Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

Federal University of Minas Gerais, Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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Publications (48)182.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: study objective is to examine the role of African genome origin on baseline and 11-year blood pressure trajectories in community-based ethnoracially admixed older adults in Brazil. Data come from 1272 participants (aged ≥60 years) of the Bambui cohort study of aging during 11 years of follow-up. Outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and hypertension control. Potential confounding variables were demographic characteristics, socioeconomic position (schooling and household income), and health indicators (smoking, sedentary lifestyle, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases), including antihypertensive drug use. We used 370 539 single-nucleotide polymorphisms to estimate each individual's African, European, and Native American trihybrid ancestry proportions. Median African, European, and Native American ancestry were 9.6%, 84.0%, and 5.3%, respectively. Among those with African ancestry, 59.4% came from East and 40.6% from West Africa. Baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, controlled hypertension, and their respective trajectories, were not significantly (P>0.05) associated with level (in quintiles) of African genomic ancestry. Similar results were found for West and East African subcontinental origins. Lower schooling level (<4 years versus higher) showed a significant and positive association with systolic blood pressure (Adjusted β=2.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-4.99). Lower monthly household income per capita (<USD 180.00 versus higher) showed an inverse association with hypertension control (β=-0.35; 95% confidence interval, -0.63 to -0.08, respectively). Our results support the view that favors social and environmental factors as determinants of blood pressure and hypertension control.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: Self-rated health (SRH) has strong predictive value for mortality in different contexts and cultures, but there is inconsistent evidence on ethnoracial disparities in SRH in Latin America, possibly due to the complexity surrounding ethnoracial self-classification.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Motivation: The 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) and thousands of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) performed during the last years have generated an enormous amount of information that needs to be integrated to better understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases in different populations. This integration is important in areas such as genetics, epidemiology, anthropology, as well as admixture mapping design and GWAS-replications. Network-based approaches that explore the genetic bases of human diseases and traits have not yet incorporated information on genetic diversity among human populations. Results: We propose Disease-ANCEstry networks (DANCE), a graph-based web tool that allows to integrate and visualize information on human complex phenotypes and their GWAS-hits, as well as their risk allele frequencies in different populations. DANCE provides an interactive way to explore the human SNP-Disease Network and its projection, a Disease-Disease Network. With these functionalities, DANCE fills a gap in our ability to handle and understand the knowledge generated by GWAS and 1KGP. We provide a number of case studies that show how DANCE can be used to explore the relationships between human complex diseases, their genetic bases and variability in different human populations. Availability and implementation: DANCE is freely available at http://ldgh.com.br/dance/. We recommend using DANCE with Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Chrome or Internet Explorer (v9 or v10). Contact: gilderlanio@gmail.com or maira.r.rodrigues@gmail.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Bioinformatics
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    ABSTRACT: The Brazilian population is considered to be highly admixed. The main contributing ancestral populations were European and African, with Amerindians contributing to a lesser extent. The aims of this study were to provide a resource for determining and quantifying individual continental ancestry using the smallest number of SNPs possible, thus allowing for a cost- and time-efficient strategy for genomic ancestry determination. We identified and validated a minimum set of 192 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for the genetic ancestry determination of Brazilian populations. These markers were selected on the basis of their distribution throughout the human genome, and their capacity of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms. We analyzed genotyping data from 6487 individuals belonging to three Brazilian cohorts. Estimates of individual admixture using this 192 AIM panels were highly correlated with estimates using ~370 000 genome-wide SNPs: 91%, 92%, and 74% of, respectively, African, European, and Native American ancestry components. Besides that, 192 AIMs are well distributed among populations from these ancestral continents, allowing greater freedom in future studies with this panel regarding the choice of reference populations. We also observed that genetic ancestry inferred by AIMs provides similar association results to the one obtained using ancestry inferred by genomic data (370 K SNPs) in a simple regression model with rs1426654, related to skin pigmentation, genotypes as dependent variable. In conclusion, these markers can be used to identify and accurately quantify ancestry of Latin Americans or US Hispanics/Latino individuals, in particular in the context of fine-mapping strategies that require the quantification of continental ancestry in thousands of individuals.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 23 September 2015; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2015.187.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · European journal of human genetics: EJHG
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gastric adenocarcinoma is associated with chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori and with the host inflammatory response triggered by it, with substantial inter-person variation in the immune response profile due to host genetic factors. Aim: To investigate the diversity of the proinflammatory genes IL8, its receptors and PTGS2 in Amerindians; to test whether candidate SNPs in these genes are associated with gastric cancer in an admixed population with high Amerindian ancestry from Lima, Peru; and to assess whether an IL8RB promoter-derived haplotype affects gene expression. Methods: We performed a Sanger-resequencing population survey, a candidate-gene association study (220 cases, 288 controls) and meta-analyses. We also performed an in vitro validation by a reporter gene assay of IL8RB promoter. Results: The diversity of the promoter of studied genes in Native Americans is similar to Europeans. Although an association between candidate SNPs and gastric cancer was not found in Peruvians, trend in our data is consistent with meta-analyses results that suggest PTGS2-rs689466-A is associated with H. pylori-associated gastric cancer in East Asia. IL8RB promoter-derived haplotype (rs3890158-A/rs4674258-T), common in Peruvians, was up-regulated by TNF-α unlike the ancestral haplotype (rs3890158-G/rs4674258-C). Bioinformatics analysis suggests that this effect stemmed from creation of a binding site for the FOXO3 transcription factor by rs3890158G>A. Conclusions: Our updated meta-analysis reinforces the role of PTGS2-rs689466-A in gastric cancer in Asians, although more studies that control for ancestry are necessary to clarify its role in Latin Americans. Finally, we suggest that IL8RB-rs3890158G>A is a cis-regulatory SNP.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: While South Americans are underrepresented in human genomic diversity studies, Brazil has been a classical model for population genetics studies on admixture. We present the results of the EPIGEN Brazil Initiative, the most comprehensive up-to-date genomic analysis of any Latin-American population. A population-based genome-wide analysis of 6,487 individuals was performed in the context of worldwide genomic diversity to elucidate how ancestry, kinship, and inbreeding interact in three populations with different histories from the Northeast (African ancestry: 50%), Southeast, and South (both with European ancestry >70%) of Brazil. We showed that ancestry-positive assortative mating permeated Brazilian history. We traced European ancestry in the Southeast/South to a wider European/Middle Eastern region with respect to the Northeast, where ancestry seems restricted to Iberia. By developing an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we infer more recent European immigration to the Southeast/South than to the Northeast. Also, the observed low Native-American ancestry (6-8%) was mostly introduced in different regions of Brazil soon after the European Conquest. We broadened our understanding of the African diaspora, the major destination of which was Brazil, by revealing that Brazilians display two within-Africa ancestry components: one associated with non-Bantu/western Africans (more evident in the Northeast and African Americans) and one associated with Bantu/eastern Africans (more present in the Southeast/South). Furthermore, the whole-genome analysis of 30 individuals (42-fold deep coverage) shows that continental admixture rather than local post-Columbian history is the main and complex determinant of the individual amount of deleterious genotypes.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: MESTIFAR 2014 28-30 November 2014, Panama City, Panama The CEIBA consortium was created within the Ibero-American network of Pharmacogenetics (RIBEF) to study population pharmacogenetics. The current status of these initiatives and results of the MESTIFAR project were analyzed in Panama, 28-30 November 2014. The MESTIFAR project focused on studying CYPs genetic polymorphisms in populations of different ethnic origin. So far, more than 6000 healthy volunteers have been evaluated, making this one of the largest population pharmacogenomic studies worldwide. Three symposia were organized, 'Pharmacogenetics of indigenous and mestizos populations and its clinical implications', 'Methodological innovation in pharmacogenetics and its application in health', and 'General discussion and concluding remarks', about mechanisms and proposals for training, diffusion of pharmacogenetics for Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking health professionals, and 'bench to bedside' pilot projects.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Pharmacogenomics
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: The frequency of CYP2D6 alleles, related to either a lack of or increased enzymatic activity, which may lead to poor metabolism (PM) or ultrarapid metabolism (UM), can vary across ethnic groups and hence across geographic regions. Areas covered: Worldwide original research papers on CYP2D6 allelic frequencies, metabolic phenotype frequencies measured with a probe drug, and/or genotype frequencies that studied > 50 healthy volunteers, were included in analyses to describe the distributions of alleles, phenotypes predicted from genotypes (predicted poor metabolizers [gPMs], predicted ultrarapid metabolizers [gUMs]) and metabolic phenotypes (mPMs, mUMs) across ethnic groups and geographic regions. The analysis included 44,572 individuals studied in 172 original research papers. Expert opinion: As of today, Africa and Asia are under-represented in this area relative to the total number of their inhabitants, so that further studies in these regions are warranted. The CYP2D6*4 allele frequency was higher in Caucasians, CYP2D6*10 in East Asians, CYP2D6*41 and duplication/multiplication of active alleles in Middle Easterns, CYP2D6*17 in Black Africans and CYP2D6*29 in African Americans, than in other ethnic groups. Overall, gPMs and mPMs are more frequent among Caucasians, and gUMs among Middle Easterns and Ethiopians. However, mUMs could not be evaluated because only two studies were found presenting this information. Further studies including mUMs are thus warranted. There is a correspondence between gPMs and mPMs, but the few studies of mUMs meant that their relationship with gUMs could not be demonstrated. Finally, evolutionary aspects of the CYP2D6 allele distribution appear to support the Great Human Expansion model.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Background Archaeology reports millenary cultural contacts between Peruvian Coast-Andes and the Amazon Yunga, a rainforest transitional region between Andes and Lower Amazonia. To clarify the relationships between cultural and biological evolution of these populations, in particular between Amazon Yungas and Andeans, we used DNA-sequence data, a model-based Bayesian approach and several statistical validations to infer a set of demographic parameters.ResultsWe found that the genetic diversity of the Shimaa (an Amazon Yunga population) is a subset of that of Quechuas from Central-Andes. Using the Isolation-with-Migration population genetics model, we inferred that the Shimaa ancestors were a small subgroup that split less than 5300 years ago (after the development of complex societies) from an ancestral Andean population. After the split, the most plausible scenario compatible with our results is that the ancestors of Shimaas moved toward the Peruvian Amazon Yunga and incorporated the culture and language of some of their neighbors, but not a substantial amount of their genes. We validated our results using Approximate Bayesian Computations, posterior predictive tests and the analysis of pseudo-observed datasets.Conclusions We presented a case study in which model-based Bayesian approaches, combined with necessary statistical validations, shed light into the prehistoric demographic relationship between Andeans and a population from the Amazon Yunga. Our results offer a testable model for the peopling of this large transitional environmental region between the Andes and the Lower Amazonia. However, studies on larger samples and involving more populations of these regions are necessary to confirm if the predominant Andean biological origin of the Shimaas is the rule, and not the exception.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Evolutionary Biology
  • L.C. Schmidt · A.C.V. Cabral · M.A. Faria · F Monken · E Tarazona-Santos · M.L. Martins
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the efficacy of noninvasive fetal Rhesus D (RHD) genotyping from maternal plasma in a highly admixed population. Fifty-five blood samples from RhD-negative pregnant women from Brazil were processed for extraction of cell-free plasma DNA. Real-time PCR was performed to amplify segments of exons 5 and 7 from the RHD gene, as well as for detection of the SRY gene to confirm the presence of fetal DNA. Fetal genotyping results were compared with the RhD phenotype determined from newborn cord blood samples obtained at birth. Thirty-two samples were RHD-positive, 18 were RHD-negative and 5 were inconclusive due to amplification of only one RHD exon. In 43 samples, the fetal RHD genotype was compared to the neonatal RhD phenotype, and only one result was discordant, due to false-negative serology. There was one false SRY genotyping negative result. We conclude that noninvasive fetal RHD genotyping from maternal blood provides accurate results and suggests its viability as a clinical tool for the management of RhD-negative pregnant women in an admixed population.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Genetics and molecular research: GMR

  • No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Forensic Science International: Genetics
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    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Clinical Therapeutics
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    ABSTRACT: The phagocyte NADPH oxidase catalyzes the reduction of O2 to reactive oxygen species with microbicidal activity. It is composed of two membrane-spanning subunits, gp91-phox and p22-phox (encoded by CYBB and CYBA, respectively), and three cytoplasmic subunits, p40-phox, p47-phox, and p67-phox (encoded by NCF4, NCF1, and NCF2, respectively). Mutations in any of these genes can result in chronic granulomatous disease, a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections. Using evolutionary mapping, we determined that episodes of adaptive natural selection have shaped the extracellular portion of gp91-phox during the evolution of mammals, which suggests that this region may have a function in host-pathogen interactions. On the basis of a resequencing analysis of approximately 35 kb of CYBB, CYBA, NCF2, and NCF4 in 102 ethnically diverse individuals (24 of African ancestry, 31 of European ancestry, 24 of Asian/Oceanians, and 23 US Hispanics), we show that the pattern of CYBA diversity is compatible with balancing natural selection, perhaps mediated by catalase-positive pathogens. NCF2 in Asian populations shows a pattern of diversity characterized by a differentiated haplotype structure. Our study provides insight into the role of pathogen-driven natural selection in an innate immune pathway and sheds light on the role of CYBA in endothelial, nonphagocytic NADPH oxidases, which are relevant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other complex diseases.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Molecular Biology and Evolution
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the "individualism-collectivism" and the serotonin trans-porter functional polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), suggested in the previous reports, was tested in Native South Amerindian populations. A total of 170 individuals from 21 populations were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR alleles. For comparative purposes, these populations were classified as individualistic (recent history of hunter–gathering) or collectivistic (agriculturalists). These two groups showed an almost identical S allele frequency (75 and 76%, respectively). The analysis of molecular variance showed no structural differences between them. Behavioral typologies like those sug-gested by JY Chiao and KD Blizinsky (Proc R Soc B 277 (2010) 529–537) are always a simplification of complex phenomena and should be regarded with caution. In addition, classification of a whole nation in the individu-alist/collectivist dichotomy is controversial. The focus on modes of subsistence in preindustrial societies, as was tested here, may be a good alternative although the postulated association between the 5-HTTLPR S allele and the collectivist societies was not confirmed. Am J Phys Anthropol 000:000–000, 2013. V C 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Interindividual differences in response to drug treatments are mainly caused by differences in drug metabolism, in which cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are involved. Genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes have a key role in this variability. However, environmental factors, endogenous metabolism and disease states also have a great influence on the actual drug metabolism rate (metabolic phenotype). Consequently, the genotype does not always correlate with the actual drug hydroxylation phenotype. In this sense, in vivo phenotyping strategies represent an alternative to evaluate the interindividual variability in drug metabolism. Therefore, the 'cocktail' approach is considered as an advantageous strategy to obtain actual and reliable information on several CYP activities in just one experiment. As reviewed, phenotyping studies on Latin-American populations, which comprise about 400 million people, are scarce, and only selective phenotyping methods were applied. Therefore, a novel cocktail approach is here proposed as a phenotyping tool to evaluate the relationship between genotype and phenotype of major CYP enzymes in Hispanic populations. This determination will allow adaptation of drug therapies to these populations and consequently to benefit from the application of pharmacogenetics in the reduction of drug adverse effects and in the improvement of therapeutic responses.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Drug metabolism and drug interactions
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    Maira R Rodrigues · Wagner Cs Magalhaes · Moara Machado · Eduardo Tarazona-Santos
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundIn bioinformatics, it is important to build extensible and low-maintenance systems that are able to deal with the new tools and data formats that are constantly being developed. The traditional and simplest implementation of pipelines involves hardcoding the execution steps into programs or scripts. This approach can lead to problems when a pipeline is expanding because the incorporation of new tools is often error prone and time consuming. Current approaches to pipeline development such as workflow management systems focus on analysis tasks that are systematically repeated without significant changes in their course of execution, such as genome annotation. However, more dynamism on the pipeline composition is necessary when each execution requires a different combination of steps.ResultsWe propose a graph-based approach to implement extensible and low-maintenance pipelines that is suitable for pipeline applications with multiple functionalities that require different combinations of steps in each execution. Here pipelines are composed automatically by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required, instead of specifying every sequence of tools in advance. We represent the connectivity of pipeline components with a directed graph in which components are the graph edges, their inputs and outputs are the graph nodes, and the paths through the graph are pipelines. To that end, we developed special data structures and a pipeline system algorithm. We demonstrate the applicability of our approach by implementing a format conversion pipeline for the fields of population genetics and genetic epidemiology, but our approach is also helpful in other fields where the use of multiple software is necessary to perform comprehensive analyses, such as gene expression and proteomics analyses. The project code, documentation and the Java executables are available under an open source license at http://code.google.com/p/dynamic-pipeline. The system has been tested on Linux and Windows platforms.ConclusionsOur graph-based approach enables the automatic creation of pipelines by compiling a specialised set of tools on demand, depending on the functionality required. It also allows the implementation of extensible and low-maintenance pipelines and contributes towards consolidating openness and collaboration in bioinformatics systems. It is targeted at pipeline developers and is suited for implementing applications with sequential execution steps and combined functionalities. In the format conversion application, the automatic combination of conversion tools increased both the number of possible conversions available to the user and the extensibility of the system to allow for future updates with new file formats.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2012 · BMC Bioinformatics
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    Maíra R Rodrigues · Wagner CS Magalhães · Moara Machado · Eduardo Tarazona-Santos
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    ABSTRACT: Supplementary Information. This document provides additional information on the performance measure, the pipeline system algorithm, the list of tools in the pipeline application, and the complete Tool Registry for the Format Conversion Pipeline.
    Preview · Dataset · Jul 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Large-scale genomics initiatives such as the HapMap project and the 1000-genomes rely on powerful bioinformatics support to assist data production and analysis. Contrastingly, few bioinformatics platforms oriented to smaller research groups exist to store, handle, share, and integrate data from different sources, as well as to assist these scientists to perform their analyses efficiently. We developed such a bioinformatics platform, DIVERGENOME, to assist population genetics and genetic epidemiology studies performed by small- to medium-sized research groups. The platform is composed of two integrated components, a relational database (DIVERGENOMEdb), and a set of tools to convert data formats as required by popular software in population genetics and genetic epidemiology (DIVERGENOMEtools). In DIVERGENOMEdb, information on genotypes, polymorphism, laboratory protocols, individuals, populations, and phenotypes is organized in projects. These can be queried according to permissions. Here, we validated DIVERGENOME through a use case regarding the analysis of SLC2A4 genetic diversity in human populations. DIVERGENOME, with its intuitive Web interface and automatic data loading capability, facilitates its use by individuals without bioinformatics background, allowing complex queries to be easily interrogated and straightforward data format conversions (not available in similar platforms). DIVERGENOME is open source, freely available, and can be accessed online (pggenetica.icb.ufmg.br/divergenome) or hosted locally.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Genetic Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is <5% and African ancestry is barely detectable in the studied population. The largest genetic distances were between African versus Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · American Journal of Physical Anthropology

Publication Stats

749 Citations
182.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006-2015
    • Federal University of Minas Gerais
      • Departamento de Biologia Geral
      Cidade de Minas, Minas Gerais, Brazil
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Biology
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 1998-2003
    • University of Bologna
      • • Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology FaBiT
      • • Department of Experimental Evolutionary Biology BES
      Bolonia, Emilia-Romagna, Italy