N. A. Grogin

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (267)914.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a study investigating the sizes and morphologies of redshift 4 < z < 8 galaxies in the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) GOODS-S (Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field), HUDF (Hubble Ultra-Deep Field) and HUDF parallel fields. Based on non-parametric measurements and incorporating a careful treatment of measurement biases, we quantify the typical size of galaxies at each redshift as the peak of the lognormal size distribution, rather than the arithmetic mean size. Parametrizing the evolution of galaxy half-light radius as r50 ∝ (1 + z)n, we find n = −0.20 ± 0.26 at bright UV-luminosities (0.3L*(z = 3) < L < L*) and n = −0.47 ± 0.62 at faint luminosities (0.12L* < L < 0.3L*). Furthermore, simulations based on artificially redshifting our z ∼ 4 galaxy sample show that we cannot reject the null hypothesis of no size evolution. We show that this result is caused by a combination of the size-dependent completeness of high-redshift galaxy samples and the underestimation of the sizes of the largest galaxies at a given epoch. To explore the evolution of galaxy morphology we first compare asymmetry measurements to those from a large sample of simulated single Sérsic profiles, in order to robustly categorize galaxies as either ‘smooth’ or ‘disturbed’. Comparing the disturbed fraction amongst bright (M1500 ≤ −20) galaxies at each redshift to that obtained by artificially redshifting our z ∼ 4 galaxy sample, while carefully matching the size and UV-luminosity distributions, we find no clear evidence for evolution in galaxy morphology over the redshift interval 4 < z < 8. Therefore, based on our results, a bright (M1500 ≤ −20) galaxy at z ∼ 6 is no more likely to be measured as ‘disturbed’ than a comparable galaxy at z ∼ 4, given the current observational constraints.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results from a stellar population modeling analysis of a sample of 162 z=4.5, and 14 z=5.7 Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the Bootes field, using deep Spitzer/IRAC data at 3.6 and 4.5 um from the Spitzer Lyman Alpha Survey, along with Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS and WFC3 imaging at 1.1 and 1.6 um for a subset of the LAEs. This represents one of the largest samples of high-redshift LAEs imaged with Spitzer IRAC. We find that 30/162 (19%) of the z=4.5 LAEs and 9/14 (64%) of the z=5.7 LAEs are detected at >3-sigma in at least one IRAC band. Individual z=4.5 IRAC-detected LAEs have a large range of stellar mass, from 5x10^8 to 10^11 Msol. One-third of the IRAC-detected LAEs have older stellar population ages of 100 Myr - 1 Gyr, while the remainder have ages < 100 Myr. A stacking analysis of IRAC-undetected LAEs shows this population to be primarily low mass (8 -- 20 x 10^8 Msol) and young (64 - 570 Myr). We find a correlation between stellar mass and the dust-corrected ultraviolet-based star-formation rate (SFR) similar to that at lower redshifts, in that higher mass galaxies exhibit higher SFRs. However, the z=4.5 LAE correlation is elevated 4-5 times in SFR compared to continuum-selected galaxies at similar redshifts. The exception is the most massive LAEs which have SFRs similar to galaxies at lower redshifts suggesting that they may represent a different population of galaxies than the traditional lower-mass LAEs, perhaps with a different mechanism promoting Lyman alpha photon escape.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We derive the total cold gas, atomic hydrogen, and molecular gas masses of approximately 24 000 galaxies covering four decades in stellar mass at redshifts 0.5 < z < 3.0, taken from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey survey. Our inferences are based on the inversion of a molecular hydrogen based star formation law, coupled with a prescription to separate atomic and molecular gas. We find that: (1) there is an increasing trend between the inferred cold gas (H i and H2), H i, and H2 mass and the stellar mass of galaxies down to stellar masses of 108 M⊙ already in place at z = 3; (2) the molecular fractions of cold gas increase with increasing stellar mass and look-back time; (3) there is hardly any evolution in the mean H i content of galaxies at fixed stellar mass; (4) the cold gas fraction and relative amount of molecular hydrogen in galaxies decrease at a relatively constant rate with time, independent of stellar mass; (5) there is a large population of low stellar mass galaxies dominated by atomic gas. These galaxies are very gas rich, but only a minor fraction of their gas is molecular; 6) the ratio between star formation rate (SFR) and inferred total cold gas mass (H i + H2) of galaxies (i.e. star formation efficiency; SFE) increases with star formation at fixed stellar masses. Due to its simplicity, the presented approach is valuable to assess the impact of selection biases on small samples of directly observed gas masses and to extend scaling relations down to stellar mass ranges and redshifts that are currently difficult to probe with direct measurements of gas content.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe. A multiwavelength study can be used to measure the integrated emission from first galaxies during reionization when the Universe was about 500 million years old. Here we report arcmin-scale spatial fluctuations in one of the deepest sky surveys with the Hubble Space Telescope in five wavebands between 0.6 and 1.6 μm. We model-fit the angular power spectra of intensity fluctuation measurements to find the ultraviolet luminosity density of galaxies at redshifts greater than 8 to be . This level of integrated light emission allows for a significant surface density of fainter primeval galaxies that are below the point-source detection level in current surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationships between galaxy environments and galaxy properties related to disk (re)growth, considering two highly complete samples that are approximately baryonic mass limited into the high-mass dwarf galaxy regime, the Environmental COntext (ECO) catalog (data release herein) and the B-semester region of the REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local VolumE (RESOLVE) survey. We quantify galaxy environments using both group identification and smoothed galaxy density field methods. We use by-eye and quantitative morphological classifications plus atomic gas content measurements and estimates. We find that blue early-type (E/S0) galaxies, gas-dominated galaxies, and UV-bright disk host galaxies all become distinctly more common below group halo mass ~10^11.5 Msun, implying that this low group halo mass regime may be a preferred regime for significant disk growth activity. We also find that blue early-type and blue late-type galaxies inhabit environments of similar group halo mass at fixed baryonic mass, consistent with a scenario in which blue early types can regrow late-type disks. In fact, we find that the only significant difference in the typical group halo mass inhabited by different galaxy classes is for satellite galaxies with different colors, where at fixed baryonic mass red early and late types have higher typical group halo masses than blue early and late types. More generally, we argue that the traditional morphology-environment relation (i.e., that denser environments tend to have more early types) can be largely attributed to the morphology-galaxy mass relation for centrals and the color-environment relation for satellites.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Spitzer-Cosmic Assembly Deep Near-Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (S-CANDELS; PI G. Fazio) is a Cycle 8 Exploration Program designed to detect galaxies at very high redshifts (z > 5). To mitigate the effects of cosmic variance and also to take advantage of deep coextensive coverage in multiple bands by the Hubble Space Telescope Multi-Cycle Treasury Program CANDELS, S-CANDELS was carried out within five widely separated extragalactic fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the HST Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. S-CANDELS builds upon the existing coverage of these fields from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) by increasing the integration time from 12 hours to a total of 50 hours but within a smaller area, 0.16 square degrees. The additional depth significantly increases the survey completeness at faint magnitudes. This paper describes the S-CANDELS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. We present IRAC dual-band 3.6+4.5 micron catalogs reaching to a depth of 26.5 AB mag. Deep IRAC counts for the roughly 135,000 galaxies detected by S-CANDELS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. The increase in depth beyond earlier Spitzer/IRAC surveys does not reveal a significant additional contribution from discrete sources to the diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB). Thus it remains true that only roughly half of the estimated CIB flux from COBE/DIRBE is resolved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we perform a comprehensive study of the main sources of random and systematic errors in stellar mass measurement for galaxies using their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). We use mock galaxy catalogs with simulated multi-waveband photometry (from U-band to mid-infrared) and known redshift, stellar mass, age and extinction for individual galaxies. Given different parameters affecting stellar mass measurement (photometric S/N ratios, SED fitting errors, systematic effects, the inherent degeneracies and correlated errors), we formulated different simulated galaxy catalogs to quantify these effects individually. We studied the sensitivity of stellar mass estimates to the codes/methods used, population synthesis models, star formation histories, nebular emission line contributions, photometric uncertainties, extinction and age. For each simulated galaxy, the difference between the input stellar masses and those estimated using different simulation catalogs, $\Delta\log(M)$, was calculated and used to identify the most fundamental parameters affecting stellar masses. We measured different components of the error budget, with the results listed as follows: (1). no significant bias was found among different codes/methods, with all having comparable scatter; (2). A source of error is found to be due to photometric uncertainties and low resolution in age and extinction grids; (3). The median of stellar masses among different methods provides a stable measure of the mass associated with any given galaxy; (4). The deviations in stellar mass strongly correlate with those in age, with a weaker correlation with extinction; (5). the scatter in the stellar masses due to free parameters are quantified, with the sensitivity of the stellar mass to both the population synthesis codes and inclusion of nebular emission lines studied.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometry and derived redshifts from up to eleven bandpasses for 9927 galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep field (UDF), covering an observed wavelength range from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to the near-infrared (NIR) with Hubble Space Telescope observations. Our Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/UV F225W, F275W, and F336W image mosaics from the ultra-violet UDF (UVUDF) imaging campaign are newly calibrated to correct for charge transfer inefficiency, and use new dark calibrations to minimize background gradients and pattern noise. Our NIR WFC3/IR image mosaics combine the imaging from the UDF09 and UDF12 campaigns with CANDELS data to provide NIR coverage for the entire UDF field of view. We use aperture-matched point-spread function corrected photometry to measure photometric redshifts in the UDF, sampling both the Lyman break and Balmer break of galaxies at z~0.8-3.4, and one of the breaks over the rest of the redshift range. Our comparison of these results with a compilation of robust spectroscopic redshifts shows an improvement in the galaxy photometric redshifts by a factor of two in scatter and a factor three in outlier fraction over previous UDF catalogs. The inclusion of the new NUV data is responsible for a factor of two decrease in the outlier fraction compared to redshifts determined from only the optical and NIR data, and improves the scatter at z<0.5 and at z>2. The panchromatic coverage of the UDF from the NUV through the NIR yields robust photometric redshifts of the UDF, with the lowest outlier fraction available.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: To understand the processes driving galaxy morphology and star formation, we need a robust method to classify the structural elements of galaxies. Important but rare and subtle features may be missed by traditional spiral, elliptical, irregular or S\'ersic bulge/disc classifications. To overcome this limitation, we use a principal component analysis of non-parametric morphological indicators (concentration, asymmetry, Gini coefficient, $M_{20}$, multi-mode, intensity and deviation) measured at rest-frame $B$-band (corresponding to HST/WFC3 F125W at 1.4 $< z <$ 2) to trace the natural distribution of massive ($>10^{10} M_{\odot}$) galaxy morphologies. Principal component analysis (PCA) quantifies the correlations between these morphological indicators and determines the relative importance of each. The first three principal components (PCs) capture $\sim$75 per cent of the variance inherent to our sample. We interpret the first principal component (PC) as bulge strength, the second PC as dominated by concentration and the third PC as dominated by asymmetry. Both PC1 and PC2 correlate with the visual appearance of a central bulge and predict galaxy quiescence. We divide the PCA results into 10 groups using an agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. Unlike S\'ersic, this classification scheme separates quenched compact galaxies from larger, smooth proto-elliptical systems, and star-forming disc-dominated clumpy galaxies from star-forming bulge-dominated asymmetric galaxies. Distinguishing between these galaxy structural types in a quantitative manner is an important step towards understanding the connections between morphology, galaxy assembly and star-formation.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We have conducted a detailed object-by-object study of a mass-complete (M*>10^11 M_sun) sample of 56 galaxies at 1.4 < z < 2 in the GOODS-South field, showing that an accurate de-blending in MIPS/24um images is essential to properly assign to each galaxy its own star formation rate (SFR), whereas an automatic procedure often fails. This applies especially to galaxies with SFRs below the Main Sequence (MS) value, which may be in their quenching phase. After that, the sample splits evenly between galaxies forming stars within a factor of 4 of the MS rate (~45%), and sub-MS galaxies with SFRs ~10-1000 times smaller (~55%). We did not find a well defined class of intermediate, transient objects below the MS, suggesting that the conversion of a massive MS galaxy into a quenched remnant may take a relatively short time (<1 Gyr), though a larger sample should be analyzed in the same way to set precise limits on the quenching timescale. X-ray detected AGNs represent a ~30% fraction of the sample, and are found among both star-forming and quenched galaxies. The morphological analysis revealed that ~50% of our massive objects are bulge-dominated, and almost all MS galaxies with a relevant bulge component host an AGN. We also found sub-MS SFRs in many bulge-dominated systems, providing support to the notion that bulge growth, AGN activity and quenching of star formation are closely related to each other.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We use data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey to study how the spatial variation in the stellar populations of galaxies relate to the formation of galaxies at $1.5 < z < 3.5$. We use the Internal Color Dispersion (ICD), measured between the rest-frame UV and optical bands, which is sensitive to age (and dust attenuation) variations in stellar populations. The ICD shows a relation with the stellar masses and morphologies of the galaxies. Galaxies with the largest variation in their stellar populations as evidenced by high ICD have disk-dominated morphologies (with S\'{e}rsic indexes $< 2$) and stellar masses between $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot}< 11$. There is a marked decrease in the ICD as the stellar mass and/or the S\'ersic index increases. By studying the relations between the ICD and other galaxy properties including sizes, total colors, star-formation rate, and dust attenuation, we conclude that the largest variations in stellar populations occur in galaxies where the light from newly, high star-forming clumps contrasts older stellar disk populations. This phase reaches a peak for galaxies only with a specific stellar mass range, $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/ M_\odot} < 11$, and prior to the formation of a substantial bulge/spheroid. In contrast, galaxies at higher or lower stellar masses, and/or higher S\'{e}rsic index ($n > 2$) show reduced ICD values, implying a greater homogeneity of their stellar populations. This indicates that if a galaxy is to have both a quiescent bulge along with a star forming disk, typical of Hubble Sequence galaxies, this is most common for stellar masses $10 < \mathrm{Log~M/M_\odot} < 11$ and when the bulge component remains relatively small ($n<2$).
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We combine HST/WFC3 imaging and G141 grism observations from the CANDELS and 3D-HST surveys to produce a catalog of grism spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies in the CANDELS/GOODS-South field. The WFC3/G141 grism spectra cover a wavelength range of 1.1<lambda<1.7 microns with a resolving power of R~130 for point sources, thus providing rest-frame optical spectra for galaxies out to z~3.5. The catalog is selected in the H-band (F160W) and includes both galaxies with and without previously published spectroscopic redshifts. Grism spectra are extracted for all H-band detected galaxies with H<24 and a CANDELS photometric redshift z_phot > 0.6. The resulting spectra are visually inspected to identify emission lines and redshifts are determined using cross-correlation with empirical spectral templates. To establish the accuracy of our redshifts, we compare our results against high-quality spectroscopic redshifts from the literature. Using a sample of 411 control galaxies, this analysis yields a precision of sigma_NMAD=0.0028 for the grism-derived redshifts, which is consistent with the accuracy reported by the 3D-HST team. Our final catalog covers an area of 153 square arcmin and contains 1019 redshifts for galaxies in GOODS-S. Roughly 60% (608/1019) of these redshifts are for galaxies with no previously published spectroscopic redshift. These new redshifts span a range of 0.677 < z < 3.456 and have a median redshift of z=1.282. The catalog contains a total of 234 new redshifts for galaxies at z>1.5. In addition, we present 20 galaxy pair candidates identified for the first time using the grism redshifts in our catalog, including four new galaxy pairs at z~2, nearly doubling the number of such pairs previously identified.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astronomical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: In order to derive the AGN contribution to the cosmological ionizing emissivity we have selected faint AGN candidates at $z>4$ in the CANDELS GOODS-South field which is one of the deepest fields with extensive multiwavelength coverage from Chandra, HST, Spitzer and various groundbased telescopes. We have adopted a relatively novel criterion. As a first step high redshift galaxies are selected in the NIR $H$ band down to very faint levels ($H\leq27$) using reliable photometric redshifts. This corresponds at $z>4$ to a selection criterion based on the galaxy rest-frame UV flux. AGN candidates are then picked up from this parent sample if they show X-ray fluxes above a threshold of $F_X\sim 1.5\times 10^{-17}$ cgs (0.5-2 keV). We have found 22 AGN candidates at $z>4$ and we have derived the first estimate of the UV luminosity function in the redshift interval $4<z<6.5$ and absolute magnitude interval $-22.5\lesssim M_{1450} \lesssim -18.5$ typical of local Seyfert galaxies. The faint end of the derived luminosity function is about two/four magnitudes fainter at $z\sim 4-6$ than that derived from previous UV surveys. We have then estimated ionizing emissivities and hydrogen photoionization rates in the same redshift interval under reasonable assumptions and after discussion of possible caveats, the most important being the large uncertainties involved in the estimate of photometric redshift for sources with featureless, almost power-law SEDs and/or low average escape fraction of ionizing photons from the AGN host galaxies. We argue that, under reasonable evaluations of possible biases, the probed AGN population can produce at $z=4-6.5$ photoionization rates consistent with that required to keep highly ionized the intergalactic medium observed in the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest of high redshift QSO spectra, providing an important contribution to the cosmic reionization.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) project. We combine the effort from ten different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age < 100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for < 20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5<z<7.5. We utilised the HST WFC3/IR NIR imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H~27-28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5<z<7.5, resulting in an overall precision of sigma_z/(1+z)~0.037. We have determined the low-mass end of the high-z GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M*~10^9 Msun at z=4 and ~6x10^9 Msun at z=7. We find that the GSMF at 3.5<z<7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photo-z, the SFHs, the nebular contribution or the presence of AGN on the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Our results are very different from previous GSMF estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight M/L relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we find that the growth of stellar mass density is barely consistent with the time-integral of the SFR density over cosmic time at z>4. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We combine photometry from the UDS, and CANDELS UDS and CANDELS GOODS-S surveys to construct the galaxy stellar mass function probing both the low and high mass end accurately in the redshift range 0.3<z<3. The advantages of using a homogeneous concatenation of these datasets include meaningful measures of environment in the UDS, due to its large area (0.88 deg^2), and the high resolution deep imaging in CANDELS (H_160 > 26.0), affording us robust measures of structural parameters. We construct stellar mass functions for the entire sample as parameterised by the Schechter function, and find that there is a decline in the values of phi and of alpha with higher redshifts, and a nearly constant M* up to z~3. We divide the galaxy stellar mass function by colour, structure, and environment and explore the links between environmental over-density, morphology, and the quenching of star formation. We find that a double Schechter function describes galaxies with high Sersic index (n>2.5), similar to galaxies which are red or passive. The low-mass end of the n>2.5 stellar mass function is dominated by blue galaxies, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by red galaxies. This hints that possible links between morphological evolution and star formation quenching are only present in high-mass galaxies. This is turn suggests that there are strong mass dependent quenching mechanisms. In addition, we find that the number density of high mass systems is elevated in dense environments, suggesting that an environmental process is building up massive galaxies quicker in over densities than in lower densities.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric redshifts and associated probability distributions for all detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). The work makes use of the most up-to-date data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) in addition to other data. We also revisit multi-wavelength counterparts for published X-ray sources from the 4Ms-CDFS and 250ks-ECDFS surveys, finding reliable counterparts for 1207 out of 1259 sources (∼96%). Data used for photometric redshifts include intermediate-band photometry deblended using the TFIT method, which is used for the first time in this work. Photometric redshifts for X-ray source counterparts are based on a new library of AGN/galaxy hybrid templates appropriate for the faint X-ray population in the CDFS. Photometric redshift accuracy for normal galaxies is 0.010 and for X-ray sources is 0.014, and outlier fractions are 4% and 5.4% respectively. The results within the CANDELS coverage area are even better as demonstrated both by spectroscopic comparison and by galaxy-pair statistics. Intermediate-band photometry, even if shallow, is valuable when combined with deep broad-band photometry. For best accuracy, templates must include emission lines.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of bars in disc galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in discs decreases from the local Universe to z ∼ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature discs should be extremely rare. Here, we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disc galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. From within a sample of 876 disc galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a subsample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 2 ( $f_{{\rm bar}} = 10.7^{+6.3}_{-3.5}$ per cent after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disc galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV < -21) and faint (M_UV=-18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5<z<8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that it declines as (1+z)^(-4.3 +/- 0.5) at z>4, consistent with observations at z>9. Our observations are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z>10, completes at z>6, and reaches a midpoint (x_HII = 0.5) at 6.7<z<9.4. Finally, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z=9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z~10 galaxies. [abridged]
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal

Publication Stats

7k Citations
914.37 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2014
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory
      Лос-Аламос, California, United States
  • 2013
    • Tianjin Normal University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
  • 1998-2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Victoria
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2007-2009
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Tempe, AZ, United States
  • 2002-2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Physics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004-2006
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
    • Oak Ridge Associated Universities
      Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States