[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to evaluate drinking rates as a function of age and gender and to disseminate current estimates of U.S. population drinking norms based on age and gender.
Participants included 42,706 men and women 18 years and older who provided information about their drinking from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions [National Alcohol Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001) dataset collected between 2001 and 2002 from a representative, non-institutionalized sample.
Results revealed greater frequency and typical quantity of alcohol consumption among men versus women. Age differences in drinking frequency suggests a sharp increase with legal drinking age followed by a period of reduced frequency, in turn followed by gradual increase up to retirement age. Age differences in typical drinking quantity suggest a sharp increase with legal drinking age followed by a gradual linear decline in number of drinks per occasion. Age differences in typical quantity were more pronounced among men.
Analyses provide epidemiological trends in drinking rates by age and gender, and emphasize the importance of within group differences when examining drinking rates. Discussion focuses on explaining how to incorporate norms information in prevention and treatment.
No preview · Article · Jun 2007 · Addictive Behaviors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are widely available to assist employees with a variety of problems. This research examined factors related to utilization and outcome by individuals with addictive behaviors (ABs) versus other problem areas. The specific aims of this study were to evaluate referral source and treatment outcome by gender and presenting problem. The sample included 3890 men and women who attended the EAP for a variety of concerns. Men were less likely than women to self-refer and more likely to be mandated to the EAP. Men were also much more likely to present with ABs. Relative to clients presenting with other issues, individuals with ABs were less likely to self-refer, have their problems resolved in the EAP, and were seen for fewer sessions. These results suggest that EAPs may be well suited for implementation of brief interventions (BIs) that have been empirically supported in other contexts.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Addictive Behaviors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Focus groups are helpful to elicit qualitative data that can be used to develop marketing
approaches, test cross-cultural materials, and develop culturally-appropriate interventions. In focus
group discussions, unexpected perspectives may arise that suggest other avenues of research. Several such
insights came from focus groups that were convened to review various aspects of a collaborative research
project. Adolescents suggested that a desire for respect can replace truth telling between a patient and
a physician and that strangers are more desirable interviewers when sensitive personal information
is discussed. This brief report provides information about focus groups in research, a description of the
collaborative project, and a review of the findings from the youth focus groups.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · American journal of health studies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Native-American adolescents are reported to be at high risk for drug and alcohol use and related negative consequences. A brief screening instrument that is culturally and developmentally appropriate can aid clinicians who work with Native youth in determining whether more extensive assessment of substance use is necessary. The CRAFFT has been shown to be a valid and reliable screen among general adolescent outpatient clinic samples.
Data were collected as part of the Journeys of the Circle project, a collaborative effort between the Seattle Indian Health Board (SIHB) and the University of Washington's Addictive Behaviors Research Center. Psychometric properties of the CRAFFT were examined in 70 American-Indian and Alaska-Native youths ages 13 to 19 recruited from public schools and SIHBs outpatient clinics.
The CRAFFT demonstrated good internal consistency (alpha = 0.81). A score of 2 or higher on the CRAFFT was found to be optimal for capturing youths with high alcohol-related problems (sensitivity, 0.95; specificity, 0.86), frequent alcohol use (sensitivity, 1.00; specificity, 0.72) and frequent marijuana use (sensitivity, 1.00; specificity, 0.75). A cut-point of 3 was appropriate for identifying adolescents with frequent other drug use (sensitivity, 0.86; specificity, 0.76).
The CRAFFT may be a valid instrument for identifying Native youths at risk for alcohol and other drug problems. This brief screen can be effective in helping providers determine the need for further assessment and treatment or prevention services for Native-American adolescents.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Journal of studies on alcohol
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been an increasing call for and development of culturally appropriate substance prevention/intervention for ethnic minorities in schools and communities, especially among reservation and in urban American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities. Past attempts to intervene in and reduce misuse of alcohol and other drugs have not had great success. The Journeys of the Circle Project utilized innovative programs with a strong emphasis on historic cultural traditions.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2003 · Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research