Senia Farinelli

Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Umbria, Italy

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Publications (17)24.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery and pelvic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible risk factors of co-colonization by M. hominis in patients already colonized by U. urealyticum and compare demographic parameters, vaginal pH and microbiota of women colonized by U. urealyticum or M. hominis. A total of 452 patients positive for U. urealyticum or M. hominis were analysed, 421 (93.1%) of whom were positive for U. urealyticum and 31 (6.9%) for M. hominis. Patients positive for M. hominis compared to patients positive for U. urealyticum were more frequently colonized by Gardnerella vaginalis (71% vs 18.5%; p 0.0001), less frequently by lactobacilli (16.1% vs 61.5%; p 0.0001), and more frequently had a pH value higher than 4.5 (96.8% vs 57%; p 0.0001), all conditions associated to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Logistic regression analysis showed that only G. vaginalis colonization and pH higher than 4.5 were independently related to M. hominis colonization (respectively p 0.0001 and p 0.016). Thus, in women colonized by U. urealyticum, BV is an independent risk factor for M. hominis co-colonization.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2013 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Candida infection is one of the main causes of vulvovaginitis. The experience of symptoms of vulvovaginitis during pregnancy changes in relation to clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors. Candidiasis is associated with an increased risk of delivery complications. In some studies pregnant women are found more symptomatic than non-pregnant women, but in others a higher prevalence of asymptomatic infections is described during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Candida vaginal colonization in pregnant women, and investigate if the occurrence of symptoms is influenced by pregnancy, in a population of Italian native and immigrant women. Methods: A total of 344 outpatients, who visited the laboratory for routine genital examination, independently of pregnancy or presence or absence of symptoms of vulvovaginitis, were evaluated. Results: Colonization by Candida spp. was significantly higher in pregnant than non-pregnant patients (31.4% vs. 19.9%; χ2=5.59; P=0.018), nevertheless pregnant women were significantly more often asymptomatic compared to non-pregnant (46.5% vs. 16%; χ2=42.31; P<0.0001). In the sub-group of women colonized by Candida spp., pregnancy resulted significantly associated to asymptomatic infection (58.1% vs. 30.8%; χ2 =6.18; P=0.013). A binary logistic regression analysis showed pregnancy or lactobacilli colonization independently associated to a lower probability of experiencing symptoms of vulvovaginitis (respectively: P<0.0001 and P=0.008). Conclusion: Pregnancy seems to be independently associated to Candida spp. asymptomatic vaginal infection. Given that candidiasis has been associated with possible delivery complications, these results suggest to screen for Candida spp. vaginal colonization asymptomatic women during pregnancy.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Minerva ginecologica
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    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a syndrome characterized by a systemic inflammatory response due to severe infection. Early detection of causal agents and appropriate antimicrobial treatment reduce mortality. Conventional microbiological methods often do not provide time critical results for an optimal early management. We used an in-house protocol based on Tween 80 to process 109 positive blood cultures for bacteria and yeast identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and results were compared to standard reference or automated methods. MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified 91.7% of the isolates. Correct identification was obtained for 57/62 (91.9%) aerobic/facultative anaerobic Gram-positive isolates, 53 (85.5%) at species level, and 4 (6.4%) at the genus level; 32/32 (100%) aerobic/facultative anaerobic Gram-negative isolates, 31 (96.9%) at species level, and 1 (3.1%) at the genus level; 7/7 (100%) obligate anaerobes, all at the genus level; 3/7 (42.8%) fungi, all at genus level. Overall, the median identification time of MALDI-TOF MS vs reference standard methods was significantly shorter: median (interquartile range) 7.1h (4.7-10.2) vs 48.1h (32.5-50.0), p<0.0001. MALDI-TOF MS is a valuable tool for rapid identification of pathogens in septic patients. An in-house protocol based on Tween 80 can be used to process positive blood cultures.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM
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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis and rapid bacterial identification are of primary importance for outcome of septic patients. SeptiFast® (SF) real-time PCR assay is of potential utility in the etiological diagnosis of sepsis, but it cannot replace blood culture (BC) for routine use in clinical laboratory. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a marker of sepsis and can predict bacteremia in septic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PCT serum levels could predict SF results, and could help screening febrile patients in which a SF assay can improve the etiological diagnosis of sepsis. From 1009 febrile patients with suspected sepsis, 1009 samples for BC, SF real-time PCR, and PCT determination were obtained simultaneously, and results were compared and statistically analysed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the area under the curve and to identify which cut-off of PCT value produced the best sensitivity to detect SF results. Mean PCT values of sera drawn simultaneously with samples SF positive (35.42±61.03 ng/ml) or BC positive (23.14±51.56 ng/ml) for a pathogen were statistically higher than those drawn simultaneously with SF negative (0.84±1.67 ng/ml) or BC negative (2.79±16.64 ng/ml) samples (p<0.0001). For SF, ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.927 (95% confidence interval: 0.899-0.955, p<0.0001). The PCT cut-off value of 0.37 ng/ml showed a negative predictive value of 99%, reducing the number of SF assays of 53.9%, still identifying the 96.4% of the pathogens. PCT can be used in febrile patients with suspected sepsis to predict SF positive or negative results. A cut-off value of 0.37 ng/ml can be considered for optimal sensitivity, so that, in the routine laboratory activity, SF assay should not be used for diagnosis of sepsis in an unselected patient population with a PCT value <0.37 ng/ml.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis are associated with non-gonococcal urethritis, increased risk of recurrent miscarriage, infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease. Migration flows from other countries change the local epidemiological profile of infectious diseases of patients treated by general practitioners and hospital doctors. Few studies have evaluated this ever-changing issue in the Italian population. The aim of this study was to assess possible differences in prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in a population of 433 Italian and immigrant outpatients by means of the commercially available MYCOFAST(®) Screening EvolutioN 3 Kit. Prevalence of positive samples was 44.5% in Italian patients and 53.4% in immigrants. Samples positive for U. urealyticum and total isolates were more frequent in African patients: U. urealyticum, 51.5% vs 33.3%; Yates-corrected chi-square=3.98; p=0.046; total isolates, 54.5% vs 34.3%; Yates-corrected chi-square=4.45; p=0.035. Among samples positive for U. urealyticum, 66.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin, whereas 27.6% to ofloxacin. In M. hominis isolates, 66.7% were resistant to both azythromycin and roxythromycin. Our study showed how prevalence of genital mycoplasmas and antibiotic resistance profiles change in relation to the country of origin. Therefore, surveillance is critical for the early cure and prevention of the occurrence of resistant strains.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The BD Phoenix system was compared to the cefoxitin disk diffusion test for detection of methicillin (meticillin) resistance in 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus and 1,121 coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) clinical isolates. The sensitivity for Phoenix was 100%. The specificities were 99.86% for S. aureus and 88.4% for CoNS.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Journal of clinical microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacilli of the genus Aeromonas are widespread in aquatic environments and can be responsible for human infections. Although Aeromonas extraintestinal and systemic infections have been reported with growing frequency in recent years, Aeromonas septicaemia remains an uncommon finding, often associated with serious underlying disease and predominantly related to the species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria and Aeromonas caviae. Here, a case of A. veronii biovar veronii septicaemia and acute suppurative cholangitis is reported in a patient with chronic hepatitis B.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of Medical Microbiology
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    ABSTRACT: Five cases of diphtheria were reported in Italy between January 1990 and June 2001. Three cases were confirmed microbiologically by the isolation of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae (two cases) and Corynebacterium ulcerans (one case). Over the same period, 11 cases of non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae infection were reported to the Italian Public Health Institute, from which the causative organism was isolated from a skin infection in one case and from the throat in the other ten. Seven of the throat isolates were associated with fever, severe pharyngitis and tonsillitis and were all biotype gravis. Because there are no standardized breakpoints, the antimicrobial sensitivities of C. diphtheriae were determined in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines for Streptococcus spp. other than Streptococcus pneumoniae. MICs for penicillin ranged between 0.125 and 0.250 mg l(-1) and 7 out of 11 strains had a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)/MIC ratio >or= 32. All strains were sensitive to clindamycin (MIC <or= 0.25 mg l(-1)), rifampicin (MIC <or= 1 mg l(-1)) and tetracycline (MIC <or= 2 mg l(-1)), and showed moderate susceptibility to cefotaxime (MIC 0.75-1.5 mg l(-1)). Molecular typing (ribotyping) demonstrated the presence of several distinct ribotypes. The ribotype designated 'D11' has been documented amongst strains isolated in the UK, Russia, Germany, Romania and Sweden. Ribotype 'D75' has only been documented in the UK. The C. ulcerans strain had a ribotype pattern identical to that found in recent isolates from the UK.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2003 · Journal of Medical Microbiology

  • No preview · Article · Jul 1993 · Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
  • T Beccari · A Datti · A Orlacchio · S Farinelli · E Blasi
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    ABSTRACT: Secretion of the lysosomal enzyme beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase is inhibited by calcium ionophore A-23187 in the GG2EE macrophage cell line. Such inhibition is time and dose dependent. Calcium ionophore A-23187 treatment causes a change in the pattern of hexosaminidase isoenzymes detectable in the cell extract, as assessed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography. In particular, control cells show two hexosaminidase isoenzymes corresponding to hexosaminidase A and B, whereas cells treated with calcium ionophore A-23187 express a third isoenzyme form with properties similar to hexosaminidase S.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1992 · Biochemistry international
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we wanted to test the in vitro effects of orthodontic magnetic brackets, developing different magnetic fields, on the oral microbial flora. We noticed that a magnetic field has its most considerable influence on Candida albicans growth; the stimulating response depends on various factors: cell inoculum, exposure time and magnetic field frequency.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1991 · Minerva stomatologica
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    E Blasi · S Farinelli · L Varesio · F Bistoni
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    ABSTRACT: The expression of anti-Candida activity in the GG2EE macrophage cell line, generated by immortalization of fresh bone marrow with v-raf and v-myc oncogenes, was studied. GG2EE cells spontaneously inhibited the growth of an agerminative mutant of Candida albicans in vitro. The anti-Candida activity was maximal after 8 h of coculture and was proportional to the effector-to-target ratio. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) all significantly enhanced the anti-Candida activity of GG2EE cells. In contrast, IL-3, IL-4, and colony-stimulating factor 1 were ineffective. The augmentation of anti-Candida activity was not always concomitant with enhancement of phagocytosis, since IFN-gamma and colony-stimulating factor 1, but not IL-1 or TNF, augmented the phagocytic ability of GG2EE cells. Furthermore, the augmentation of anti-Candida activity in GG2EE cells did not correlate with the acquisition of antitumor activity. In fact, none of the cytokines alone were able to induce antitumor activity in GG2EE cells, which, however, could be activated to a tumoricidal stage by IFN-gamma plus heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes. These findings demonstrate that GG2EE cells exhibit spontaneous anti-Candida activity and that such activity is enhanced by TNF, IL-1, and IFN-gamma.
    Full-text · Article · May 1990 · Infection and Immunity
  • E Blasi · S Farinelli · A Bartoli · L Varesio · F Bistoni

    No preview · Article · Aug 1989 · Journal of chemotherapy (Florence, Italy)
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous inoculation of an attenuated agerminative strain of Candida albicans (PCA-2) of low virulence, but not of two other species of Candida of low virulence (C. parapsilosis and C. viswanathii) into CD2F1 mice conferred protection against the highly virulent microbes C. albicans CA-6, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus. To provide protection, a definite inoculum size (10(6) cells per mouse) resulting in organ colonization and establishment of a long-lasting chronic infection with PCA-2 was needed. An inoculum of 10(5) cells gave rise to transient kidney colonization whereas inocula greater than 10(6) cells led to acute septicaemia and eventual death. Chronic infection of mice following inoculation of 10(6) PCA-2 cells was accompanied by detectable mannoprotein antigen levels in the serum (30-70 ng ml-1) while specific antibodies did not appear until 14 d after inoculation, at which time low antimannan antibody was present (ELISA titre 1:40-1:80). Chronic infection was characterized by the presence in the kidneys of 2-3 x 10(6) c.f.u. of PCA-2 for at least 40 d after inoculation. Pharmacological modulation of the host through administration of either an anti-Candida drug, amphotericin B, or an immunosuppressive agent, cyclophosphamide, strongly supported the premise that the anti-infectious state conferred by PCA-2 'immunization' correlated with the maintenance of a sufficient number of PCA-2 in vivo. Protection was 'switched on' when 2-3 x 10(5) cells were present in the kidneys. It was maximal at a kidney count of 2-3 x 10(6) c.f.u. of PCA-2, and promptly declined when the number of PCA-2 cells in the kidney fell below 2 x 10(5). Mice chronically infected with PCA-2 had splenic macrophages with pronounced candidacidal activity in vitro. Modulation of the growth of PCA-2 in vivo, which determined activation or deactivation of the protective state, was paralleled by a similar modulation in macrophage activation, showing that in all cases resistance to virulent organisms persisted as long as macrophage activation was present. The results demonstrate that a critical in vivo antigenic load is crucial for the occurrence of resistance to infection and suggests that macrophages could be involved in this protection.
    Preview · Article · Oct 1988 · Journal of general microbiology
  • A Vecchiarelli · S Perito · F Vecchini · S Farinelli · R Mazzolla

    No preview · Article · Jul 1987 · Chemioterapia: international journal of the Mediterranean Society of Chemotherapy
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    ELISABETTA BLASI · SENIA FARINELLI
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    ABSTRACT: Theexpression ofanti-Candida activity intheGG2EEmacrophage cell line, generated byimmortalization of fresh bonemarrow withv-rafandv-myc oncogenes,was studied. GG2EE cells spontaneously inhibited the growth ofan agerminative mutantofCandida albicans invitro. Theanti-Candida activity was maximalafter 8hofcoculture andwas proportional totheeffector-to-target ratio. Gammainterferon (IFN-,y), interleukin-1 (IL-1), andtumornecrosis factor (TNF)allsignificantly enhanced theanti-Candida activity ofGG2EE cells. In contrast, IL-3, IL-4, andcolony-stimulating factor 1 were ineffective. Theaugmentation ofanti-Candida activity was notalways concomitant withenhancement ofphagocytosis, sinceIFN-y andcolony-stimulating factor 1,butnotIL-1or TNF,augmented thephagocytic ability ofGG2EE cells. Furthermore, the augmentation ofanti-Candida activity inGG2EEcells didnotcorrelate withtheacquisition ofantitumor activity. Infact, none ofthecytokines alone were abletoinduce antitumor activity inGG2EEcells, which, however, couldbeactivated toa tumoricidal stagebyIFN-,y plusheat-killed Listeria monocytogenes. These findings demonstrate thatGG2EEcells exhibit spontaneous anti-Candida activity andthatsuchactivity is enhanced byTNF,IL-1, andIFN--y. Candida albicans isanubiquitous fungus thatcolonizes thegastrointestinal tract, skin, andmucosaofhumans shortly after birth (27). Thismicroorganism causes morbidity and,insomecases, mortality inimmunocompromised hosts! andposesalife-threatening problem inpatients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy andinimmunocompromised patients, suchasthose withhumanT-cell leukemia virus- associated immunodeficiencies
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