[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: -Ebstein anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia (EA/TVD) are rare congenital tricuspid valve malformations associated with high perinatal mortality. The literature consists of small, single-center case series spanning several decades. We performed a multi-center study to assess outcomes and factors associated with mortality after fetal diagnosis in the current era.
-Fetuses diagnosed with EA/TVD from 2005-2011 were included from 23 centers. The primary outcome was perinatal mortality, defined as fetal demise or death prior to neonatal discharge. Of 243 fetuses diagnosed at a mean gestational age (GA) of 27 ± 6 weeks, there were 11 lost to follow-up (5%), 15 terminations (6%), and 41 demises (17%). In the live-born cohort of 176 live-born patients, 56 (32%) died prior to discharge, yielding an overall perinatal mortality of 45%. Independent predictors of mortality at the time of diagnosis were GA <32 weeks (odds ratio (OR) 8.6 [95% confidence interval: 3.5 - 21.0]; p<0.001), tricuspid valve annulus diameter z-score (OR 1.3 [1.1 - 1.5]; p<0.001), pulmonary regurgitation (PR) (OR 2.9 [1.4 - 6.2]; p<0.001), and a pericardial effusion (OR 2.5 [1.1 - 6.0]; p=0.04). Non-survivors were more likely to have PR at any GA (61% vs. 34%; p<0.001), as well as lower GA and weight at birth (35 vs. 37 weeks; 2.5 vs. 3.0 kg; both p<0.001).
-In this large, contemporary series of fetuses with EA/TVD, perinatal mortality remained high. Fetuses with PR, indicating circular shunt physiology, are a high-risk cohort and may benefit from more innovative therapeutic approaches to improve survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preventing the progression of fetal aortic stenosis (AS) to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) requires identification of fetuses with salvageable left hearts who would progress to HLHS if left untreated, a successful in utero valvotomy, and demonstration that a successful valvotomy promotes left heart growth in utero. Fetuses meeting the first criterion are undefined, and previous reports of fetal AS dilation have not evaluated the impact of intervention on in utero growth of left heart structures.
We offered fetal AS dilation to 24 mothers whose fetuses had AS. At least 3 echocardiographers assigned a high probability that all 24 fetuses would progress to HLHS if left untreated. Twenty (21 to 29 weeks' gestation) underwent attempted AS dilation, with technical success in 14. Ideal fetal positioning for cannula puncture site and course of the needle (with or without laparotomy) proved to be necessary for procedural success. Serial fetal echocardiograms after intervention demonstrated growth arrest of the left heart structures in unsuccessful cases and in those who declined the procedure, while ongoing left heart growth was seen in successful cases. Resumed left heart growth led to a 2-ventricle circulation at birth in 3 babies.
Fetal echocardiography can identify midgestation fetuses with AS who are at high risk for developing HLHS. Timely and successful aortic valve dilation requires ideal fetal and cannula positioning, prevents left heart growth arrest, and may result in normal ventricular anatomy and function at birth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infants born with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and an intact or highly restrictive atrial septum face a neonatal mortality of at least 48% despite early postnatal left atrial decompression and palliative surgery. Prenatal left atrial decompression has been suggested as a means of improving these outcomes. This study reports the feasibility of fetal catheterization to create an interatrial communication and describes technical considerations.
Seven fetuses at 26 to 34 weeks' gestation with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact or highly restrictive atrial septum underwent attempted prenatal intervention. Under ultrasound guidance, the atrial septum was approached with a needle introduced percutaneously from the maternal abdominal surface. In 6 of 7 fetuses, the atrial septum was successfully perforated, with balloon dilation of this iatrogenic defect resulting in a small but persistent interatrial communication. There were no maternal complications. One fetus died after the procedure. The remaining fetuses were liveborn at term, although 4 died as neonates.
Ultrasound-guided fetal atrial septoplasty consisting of septal puncture and balloon dilation is feasible and can be performed percutaneously to minimize maternal risk. Although we have not demonstrated any positive clinical impact to date, it is our hope that further technical evolution will ultimately enable prenatal left atrial decompression and improvement of outcomes in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and intact atrial septum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) with intact or very restrictive atrial septum is a highly lethal combination. We review our 13-year institutional experience treating this high-risk subgroup of patients with emergent catheter therapy.
Infants with HLHS requiring catheter septostomy within the first 2 days of life were compared with a matched control group with adequate interatrial communication. Preoperative, early postoperative, and medium-term survival were evaluated. Earlier experience was compared with recent results to assess the effect of changes in catheterization and surgical and intensive care unit management strategies over the study period. From 1990 to 2002, 33 newborns with HLHS (11% of newborns with HLHS managed during this period) underwent urgent/semiurgent catheterization to create or enlarge an interatrial communication before surgical palliation. Preoperative and early postoperative mortality were high (48%) compared with control HLHS patients, regardless of prenatal diagnosis and despite successful catheter-based atrial septostomy with clinical stabilization. Mortality trended down during the later part of the study period. Those who survived the neonatal period had late survival, pulmonary artery pressure, and resistance similar to those of control subjects.
Neonatal mortality in the subgroup of HLHS patients with intact or highly restrictive atrial septum remains high despite successful urgent septostomy. Persistently poor outcomes for these patients have prompted efforts at our center to develop techniques for fetal intervention for this condition, in the hope that prenatal relief of left atrial and pulmonary venous hypertension may promote normal pulmonary vascular and parenchymal development and improve both short- and long-term outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective review was performed in 94 patients with > or =1 cardiac tumors seen on prenatal or neonatal echocardiography at 5 major referral centers. Tuberous sclerosis was present in 68 patients diagnosed with a cardiac tumor in utero or during the neonatal period, including 61 of 64 with multiple tumors.
No preview · Article · Aug 2003 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Absent pulmonary valve with ventricular septal defect is associated with ductal agenesis and markedly dilated main and branch pulmonary arteries. The less common variant with intact ventricular septum generally exhibits a patent ductus and smaller branch pulmonary arteries, and may be associated with tricuspid atresia. We identified 7 patients with the prenatal diagnosis of absent pulmonary valve, 5 with ventricular septal defect (Group 1) and 2 with an intact ventricular septum (Group 2). Imaging, color Doppler, and pulsed-Doppler recordings were analyzed. The branch and main pulmonary arteries were measured and expressed as a ratio with the descending aorta. Pulmonary regurgitation time (PRT) and diastolic acceleration time (DAT) were derived, and DAT/PRT was calculated to characterize diastolic pulmonary flow. Group 1 patients all had a large ventricular septal defect, normal biventricular size and function, and dilated main and branch pulmonary arteries. Group 2 patients had dilated main but smaller branch pulmonary arteries, moderate right ventricular dilation with severe dysfunction, and limited or absent tricuspid inflow. Group 1 demonstrated shorter acceleration time and earlier peak velocity, resulting in a smaller DAT/RT ratio. We speculate that free communication between the fetal aorta and the ventricles may limit atrial inflow and elevate diastolic pressure, affecting cardiac output, ventricular function, and atrioventricular valve development. With an intact ventricular septum, these physiologic and anatomic repercussions are limited to the right ventricle, but with a ventricular septal defect, both ventricles would experience similar consequences and cardiac performance could be critically impaired.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Echocardiography
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among children who have had Kawasaki disease, aortic root size, adjusted for body surface area, is larger than normal, increases from baseline, and does not resolve within the first year of the disease. Longer term studies are necessary to determine whether the aortic root dilation continues to enlarge and whether aortic root dilation is associated with development of clinically significant, late-onset aortic valve disease.
No preview · Article · May 2001 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reviewed our experience of fetal cardiac dextroposition in the absence of an intrathoracic mass. Ten cases were found by fetal echocardiography to have a normal cardiac axis, but the heart was shifted into the right chest and the amount of right lung tissue was reduced. At birth seven of the infants had confirmed structural heart disease (70%), including three with scimitar syndrome. Two infants had additional extracardiac anomalies (20%). Seven infants born at term had clinical pulmonary hypertension with a diagnosis of right lung hypoplasia in all of them. Two neonates died owing to significant heart disease (one with scimitar syndrome and the other with hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Of the three pregnancies that were terminated, the two fetuses with autopsies had severe right lung hypoplasia. Fetal cardiac dextroposition and right pulmonary artery hypoplasia in the absence of an intrathoracic mass are important signs of right lung hypoplasia, which can be associated with significant pathologic cardiac and extracardiac conditions.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2000 · Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of transthoracic echocardiography to detect the presence of thymic tissue has been reported in patients at risk for graft versus host disease. We confirmed the accuracy of this method in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and tetralogy of Fallot/pulmonary atresia, and suggest using a threshold distance of 6.1 cm/m2 (5.5 to 6.3 cm/m2).
Preview · Article · Dec 1999 · The American Journal of Cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with interrupted aortic arch echocardiography provides detailed information about the anatomy of the aortic arch and the associated cardiac anomalies. Only a few reports have evaluated the reliability of this non-invasive diagnostic procedure by correlation with angiographic and surgical findings.
From 1988 through 1993, 45 infants with interrupted arch underwent surgical repair (mean age 13.02 days). Of the patients, 33 had interruption of the arch between the left common carotid and subclavian arteries; 25 patients had a ventricular septal defect, and the remaining 20 had coexisting complex congenital heart defects. Preoperative diagnosis was made exclusively by echocardiography in 25 of the patients. Accuracy of echocardiographic diagnosis was evaluated retrospectively by comparing preoperative studies with angiography and surgical reports. We then investigated whether the morphologic features of the interrupted arch might influence surgical procedure or outcome.
Intracardiac anatomy was accurately diagnosed by echocardiography in all cases; in 2 patients angiography provided additional information concerning the morphology of the aortic arch. Operative notes described differences in morphology of the arch in 7 patients, but these did not influence the surgical procedure. Direct anastomosis of the interrupted segments was possible in 38 patients, and 36 patients underwent primary intracardiac repair. Echocardiographic measurements revealed that the diameter of the ascending aorta was related to the number of vessels originating from the proximal aortic arch. The distance between the interrupted segments was significantly different according to the site of interruption, but not between cases with an isolated ventricular septal defect versus those with complex heart disease. It did not influence the method of arch repair, nor was it related to recurrent or residual obstruction.
Preoperative echocardiography offers accurate and complete diagnosis in the critically ill neonate with interrupted aortic arch and associated intracardiac abnormalities.
No preview · Article · Dec 1999 · Cardiology in the Young
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although most neonates with d-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) have an uncomplicated preoperative course, some with a restrictive foramen ovale (FO), ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, or pulmonary hypertension may be severely hypoxemic and even die shortly after birth. Our goal was to determine whether prenatal echocardiography can identify these high-risk fetuses with TGA.
We reviewed the prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms and outcomes of 16 fetuses with TGA/intact ventricular septum or small ventricular septal defect. Of the 16 fetuses, 6 prenatally had an abnormal FO (fixed position, flat, and/or redundant septum primum). Five of the 6 had restrictive FO at birth. Five fetuses had DA narrowing at the pulmonary artery end in utero, and 6 had a small DA (diameter z score of <-2.0). Of 4 fetuses with the most diminutive DA, 2 also had an abnormal appearance of the FO, and both died immediately after birth. One other fetus had persistent pulmonary hypertension. Eight fetuses had abnormal Doppler flow pattern in the DA (continuous high-velocity flow, n=1; retrograde diastolic flow, n=7).
Abnormal features of the FO, DA, or both are present in fetuses with TGA at high risk for postnatal hypoxemia. These features may result from the abnormal intrauterine hemodynamics in TGA. A combination of restrictive FO and DA constriction in TGA may be associated with early neonatal death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe two families with Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS), an autosomal dominant malformation syndrome (MIM No. 10030), in which cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) have been reported previously. In the first family, twin boys and their mother had the typical digital and scalp defects of AOS with various obstructive CVMs of the left heart (bicuspid aortic valve, Shone's complex). At least three other relatives not examined personally are reported to have related CVMs (aortic valve stenosis, hypoplastic left heart syndrome). In the second family, a girl had typical AOS digital and scalp defects and a bicuspid aortic valve. At least three other relatives are reported to be mildly affected. Tetralogy of Fallot had been previously reported as the most common CVM in AOS [Zapata HH, Sletten LJ, Pierport MEM (1995). J Med Genet 47:80-84.]. However, with the addition of these new patients and two other literature reports, we emphasize that approximately 20% have a CVM, frequently obstructive lesions of the left heart. Cardiology consultation should be offered to most patients with AOS.
No preview · Article · Nov 1998 · Clinical Dysmorphology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newborn female infant was found to have a unique and previously unreported group of anomalies: (1) mitral and aortic atresia with a highly obstructive atrial septum; (2) hypoplasia of the right lung with a crossover segment involving the right lower lobe; (3) normally connected pulmonary veins, two from the left lung and one from the right; and (4) a large anomalous branch of the right pulmonary vein of scimitar configuration that anastomosed with the normally connected right pulmonary vein and with the inferior vena cava (IVC). The scimitar vein appeared obstructed at its junction with the right pulmonary vein and at its junction with the inferior vena cava within the hepatic parenchyma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a scimitar-like vein coexisting with mitral and aortic atresia and connecting both with the right pulmonary vein and with the inferior vena cava. The highly obstructed left atrium was partially decompressed by retrograde blood flow via the normally connected right pulmonary vein to the anomalous scimitar venous pathway and thence to the inferior vena cava via a pulmonary-to-IVC collateral vein.
No preview · Article · Aug 1998 · Pediatric and Developmental Pathology