David Martínez-Delgado

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (135)355.35 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of NGC 253-dw2, a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy candidate undergoing tidal disruption around a nearby spiral galaxy, NGC 253 in the Sculptor group: the first such event identified beyond the Local Group. The dwarf was found using small-aperture amateur telescopes, and followed up with Suprime-Cam on the 8 m Subaru Telescope in order to resolve its brightest stars. Using g- and Rc-band photometry, we detect a red giant branch consistent with an old, metal-poor stellar population at a distance of ∼3.5 Mpc. From the distribution of likely member stars, we infer a highly elongated shape with a semimajor axis half-light radius of (2 ± 0.4) kpc. Star counts also yield a luminosity estimate of ∼2 × 106 L⊙,V (MV ∼ −10.7). The morphological properties of NGC 253-dw2 mark it as distinct from normal dSphs and imply ongoing disruption at a projected distance of ∼50 kpc from the main galaxy. Our observations support the hierarchical paradigm wherein massive galaxies continuously accrete less massive ones, and provide a new case study for dSph infall and dissolution dynamics. We also note the continued efficacy of small telescopes for making big discoveries.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Context: We introduce the Dwarf Galaxy Survey with Amateur Telescopes (DGSAT) project and report the discovery of eleven Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies in the fields of the nearby galaxies NGC 2683, NGC 3628, NGC 4594 (M104), NGC 4631, NGC 5457 (M101), and NGC7814. Aims: The DGSAT project aims at using the potential of small-sized telescopes to probe LSB features around large galaxies and to increase the sample size of the dwarf satellite galaxies in the Local Volume. Methods: Using long exposure images centred on the target, its field is explored for extended low surface brightness objects. After identifying dwarf galaxy candidates, their observed properties are extracted by fitting models to their light profiles. Results: We find three, one, three, one, one, and two new LSB galaxies in the fields of NGC 2683, 3628, 4594, 4631, 5457, and 7814, respectively. In addition to the newly found galaxies, we analyse the structural properties of 9 already known galaxies. All of these 20 dwarf galaxy candidates have effective surface brightnesses in the range $25.3\lesssim\mu_{e}\lesssim28.8$ mag.arcsec$^{-2}$ and are fit with Sersic profiles with indices $n\lesssim 1$. Assuming that they are in the vicinity of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their $r$-band absolute magnitudes, their effective radii, and their luminosities are in the ranges $-15.6 \lesssim M_r \lesssim -7.8$, $160$ pc $\lesssim R_e \lesssim 4.1$ kpc, and $0.1\times 10^6 \lesssim\left(\frac{L}{L_{\odot}}\right)_r\lesssim127 \times 10^6$, respectively. To determine if these LSB galaxies are indeed satellites of the above mentioned massive galaxies, their distances need to be determined via further observations. Conclusions: Using small telescopes we are readily able to detect LSB galaxies with similar properties to the known dwarf galaxies of the Local Group.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Using Subaru/Suprime-Cam wide-field imaging and both Keck/ESI and LBT/MODS spectroscopy, we identify and characterize a compact star cluster, which we term NGC 3628-UCD1, embedded in a stellar stream around the spiral galaxy NGC 3628. The size and luminosity of UCD1 are similar to ω Cen, the most luminous Milky Way globular cluster, which has long been suspected to be the stripped remnant of an accreted dwarf galaxy. The object has a magnitude of i = 19.3 mag (L i = 1.4 × 10 6 L). UCD1 is marginally resolved in our ground-based imaging, with a half-light radius of ∼ 10 pc. We measure an integrated brightness for the stellar stream of i = 13.1 mag, with (g − i) = 1.0. This would correspond to an accreted dwarf galaxy with an approximate luminosity of L i ∼ 4.1 × 10 8 L. Spectral analysis reveals that UCD1 has an age of 6.6 Gyr , [Z/H] = −0.75, and [α/Fe] = −0.10. We propose that UCD1 is an example of an ω Cen-like star cluster possibly forming from the nucleus of an infalling dwarf galaxy, demonstrating that at least some of the massive star cluster population may be created through tidal stripping.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    N. C. Amorisco · D. Martinez-Delgado · J. Schedler
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) We present a dynamical analysis of the extended stellar stream encircling NGC 1097. Within a statistical framework, we model its surface brightness using mock streams as in Amorisco (2015) and deep imaging data from the CHART32 telescope (Stellar Tidal Stream Survey). We reconstruct the post-infall evolution of the progenitor, which has experienced 3 pericentric passages and lost more than 2 orders of magnitude in mass. At infall, $5.4\pm0.6$ Gyr ago, the progenitor was a disky dwarf with mass of $\log_{10}[m(<3.4\pm1 {\rm kpc})/ M_\odot]=10.35\pm0.25$. We illustrate how the 90$^\circ$ turn in the stream, identifying the `dog leg', is the signature of the progenitor's prograde rotation. Today, the remnant is a nucleated dwarf, with a LOS velocity of $v_{\rm p, los}^{\rm obs}=-30\pm 30$ kms$^{-1}$, and a luminosity of $3.3\times 10^7 L_{V,\odot}$ (Galianni et al. 2010). Our independent analysis predicts $v_{\rm p, los}=-51^{-17}_{+14}$ kms$^{-1}$, and measures $\log_{10}(m/ M_\odot)=7.4^{+0.6}_{-0.8}$, so that the compact nucleus is soon becoming a low-luminosity UCD. We find that NGC 1097 has a mass of $M_{200}=1.8^{+0.5}_{-0.4} \times 10^{12}\; M_{\odot}$, and its concentration $c_{200}=6.7^{+2.4}_{-1.3}$ is in agreement with LCDM. The stream is described almost down to the noise in a spherical host potential, we find this would not be possible if the halo was substantially triaxial at large radii. Its morphology shows that the slope of the total density profile bends from an inner $\gamma(r_{\rm peri})=1.5\pm0.15$. The progenitor's orbit reaches $r_{\rm apo}=150\pm 15$ kpc, more than a half of the virial radius of the host, so that, for the first time on an individual extragalactic halo, we measure the outer density slope, $\gamma(0.6r_{200,c})=3.9\pm0.5$. This demonstrates the promise of the newborn field of detailed, statistical modelling of extragalactic tidal streams.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a new dwarf galaxy, Hydra II, found serendipitously within the data from the ongoing Survey of the MAgellanic Stellar History (SMASH) conducted with the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4m Telescope. The new satellite is compact (r_h = 68 +/- 11 pc) and faint (M_V = -4.8 +/- 0.3), but well within the realm of dwarf galaxies. The stellar distribution of HydraII in the color-magnitude diagram is well-described by a metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.2) and old (13 Gyr) isochrone and shows a distinct blue horizontal branch, some possible red clump stars, and faint stars that are suggestive of blue stragglers. At a heliocentric distance of 134 +/- 10 kpc, Hydra II is located in a region of the Galactic halo that models have suggested may host material from the leading arm of the Magellanic Stream. A comparison with N-body simulations hints that the new dwarf galaxy could be or could have been a satellite of the Magellanic Clouds.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40-cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extended between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (stream_SE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (stream_NW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc and display a clear (g-r) colour gradient. The orientation of stream_SE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e=0.6) around NGC 4631 over $\sim$ 3.5 Gyr, with a dynamical mass ratio (m1:m2) of ~40. Both modelling and inferences from the morphology of the streams indicate these are not associated with the complex HI tidal features observed between both spirals, which likely originate from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. The detailed structure of stream_NW suggests it may contain the progenitor of the stream, in agreement with the N-body model. In addition, stream_NW is roughly aligned with two very faint dwarf spheroidal candidates. The system of dwarf galaxies and the tidal stream around NGC 4631 can provide an additional interesting case for exploring the anisotropy distribution of satellite galaxies recently reported in Local Group spiral galaxies by means of future follow-up observations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
  • J.A. Carballo-Bello · D. Martínez-Delgado · A. Sollima · R.R. Muñoz
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    ABSTRACT: Globular clusters have played an important role in the study of the processes that led to the formation of our Galaxy. Moreover, the dual Galactic globular cluster system is considered a manifestation of its hierarchical formation in the context of the Λ-CDM scenario. Wide-field imaging - as the one obtained in our work - and follow-up spectroscopy are crucial tools to unveil the remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies, in some cases unknown stellar systems already assimilated by the Milky Way.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: In the hierarchical formation scenario in which the outer halo of the Milky Way is the result of the continuous accretion of low-mass galaxies, a fraction of the Galactic globular cluster system might have originated in and been accreted with already extinct dwarf galaxies. In this context, we expect that the remnants of these progenitor galaxies might be still populating the surroundings of those accreted globulars. In this work, we present wide-field photometry of a sample of 23 globular clusters in the Galactocentric distance range 10 ≤ RG ≤ 40 kpc, which we use to search for remnants of their hypothetical progenitor systems. Our deep photometry reveals the presence of underlying stellar populations along the line of sight of about half of the globulars included in our sample. Among the detections lying in the footprint of the Sagittarius tidal stream, which we identify via the comparison with its orbit derived from numerical simulations, only Whiting 1 and NGC 7492 seem to be immersed in that remnant at a compatible heliocentric distance. We also confirm the existence of a subjacent main-sequence feature in the surroundings of NGC 1851. A tentative detection of the vast Hercules–Aquila cloud is unveiled in the background of NGC 7006.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dynamics of faint stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, NGC 4651, which hosts a dramatic system of streams and shells formed through the tidal disruption of a nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy. We elucidate the basic characteristics of the system (colours, luminosities, stellar masses) using multiband Subaru/Suprime-Cam images. The implied stellar mass ratio of the ongoing merger event is ∼1:50. We identify candidate kinematic tracers (globular clusters, planetary nebulae, H ii regions) and follow up a subset with Keck/DEIMOS (DEep Imaging Multi-object Spectrograph) spectroscopy to obtain velocities. We find that 15 of the tracers are likely associated with halo substructures, including the probable stream progenitor nucleus. These objects delineate a kinematically cold feature in position–velocity phase space. We model the stream using single test particle orbits, plus a rescaled pre-existing N-body simulation. We infer a very eccentric orbit with a period of ∼0.35 Gyr and turning points at ∼2–4 and ∼40 kpc, implying a recent passage of the satellite through the disc, which may have provoked the visible disturbances in the host galaxy. This work confirms that the kinematics of low surface brightness substructures can be recovered and modelled using discrete tracers – a breakthrough that opens up a fresh avenue for unravelling the detailed physics of minor merging.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present a panoptic view of the stellar structure in the Galactic disk's outer reaches commonly known as the Monoceros Ring, based on data from Pan-STARRS1. These observations clearly show the large extent of the stellar overdensities on both sides of the Galactic disk, extending between b = -25 and b = +35 degrees and covering over 130 degrees in Galactic longitude. The structure exhibits a complex morphology with both stream-like features and a sharp edge to the structure in both the north and the south. We compare this map to mock observations of two published simulations aimed at explaining such structures in the outer stellar disk, one postulating an origin as a tidal stream and the other demonstrating a scenario where the disk is strongly distorted by the accretion of a satellite. These morphological comparisons of simulations can link formation scenarios to observed structures, such as demonstrating that the distorted-disk model can produce thin density features resembling tidal streams. Although neither model produces perfect agreement with the observations--the tidal stream predicts material at larger distances which is not detected while in the distorted disk model the midplane is warped to an excessive degree--future tuning of the models to accommodate these latest data may yield better agreement.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS's five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PN candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC 205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8 < R < 20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk"—a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21 ± 0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~1010M ☉, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now. With the new PN data at hand we see the obvious kinematic connection between the continuation of the Giant Stream and the Northern Spur. We suggest that 20%-30% of the stars in the Northern Spur area may belong to the Giant Stream. In our data we also see a possible kinematic connection between the Giant Stream and PNe in Andromeda NE, suggesting that Andromeda NE could be the core or remnant of the Giant Stream. Using PN data we estimate the total mass of the Giant Stream progenitor to be ≈109M ☉. About 90% of its stars appear to have been lost during the interaction with M31.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B – V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 108M ☉, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R circ ~ 11.7 kpc, formed in ~240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ~4 × 1010M ☉. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (~10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (~1-3 M ☉ yr–1). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    A. Y. Kniazev · E. K. Grebel · D. B. Zucker · H-W. Rix · D. Martinez-Delgado · S. A. Snedden
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS' five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PNe candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8<R<20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk" - a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21+/-0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~10^10 M_{\sun}, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the Fourth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), including all survey-quality data taken through 2004 June. The data release includes five-band photometric data for 180 million objects selected over 6670 deg2 and 673,280 spectra of galaxies, quasars, and stars selected from 4783 deg2 of those imaging data using the standard SDSS target selection algorithms. These numbers represent a roughly 27% increment over those of the Third Data Release; all the data from previous data releases are included in the present release. The Fourth Data Release also includes an additional 131,840 spectra of objects selected using a variety of alternative algorithms, to address scientific issues ranging from the kinematics of stars in the Milky Way thick disk to populations of faint galaxies and quasars.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012
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    ABSTRACT: We present the result of a spectroscopic survey performed in the outskirts of the globular cluster NGC1851 with Visible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS)/Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the medium-resolution grism coupled with the GG475 filter. The spectral coverage is from 5000 to 8000Å with a resolution R~580. Target stars have been selected from the photometry of Carballo-Bello et al. (2012MNRAS.419...14C), sampling a wide range in magnitude and colour (16<B<22, 0.6<B-R<2.1). We report the radial velocities of 107 stars in a region between 12 and 33 arcmin around the cluster centre. Observations have been performed during three nights in 2008 October at the Very Large Telescope's (VLT) Unit Telescope 3 (Melipal) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Cerro Paranal, Chile, equipped with the VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS). Velocities have been obtained by cross-correlating the spectra of the individual exposures with a GIRAFFE solar spectrum smoothed to the resolution of our targets using the region of the H-alpha line. Typical errors are of about 15km/s. (1 data file).
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012
  • M.-Y. Chou · S. R. Majewski · K. Cunha · V. V. Smith · R. J. Patterson · D. Martínez-Delgado
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    ABSTRACT: The idea of "chemically fingerprinting" stars to their birth systems has been discussed over the last decade. Here we present an investigation of the chemical abundance patterns of halo substructures using high-resolution spectra. In particular, we study the abundances of the α-like element titanium (Ti) and the s-process elements yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) for M giant candidates of the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS, also known as the Monoceros Ring) and the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) Star Cloud. We apply "chemical fingerprinting" to the GASS/Monoceros Ring and TriAnd Star Cloud, to explore the origins of the two systems and the hypothesized connections between them. GASS has been debated either to originate from a part (e.g., warp) of the Galactic disk or tidal debris of a disrupted Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxy. Our exploration shows that GASS is indeed made of stars from a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, although we still can not rule out the possibility that GASS was dynamically created out of a previously formed outer MW disk. And whereas the TriAnd Star Cloud has been assumed to come from the tidal disruption of the same accreted MW satellite as the GASS/Monoceros Ring, our comparison of the abundance patterns in GASS and TriAnd M giants suggests that the TriAnd Star Cloud is likely an independent halo substructure unrelated to GASS/Monoceros Ring. Furthermore, our findings also suggest that the MW may have accreted other satellites in addition to the on-going, well-known Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a spectroscopic survey performed in the outskirts of the globular cluster NGC1851 with VIMOS@VLT. The radial velocities of 107 stars in a region between 12' and 33' around the cluster have been derived. We clearly identify the cluster stellar population over the entire field of view, indicating the presence of a significant fraction of stars outside the tidal radius predicted by King models. We also find tentative evidence of a cold (sigma_v< 20 km/s) peak in the distribution of velocities at v_r~180 km/s constituted mainly by Main Sequence stars whose location in the color-magnitude diagram is compatible with a stream at a similar distance of this cluster. If confirmed, this evidence would strongly support the extra-Galactic origin of this feature.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present surface photometry of a giant, low surface brightness stellar arc in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy M63 (NGC 5055) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. Using the stream's "great-circle" morphology and its photometric properties, we estimate that the stream originates from the accretion of a 10^8 M_sun satellite in the last few Gyr. The B-R color of the stream's stars is consistent with Local Group dwarfs and is also similar to the outer regions of M63's disk and stellar halo within our measurement uncertainties. Additionally, we identify several other low surface brightness features that may be related to the galaxy's complex spiral structure or may be tidal debris associated with the disruption of the galaxy's outer stellar disk as a result of the accretion event. Using our deep, panoramic optical view of M63 with additional existing multiwavelength data, we describe the possible effects of such an accretion event in the larger picture of the parent galaxy.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2012
  • J. A. Carballo-Bello · D. Martínez-Delgado
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    ABSTRACT: The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei) to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The European Physical Journal Conferences

Publication Stats

6k Citations
355.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013-2015
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2014
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2003-2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • European University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2000-2011
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Department of Astrophysics
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2008-2009
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1994-2009
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2005-2008
    • Instituto De Astrofisica De Andalucia
      Granata, Andalusia, Spain
  • 2007
    • University of Chicago
      • Enrico Fermi Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States