival advantage against oxidative stress by blocking the process leading to JNK activation.
Conference Paper: Integrated Meta-model Approach for Reengineering from Legacy into CBD[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an increasing interest in migration legacy systems to new hardware platforms and to new software development paradigms. The reason is that high maintenance costs and lack of documentation. In order to migrate or transform legacy system, various approaches such as screen scrapping, wrapping, semi-development, and re-development, tools, and methodologies are introduced until now. However, architecture or requirements level’s transformation is not suggested because most of those approaches focus on code-level transformation or a few model-level transform. In this paper, we suggest a meta-model driven approach applying 3D space concept, which can be applied into architecture and requirement phase. Proposed integrated model drives seamless migration or co-evolution from code to architecture of reverse engineering and from architecture to code of forward engineering.
Conference Paper: A Component Identification Technique from Object-Oriented Model[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Today’s software system environment requires rapid development and high productivity. In order to satisfy these requirements, researches have been working on the development of software reuse technology. Therefore, it is general to develop component-based software due to the advance of reuse technology nowadays. One of main issues raised in component-based development (CBD) is how to identify reusable and independent components. Existing methodologies have dealt with the problem based on only developer’s heuristics, so that it is difficult to identify the components by common developers. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new technique to identify the business components based on system component. The proposed technique applies the characteristics and degree of dependency between classes in object-oriented model. We also present a case study and experimental results to prove the practical use of our technique. We examined various examples to get the objective foundations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitors have been shown to induce the cAMP-mediated signaling pathway by inhibiting cAMP hydrolysis. This study investigated the effect of a PDE4 inhibitor on the expression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER), which is an endogenous inhibitor of CRE- mediated transcription, in osteoblastic cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed that rolipram, a PDE4 inhibitor, stimulates the ICER mRNA in a dose dependent manner. The induction of ICER mRNA expression by rolipram was suppressed by the inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) and p38 MAPK, suggesting the involvement of PKA and p38 MAPK activation in ICER expression by rolipram. It was previously shown that rolipram induced the expression of TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE, also known as RANKL, ODF, or OPGL) in osteoblasts. This paper provides evidences that a transcriptional repressor like ICER might modulate TRANCE mRNA expression by rolipram in osteoblasts.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated following cell stimulation and function as intracellular signaling molecules. To determine signaling components involved in ROS induction, human U937 blood cells grown in 10% serum were exposed to serum-free media. It was previously reported that serum withdrawal (SW) killed cells by elevating cellular ROS levels. This study showed that SW activates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activation was evident after the ROS levels began increasing, and an antioxidant blockade of this increase resulted in PI3K activation suppression. Interestingly, the inhibition of PI3K activity/activation using either its specific inhibitor or dominant-negative mutant attenuated the subsequent additional increase in the ROS levels. These results suggest that SW-induced ROS activate PI3K, which in turn promotes the process leading to ROS accumulation. The present study also revealed that both ROS and PI3K support SW-induced cell death by activating stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). Overall, it appears that SW triggers a positive mutual interaction between ROS and PI3K, which amplifies signals required for the induction of an SAPK-dependent death pathway.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that degrade intracellular cAMP. In the present study, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and pentoxifylline, PDE inhibitors, induced osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and calvarial osteoblasts. These inhibitors induced the expression of the osteoclast differentiation factor, TNF-related activation induced cytokine (TRANCE, identical to RANKL, ODF, and OPGL), in calvarial osteoblasts. IBMX induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in osteoblasts. Induction of TRANCE expression by IBMX was partially suppressed by the inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), ERK, and p38 MAPK, suggesting that activation of ERK and p38 MAPK, as well as PKA, is involved in TRANCE expression by IBMX. Osteoblasts expressed PDE4, a PDE subtype, and rolipram, a selective inhibitor of PDE4, induced TRANCE expression. These results suggest that PDE4 is a key regulator of TRANCE expression in osteoblasts, which in turn controls osteoclast formation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 is an enzyme that degrades intracellular cAMP. In the present study, the effect of rolipram, a specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, on osteoclast formation was investigated. Rolipram induced osteoclast formation in cocultures of mouse bone marrow cells and calvarial osteoblasts. This activity was not observed in the absence of calvarial osteoblasts, suggesting that calvarial osteoblasts are likely target cells of rolipram. Osteoclast formation by rolipram was completely blocked by the addition of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for the osteoclast differentiation factor, TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE, identical to RANKL, ODF, and OPGL). Northern blot analysis revealed the effect of rolipram to be associated with the increased expression of TRANCE mRNA in mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Collectively, these data indicate that PDE4 inhibitor up-regulates the TRANCE mRNA expression in osteoblasts, which in turn controls osteoclast formation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Software development by component integration is the mainstream for Time-to-Market and is the solution for overcoming the short lifecycle of software. Therefore, the effective techniques for component integration have been working. But, the systematic and practical technique has not been proposed. Main issues for component integration are a specification for integration and the component architecture for operating the specification. In this paper, we propose a workflow variability design technique for component integration. This technique focuses on designing the connection contract based on the component architecture. The connection contract is designed to use the provided interface of component and the architecture can assemble and customize components through the connection contract dynamically.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cl-bridged and Me2Si-bridged 2,5-dimethyleyleopentadienyl ansa-zirconocene complexes, [Me(H)C(C5H4)(2,5-Me2C5H2)]ZrCl2 (6), [(CH3CH2CH2)(H)C(C5H4)(2,5-Me2C5H2)]ZrCl2 (9), [(Me)(H)C(2,5-Me2C5H2)(2)]ZrCl2 (13), and [Me2Si(2,5-Me2C5H2)(2)]ZrCl2 (15), are prepared by using 2-bromo-3-methoxy-2,5-dimethylcyclopentene (7) as a starting material. Solid structures of 6 and 13 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The Cl-bridged zirconocene complexes 6, 9, and 13 are highly active for ethylene/norbornene copolymerization with high incorporation of norbornene, while the Me2Si-bridged complex 15 shows relatively low activity. Complex 9 shows the highest activity and the highest incorporation of norbornene among the complexes, but the molecular weight of the obtained polymer is relatively low.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cyclopentadiene compound having methyl substituents on 1,3-positions, 1,3-Me2-2-CH2(OTHP)-C5H3 (3) is prepared from 2-bromo-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one ethylene ketal (1) in 48% overall yield. Addition of 2.5 equivalents of indenyllithium to 3 affords a methylene bridged 1,3-dimethylcyclopentadienyl indenyl compound, CH2(1,3-Me2C5H3)(C9H7) (5) in 72% yield. Reaction of dilithium salt of 5 with ZrCl2(NMe2)2 (DME) furnishes an ansa-zirconocene complex [CH2(1,3-Me2C5H2)(C9H6)]Zr(NMe2)2 (6), which is transformed cleanly to the dichloride complex, [CH2(1,3-Me2C5H2)(C9H6)]ZrCl2 (7), by treatment of Me3SiCl. Hydrogenation of 7 over PtO2 gives a tetrahydroindenyl complex [CH2(1,3-Me2C5H2)(C9H10)]ZrCl2 (8). Reaction of the dilithium salt of 5 with Ti(NMe2)2Cl2 does not provide the desired ansa-titanocene complex, but a dinuclear complex [(1,3-Me2C5H2)Ti(NMe2)2Cl]–CH2–[(C9H6)Ti(NMe2)Cl] (9) is obtained. The solid structures of 6 and 9 were determined by X-ray crystallography. The ethylene and ethylene/norbornene (co)polymerizations were studied with 7/MAO and 8/MAO.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Bromo-3-methoxy-1,3-dimethylcyclopentene (3) is synthesized in 85% yield in 80 g scale by 1,2-addition of MeLi to 2-bromo-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one and subsequent in situ treatment of MeI. Addition of n-BuLi to the bromo-compound 3 in Et2O affords 2-lithio-3-methoxy-1,3-dimethylcyclopentene (1). Successive addition of RCHO [R = CH3. (CH2)(2)CH3, CH(CH3)(2), C(CH3)(3), H] and Met to the lithium compound and aqueous acidic work-up provide cyclopentadiene compounds, 2-[CHR(OMe)]-1,3Me(2)C(5)H(3) in 60-84% yields. Treatment of the cyclopentadienes with NaH or KH in pentane affords 1,4,6-trimethylfulvene, 6-n-propyl-1,4-dimethylfulvene, 6-isopropyl-1,4-dimethylfulvene, 6-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethylfulvene and 1,4-dimethylfulvene in 67-83% yields. Ligand for an ansa-metallocene complex, CH2C(1,3- Me2Cp)(2)ZrCl2, can be shortly afforded in 64% yield by reacting the lithium compound I with the newly synthesized 1,4-dimethylfulvene.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Component-based development (CBD) has been widely accepted as an effective paradigm for building software with reusable components, consequently reducing efforts and shortening time-to-market. The components used in CBD should provide a domain standard or common functionality so that they can be shared and reused by family members in a domain. Moreover, variability among family members should also be modeled in components so that family member-specific business logic can be realized through component customization. Therefore, the degree of commonality and customizability determines the range of component applicability in CBD. In this paper, we propose a practical COmponent MOdeling methodology (COMO) for analyzing domain requirements and designing highly reusable components. COMO extends Unified Modeling Language and Rational Unified Process with notations and semantics relevant to CBD. For each activity of the process, comprehensive instructions and artifact templates are provided so that software components can be modeling effectively. We also provide a comprehensive case study of applying the methodology in building an electronic commerce application.
Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical SciencesSŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
- College of Natural Resources and Life Science
Soongsil UniversitySŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Dongduk Women's UniversitySŏul, Seoul, South Korea
Ajou UniversitySŏul, Seoul, South Korea