Peter Szakaly

University of Pécs, Fuenfkirchen, Baranya, Hungary

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Publications (33)46.07 Total impact

  • Attila Schwartz · Péter Szakály · András Büki · Tamás Dóczi
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    ABSTRACT: Adjacent segment disease (ASD) occurs with a probability of 30% in the lumbar spine following spinal fusion surgery. Usually advanced degenerative changes happen cranially to the fused lumbar segment. Thus, secondary spinal instability, stenosis, spodylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis can lead to the recurrence of the pain not always amenable to conservative measures. A typical surgical solution to treat ASD consists of posterior revision surgery including decompression, change or extension of the instrumentation and fusion to the rostral level. It results in a larger operation with considerable risk of complications. We present a typical case of ASD treated surgically with a new minimally invasive way not yet performed in Hungary. We use anterolateral abdominal muscle splitting approach to reach the lumbar spine through the retroperitoneum. A discectomy is performed by retracting the psoas muscle dorsally. The intervertebral bony fusion is achieved by implanting a cage with large volume that is stuffed with autologous bone or tricalcium phosphate. A cage with large volume results in excellent annulus fibrosus tension, immediate stability and provides large surface for bony fusion. A stand-alone cage construct can be supplemented with lateral screw/rod/plate fixation. The advantage of the new technique for the treatment of ASD includes minimal blood loss, short operation time, significantly less postoperative pain and much less complication rate.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Ideggyógyászati szemle
  • E Laszlo · A Varga · K Kovacs · G Jancso · P Kiss · A Tamas · P Szakaly · B Fulop · D Reglodi
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with very diverse distribution and functions. Among others, PACAP is a potent cytoprotective peptide due to its antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant actions. This also has been shown in different kidney pathologies, including ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury. Similar protective effects of the endogenous PACAP are confirmed by the increased vulnerability of PACAP-deficient mice to different harmful stimuli. Kidneys of homozygous PACAP-deficient mice have more severe damages in renal ischemia/reperfusion and kidney cell cultures isolated from these mice show increased sensitivity to renal oxidative stress. In our present study we raised the question of whether the partial lack of the PACAP gene is also deleterious, i.e. whether heterozygous PACAP-deficient mice also display more severe damage after renal ischemia/reperfusion. Mice underwent 45 or 60 minutes of ischemia followed by 2 weeks reperfusion. Histological evaluation of the kidneys was performed and individual histopathological parameters were graded. Furthermore, we investigated apoptotic markers, cytokine expression, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme 24 hours after 60 minutes of renal ischemia/reperfusion. We found no difference between the intact kidneys of wild-type and heterozygous mice, but marked differences could be observed following ischemia/reperfusion. Heterozygous PACAP-deficient mice had more severe histological alterations, with significantly higher histopathological scores for most of the tested parameters. Higher level of the proapoptotic pp38 MAPK and of some proinflammatory cytokines, as well as lower activity of the antioxidant SOD could be found in these mice. In conclusion, the partial lack of the PACAP gene results in worse outcomes in cases of renal ischemia/reperfusion, confirming that PACAP functions as an endogenous protective factor in the kidney.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Leading causes of mortality and morbidity after kidney transplantation are cardiovascular diseases. One of the fundamentals of their prevention is the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Resistance to anti-platelet agents is a well-established phenomenon; however, its causes are yet to be clarified. Patients and methods: Forty post-transplant patients, who received 75 mg clopidogrel q.d. as a prophylactic measure, were examined using optical aggregometry. Subsequently, logistic regression analysis was performed with 24 variables in order to expose possible causes of resistance. Results: Sixty percent of patients (24) were resistant to clopidogrel therapy; effective thrombocyte inhibition could only be shown in 40% of them (16). Significant correspondence between resistance and variables could not be found. Conclusion: Clopidogrel resistance is expected to occur on a large scale in patients who underwent kidney transplant surgery. Thus, a key component of preventive therapy, which stresses the importance of discovering the cause of resistance so as to decrease mortality rates, is missing.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality after kidney transplantation. According to guidelines, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) must be given as preventive antiplatelet therapy, but resistance to this drug is also well-known. Patients and Methods: A total of 214 renal transplant patients were included in our study and took 100 mg of ASA q.d. Aggregometry was performed to determine resistance. Twenty-four variables were examined using logistic regression analysis as possible causes of resistance. Results: ASA resistance was observed in 40.18% of the patients. Resistance reduced concomitant statin therapy and significantly increased simultaneous cyclosporine therapy. Conclusion: Our study assessed the post-transplant ASA resistance in a large population. Clarification of this matter is crutial, since one of the major preventive pharmacological therapies of cardiovascular mortality is not effective in a significant number of patients. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · In vivo (Athens, Greece)
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    ABSTRACT: Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS; Myfortic®, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) is an enteric-coated formulation delivering MPA. Enteric-coated MPS has been developed with the aim of improving the upper GI tolerability of MPA while providing a therapeutical equivalence. The primary objective of the study was to measure the quality of life of kidney transplant patients, with special attention to gastrointestinal symptoms during mycophenolate sodium therapy. The secondary objective was to measure the mean daily mycophenolate sodium dose during routine therapy. These two parameters can significantly influence long-term graft survival of the patients. The study was a multicentric, non-interventional, 12 weeks, single arm, cohort, observational study, in which 251 adult, kidney transplant patients were enrolled in 4 study centers. As part of the study, the patient completed a questionnaire to assess the gastrointestinal status: the Gastrointestinal Symp - tom Rating Scale (GSRS). The patient's average age was 51.03 years by the time of the inclusion. 61% of the patients were male and 39% female. Kidney transplant was performed averagely 6.3 years (SD: 4.3 years) prior to the screening visit. At the first visit the average intensity of gastrointestinal side effects was 0.87, at the final visit was 0.28. The change of the average number of gastrointestinal side effects between the first and last visit was examined by Wilcoxon test, and it was significant (p<0.0001). Patients had to complete the GSRS questionnaire aiming at five gastrointestinal symptom groups. In all five symptom-groups significant (p<0.0001) improvement was observed between the visits. Our results support that, in renal transplant patients with gastrointestinal undesirable effects due to MMF, using enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium may increase the maximum tolerated dose of MPA and reduce GI disorders.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP ) is a multifunctional neuropeptide occurring in the nervous system as well as in the peripheral organs. Beneficial action of PACAP has been shown in different pathological processes. The strong protective effects of the peptide are probably due to its complex modulatory actions in antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. In the kidney, PACAP is protective in models of diabetic nephropathy, myeloma kidney injury, cisplatin-, gentamycin- and cyclosporin-induced damages. Numerous studies have been published describing the protective effect of this peptide in renal ischemia/reperfusion. The present review focuses on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced kidney injury and gives a brief summary about the results published in this area.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Acta Biologica Hungarica
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and Aims: Quantification of BKV-load and BKV-specific immunity have been evaluated to monitor BKV-replication. Particular risk factors, long-term outcome, and markers characterizing kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) at increased risk of BK viremia, however, remain poorly described. Methods: We analyzed all adult KTRs at our single transplant center transplanted between 2004 and 2012. 103 (11.9%) of 862 KTRs were diagnosed with BK viremia, among which 24 KTRs (23.3%) showed progression to BKV-associated nephropathy with allograft loss in 3 cases (12.5%). An age-, gender, and maintenance immunosuppression-matched control group of 235 KTRs was used for comparison. Samples were collected before transplantation and at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. BKV-specific, CMV-specific, and alloreactive T-cells were measured using an interferon-γ Elispot assay. The extent of immunosuppression was quantified by measures of immune function including lymphocyte subpopulations and serum cytokine levels. Results: Upon multivariate analysis CMV reactivation, lymphocyte depletion induction, and acute rejection were more frequent in KTRs developing BK viremia (p<0.05). Seven-year graft survival and estimated GFR were significantly lower in KTRs with BK viremia (p=0.005). KTRs developing early BKV-replication showed significantly increased frequencies of BKV-specific T-cells directed to Large T-antigen prior to transplantation (p<0.001). Shortly after transplantation, however, BKV-specific T-cells were significantly decreased or undetectable (p<0.001). In addition CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cell counts, and interferon-γ serum levels were significantly lower in KTRs with BK viremia at +1 month after transplantation (p<0.05). KTRs with BK viremia showed significantly higher alloreactive T-cells (p=0.018). Conclusions: Our results suggest that BKV-specific cellular immunity is triggered by subclinical activation of BKV infection prior to transplantation. In KTRs developing BK viremia identified risk factors and overimmunosuppression result in a decline of BKV-specific T-cells insufficient to further regulate BKV-replication. BKV infection may have significant effects on augmentation of alloreactive T cells. Both cross-reactivity of alloreactive T-cells with viral antigens and bystander activation may contribute to allograft injury.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: International surveys have shown that the leading cause of death after kidney transplantation has cardiovascular origin with a prevalence of 35–40%. As a preventive strategy these patients receive aspirin (ASA) therapy, even though their rate of aspirin resistance is still unknown. In our study, platelet aggregation measurements were performed between 2009 and 2012 investigating the laboratory effect of low-dose aspirin (100 mg) treatment using a CARAT TX4 optical aggregometer. ASA therapy was considered clinically effective in case of low (i.e., below 40%) epinephrine-induced (10 μM) platelet aggregation index. Rate of aspirin resistance, morbidity and mortality data of kidney transplanted patients (n = 255, mean age: 49 ± 12 years) were compared to a patient population with cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases (n = 346, mean age: 52.6 ± 11 years). Rate of aspirin resistance was significantly higher in the renal transplantation group (RT) compared to the positive control group (PC) (35.9% vs. 25.6%, p < 0.002). Morbidity analysis demonstrated significantly higher incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension and diabetes mellitus in the RT group (p < 0.05). The subgroup analysis revealed significantly higher incidence of infarction and stroke in the ASA resistant RT group compared to the RT patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the incidence of myocardial infarction and hypertension was significantly higher in the non-resistant RT group than in the group of PC patients without ASA resistance (p < 0.05). These results may suggest that the elevated rate of aspirin resistance contributes to the high cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · Korea-Australia rheology journal
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    ABSTRACT: The life expectancy of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus is inferior to that of patients with some malignancies. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is the procedure providing the best survival results among all options of renal replacement therapy. The operative techniques and immunosuppresion have been standardized in the last decade. Although the number of transplantable organs falls behind the need, simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation is the method of choice for the eligible patients. The results of the two Hungarian simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation programs are in accordance with data published in the international literature. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 850-856.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Orvosi Hetilap
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    ABSTRACT: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk for severe influenza and its complications, and may not be adequately protected by vaccination. Liver, kidney, or liver-kidney transplant or allogeneic HSCT recipients aged ≥1 year were randomized to oseltamivir (75 mg once daily for those ≥13 years or weight-based dosing for children 1-12 years) or placebo for 12 weeks during periods of local influenza circulation. Patients were assessed for influenza infection via daily diary, every-other-week culture and PCR, and baseline and end-of-treatment serology. A total of 477 subjects were enrolled (239 oseltamivir and 238 placebo); most were adults (96%) and SOT recipients (81%). In the intent-to-treat population, the frequency of laboratory-confirmed clinical influenza (culture positive and/or >4-fold increase in haemagglutinin antibody inhibition [primary end point]) was similar in the oseltamivir and placebo groups (2.1% [5/237] and 2.9% [7/238]). Incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza was significantly reduced in the oseltamivir group versus placebo when determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR (1.7% [4/237] versus 8.4% [20/238]; 95% CI 2.8, 11.1) or viral culture (<1% [1/237] versus 3.8% [9/238]; 95% CI 0.7, 6.6), giving protective efficacies of 79.9 and 88.8%, respectively. Serious adverse events (oseltamivir 8% and placebo 10%) and adverse events (oseltamivir 55% and placebo 58%) were reported in both arms with a similar frequency. One illness due to oseltamivir-resistant A/H1N1 virus was detected in each group. Oseltamivir prophylaxis is generally well-tolerated and may reduce culture- or PCR-confirmed influenza incidence in transplant recipients.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Antiviral therapy
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widespread neuropeptide with a diverse array of biological functions. Not surprisingly, the lack of endogenous PACAP therefore results in a variety of abnormalities. One of the important effects of PACAP is its neuroprotective and general cytoprotective role. PACAP protects neurons and other tissues against ischemic, toxic, and traumatic lesions. Data obtained from PACAP-deficient mice provide evidence that endogenous PACAP also has protective functions. Mice lacking PACAP are more vulnerable to different in vitro and in vivo insults. The present review summarizes data on the increased sensitivity of PACAP-deficient mice against harmful stimuli. Mice lacking PACAP respond with a higher degree of injury in cerebral ischemia, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and axonal lesion. Retinal ischemic and excitotoxic injuries also produce increased cell loss in PACAP-deficient mice. In peripheral organs, kidney cell cultures from PACAP-deficient mice are more sensitive to oxidative stress and in vitro hypoxia. In vivo, PACAP-deficient mice have a negative histological outcome and altered cytokine response in kidney and small intestine ischemia/reperfusion injury. Large intestinal inflammation, toxic lesion of the pancreas, and doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy are also more severe with a lack of endogenous PACAP. Finally, an increased inflammatory response has been described in subacute endotoxin-induced airway inflammation and in an oxazolone-induced allergic contact dermatitis model. In summary, lack of endogenous PACAP leads to higher vulnerability in a number of injuries in the nervous system and peripheral organs, supporting the hypothesis that PACAP is part of the endogenous cytoprotective machinery.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: The prediction of graft rejection can play an important part in graft survival. Analysis of immune reactions has shown that graft rejection shares mechanisms with recurrent abortions during pregnancy. Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), a mediator of progesterone that blocks natural killer cell activity in peripheral blood, produces antiabortive effects. The aim of this study was to examine the PIBF concentration in the urine of transplanted recipients. The study included 116 white adults (70 men and 46 women) of median age 49.3 years, who had undergone kidney transplantations. The median duration after transplantation was 3.46 years. The average period between renal disease and our measurement was 12.3 years, and the median interval between graft rejection and our study was 1.75 years. Urine samples were used to measure PIBF concentrations by an enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay. PIBF urinary concentrations decreased significantly in patients who experienced ≥1 rejection episode (31.8±2.2 ng/mL) compared with those without any episode (22.7±1.2 ng/ml; P<.01). Moreover, the urinary PIBF level was significantly lower among patients who had increased creatinine and urea nitrogen levels in blood samples (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). Decreased PIBF values in kidney transplant patients followed previous rejection episodes. A close negative correlation was observed between urinary PIBF concentrations and blood levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen. These findings suggested that PIBF detection may predict graft rejection in transplant recipients.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widespread neuropeptide with diverse effects in the nervous system and peripheral organs. One of the most well-studied effects of PACAP is its cytoprotective action, against different harmful stimuli in a wide variety of cells and tissues. PACAP occurs in the urinary system, from the kidney to the lower urinary tract. The present review focuses on the nephroprotective effects of PACAP and summarizes data obtained regarding the protective effects of PACAP in different models of kidney pathologies. In vitro data show that PACAP protects tubular cells against oxidative stress, myeloma light chain, cisplatin, cyclosporine-A and hypoxia. In vivo data provide evidence for its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion, cisplatin, cyclosporine-A, myeloma kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy and gentamicin-induced kidney damage. Results accumulated on the renoprotective effects of PACAP suggest that PACAP is an emerging candidate for treatment of human kidney pathologies.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Neuropeptides
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    R Brubel · G Horvath · D Reglodi · A Lubics · A Tamas · P Kiss · E Laszlo · J Nemeth · L Mark · P Szakaly
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), a multifunctional neuropeptide, has 2 active forms, PACAP38 and PACAP27. It is now well-established that PACAP has several actions also in peripheral organs, including renoprotective effects. The peptide itself has not been previously identified in the rat kidney. The first aim of our study was to identify PACAP in the rat kidney using mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Receptor mRNA and binding studies revealed the existence of all 3 PACAP receptors (PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2) in the kidney, but their exact localization in histologic sections was not evident. Because most of the cytoprotective effects of PACAP relate to its specific PAC1 receptor, our second aim was to identify the cell types wherein the PAC1 receptor is expressed in the rat kidney. Mass spectrometry revealed the presence of PACAP38 in the kidney. RIA measurements showed both PACAP38- and PACAP27-like immunoreactivities in kidney homogenates, with PACAP38 being dominant. Immunohistochemistry revealed PAC1 receptor-like immunoreactivity in kidney sections, mainly expressed in cortical tubular epithelial cells. These results showed PACAP to be endogenously present in the kidney. The tubular localization of the PAC1 receptor provides the basis for the renal effects of the peptide under physiologic and pathologic conditions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with well-known cytoprotective effects. We have reported earlier that PACAP decreases mortality and the degree of tubular atrophy in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Recently, we have shown that kidney cultures isolated from PACAP deficient mice show increased susceptibility to renal oxidative stress. Based on these previous studies, we raised the question whether PACAP deficient mice display increased sensitivity to in vivo kidney ischemia/reperfusion. PACAP⁻/⁻ mice underwent 45 or 60 min of renal ischemia followed by 2 weeks reperfusion. Kidneys were processed for histological analysis. Sections stained with PAS-haematoxylin were graded for the following parameters: degree of tubular dilation, Bowmann's capsule dilation, lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, thyroidization and the disappearance of the PAS-positive glycocalyx from under the brush border. In other sets of experiments, tissue cytokine expression and the level of the endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also determined after 60 min ischemia/reperfusion. Our results show that while intact kidneys were not different between wild-type and PACAP deficient mice, marked differences were observed in the histological structures in groups that underwent ischemia/reperfusion. PACAP deficient mice had a worse histological outcome, with significantly higher histological scores for all tested parameters. Cytokine expression was also markedly different between wild-type and PACAP deficient mice. In addition, the level of SOD was significantly lower in PACAP⁻/⁻ animals after ischemia/reperfusion. In conclusion, the lack of endogenous PACAP leads to higher susceptibility to in vivo renal ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting that PACAP has an endogenous renoprotective effect.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Neuropeptides
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays an important role in various renal and hepatic pathologies, and reduction of oxidative stress-induced processes is an important protective strategy in tissues of diverse origins against harmful stimuli. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a well-known cytotrophic and cytoprotective peptide. PACAP promotes cell survival in numerous cells and tissues exposed to various stimuli. Protective effects of PACAP have been shown in the kidney, but it is not known whether PACAP is protective against oxidative stress in renal cells. Little is known about the effects of PACAP in the liver. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACAP is protective against oxidative stress in primary rat kidney cell culture and whether PACAP has any effect on cell survival in human WRL-68 hepatocytes and HEP-G2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells subjected to oxidative stress. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of H(2)O(2) with or without PACAP co-treatment and cell viability was evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide test (MTT). We found that oxidative stress induced a significant decrease in cell viability in both cell lines. PACAP could dose-dependently increase the percentage of living cells in kidney cells, but it failed to do so in hepatocytes. Given the survival-promoting effects of PACAP against oxidative stress in rat kidney, we conducted a further experiment to determine whether PACAP influences the markers of oxidative stress in vivo. We have proven earlier that PACAP was effective in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo. In the present study, we determined the levels of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde and the activity of the scavenger molecules glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) following kidney ischemia/reperfusion in rats. We found that PACAP significantly increased the level of GSH and counteracted the marked reduction of SOD activity after ischemia/reperfusion in vivo. In summary, the present study showed that while PACAP was able to significantly increase the cell survival in primary kidney cell cultures exposed to oxidative stress, possibly involving interaction with the endogenous scavenger system, it failed to influence the viability of normal or cancerous hepatocytes.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
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    ABSTRACT: One of the well-known effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is its neuroprotective and cytoprotective actions including renoprotective effects. Mice deficient in endogenous PACAP exhibit several behavioral, metabolic, and developmental alterations. Furthermore, PACAP-deficient mice have larger infarct volume in a model of cerebral ischemia, delayed axonal regeneration, and increased cell death in cerebellar oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that PACAP-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to in vitro oxidative stress, which can be counteracted by exogenous PACAP treatment. These results demonstrate that endogenous PACAP has a protective role against various stressors. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether endogenous PACAP has a protective effect in the kidney against in vitro hypoxia. Kidney cell cultures were isolated from wild-type and PACAP-deficient mice, and cell viability was assessed after in vitro hypoxia induced using CoCl(2). The sensitivity of cells from PACAP-deficient mice was increased to hypoxia: both after 24 and 48 hours of exposure, cell viability was significantly reduced compared with that in control wild-type mice. These results show that endogenous PACAP protects against noxious stimuli in the kidney and that PACAP may act as a stress sensor in renal cells.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: Transplant recipients are at high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Ultraviolet radiation can generate oxygen free radicals (OFRs), leading to oxidative stress and carcinogenesis, primarily during immunosuppression therapy. In the present study, changes in oxidative stress were examined in transplant recipients with and without NMSC. The study included 116 white adults who had undergone kidney or combined kidney-pancreas transplantation. Dermatologic follow-up revealed 16 NMSCs (13.8%). To monitor oxidative stress, peripheral blood samples were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione, sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, OFRs, and activity of myeloperoxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. The mean (SD) plasma MDA concentration was significantly greater in patients without NMSC compared with healthy control individuals (0.48+/-0.05 nmol/mL; P < .05), whereas MDA concentration in hemolysate was slightly increased. In peripheral blood samples, the MDA concentration in both plasma (0.71+/-0.03 nmol/mL) and hemolysate (87.74+/-1.25 nmol/mL) was significantly increased in the NMSC group compared with the healthy control group (0.24+/-0.05 nmol/mL vs 75.87+/-2.8 nmol/mL; P < .05) or patients without NMSC (0.48+/-0.04 nmol/mL vs 79.62+/-2.77 nmol/mL; P < .05). The reduced glutathione concentration was significantly decreased in the -SH groups compared with the healthy control group (P < .05). Antioxidant activity of myeloperoxidase (0.78+/-0.05 IU/mL) and catalase (1855.8+/-45.41 IU/mL) was significantly increased in the group without NMSC compared with the healthy control group (0.41+/-0.1 IU/mL vs 1642.07+/-82.96 IU/mL) and the NMSC group (0.93+/-0.03 IU/mL vs 2180.5+/-15.03 IU/mL). The superoxide dismutase activity was decreased slightly but not significantly. Total production of OFRs was significantly greater in the NMSC group compared with the non-NMSC group or the healthy control group (P < .05). These findings suggest that an imbalance exists between pro-oxidant and antioxidant status in transplant recipients, with a significant difference in patients with vs without NMSC.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Transplantation Proceedings
  • P Szakaly · G Horvath · P Kiss · E Laszlo · J Farkas · G Furjes · J Nemeth · D Reglodi
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    ABSTRACT: PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) occurs in two biologically active forms, with 38 and 37 amino acid residues (PACAP38 and PACAP27). In mammalian tissues, PACAP38 is the dominant form. Diverse effects have been described in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. PACAP is known for its strong cytoprotective effects, which are present endogenously as well, as proven by knockout studies and results showing that PACAP is up-regulated following diverse injuries. Little is known about such effects in the kidney. We have previously shown that PACAP is protective in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the changes of endogenous PACAP following 60-minute renal ischemia using radioimmunoassay. Changes were observed within 24 hours following renal vessel clamping. In the cortex, an acute decrease was followed by an increase on the intact side, and levels returned to original ones on the operated side. In the medulla, changes were only observed on the clamped side: a marked up-regulation was detected in PACAP38-like immunoreactivity within the first 24 hours. The present study showed that PACAP38- and PACAP27-like immunoreactivities sensitively react to renal ischemia-reperfusion, the physiological importance of which awaits further investigation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Transplantation Proceedings
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most frequently observed tumors in transplant recipients. The incidence of posttransplantation NMSC was determined using our dermatologic screening program. Included in the study were 116 white adults (70 men and 46 women; median age, 49.3 years) who had undergone kidney or combined kidney-pancreas transplantation, with follow-up from September 2008 to December 2009. All patients underwent a full skin examination for NMSC, and completed a standardized questionnaire. Screening resulted in detection of 16 NMSCs in 11 patients out of 116 (9.5%). Lesions were equally distributed by sex, and were detected at a median of 4.1 years posttransplantation. Histologic analysis verified 13 basal cell carcinomas and 3 squamous cell carcinomas (ratio, 4:1). The incidence of NMSC was significantly greater in patients who received cyclosporine immunosuppression therapy (16 vs 1; P < .05), had experienced 2 or more painful sunburns before transplantation (10 vs 11), or worked outdoors (10 vs 11). These data indicate the relevance of skin cancer surveillance in transplant recipients. Our results correspond to international statistics except for the ratio of basal cell carcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies are needed to elucidate the reasons for this difference.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2010 · Transplantation Proceedings