[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet factor four (PF4), an inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo in experimental animals. The present study was designed to determine whether gene therapy-mediated expression of a form of PF4 lacking 16 amino acids of N-terminus from tumor cells could inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth in vivo. Two replication-defective recombinant retroviral vectors were constructed. One encodes human PF4 (rRV-PF4) and the other encodes the N-truncated peptide (rRVp17-70). These vectors were then used to transduce KB cells, a human head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line. Expression of PF4 and p17-70 transgenes was confirmed by Western blot analysis. In vitro, both rRV-PF4 and rRVp17-70 were able to inhibit selectively the proliferation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) but not KB cells. In vivo activity was assessed by injecting 10(7) KB cells subcutaneously into nude mice and by monitoring subsequent tumor growth, xenograft vascular histochemistry, and animal survival. Viral vector-mediated cDNA transfer of PF4 and p17-70 resulted in inhibiting solid tumors through an anti-angiogenic action in vivo. Our data indicate that targeting tumor angiogenesis using viral-mediated gene transfer of full-length and N-terminal truncated PF4 represents a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy.
No preview · Article · Nov 2003 · Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent investigations support the idea that angiogenesis is involved in the pathophysiology of leukemia. Within a given microenvironment, the angiogenic response is regulated by a delicate balance of angiogenesis inducers and inhibitors. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a multifunctional extracellular glycoprotein showing angiostatic properties in multiple in vitro and in vivo assays. Interestingly, there is also proangiogenic domain in this complex molecule. Development of TSP-1 as an antiangiogenic drug has been hindered by multiplicity of its functional effects, difficulties in its production and its poor pharmacokinetics. The aim of the present study was to establish a recombinant adenovirus (ADV.TSP-1(f)) expressing antiangiogenic fragment of TSP-1 (TSP-1(f)), and to determine the feasibility for use of the adenovirally expressed TSP-1(f) in leukemia gene therapy. The results of this investigation showed that TSP-1(f) was expressed efficiently in adenovirus-transduced human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. Compared to the controls, although there was almost no effect on proliferation of K562 cells in vitro, adenovirus-mediated TSP-1(f) transduction inhibited the growth of K562 xenografts dramatically. Furthermore, the microvessel density (MVD) was much lower in the ADV.TSP-1(f)-treated tumors compared to the controls. These data support the use of in vivo gene delivery approach to produce antiangiogenic fragment of TSP-1 for leukemia therapy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2003 · Leukemia Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and to inhibit proliferation and produce apoptosis in the APL cell line NB4. To determine if As2O3 might be useful for the treatment of other lineages, we investigated the effects of As2O3 on viability, proliferation, and induction of apoptosis in the megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines HEL, Meg-01, UT7, and M07e. Our results showed that As2O3, at concentrations of 0.1-2.0 microM, causes a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of survival and growth in all four megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines studied. In contrast, As2O3 at similar concentrations had no effects on either viability or growth of the nonmegakaryocytic leukemia cell line HL60 and two human breast cancer cell lines, ZR75 and MCF7. In situ end-labeling of DNA fragments (TUNEL assay) indicated that As2O3, at concentrations of 0.5-2 microM, could significantly induce apoptosis in the aforementioned four megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines, but not in the nonmegakaryocytic HL60, ZR75, and MCF7 cell lines. These results were confirmed using conventional morphologic assessment and the DNA ladder assay. Induction of apoptosis in arsenic-treated Meg-01 and UT7 cells was accompanied by a dose-response decrease of Bcl-2 protein, whereas As2O3 had no effect on this measurement in HL60, ZR75, and MCF7 cell lines. Pertinently, these concentrations of As2O3 produced identical changes in the characteristics of the APL cell line NB4. Collectively, these data demonstrate that As2O3 can selectively inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines. The use of As2O3 for the treatment of malignant megakaryocytic disorders should be considered.
No preview · Article · Jun 1999 · Experimental Hematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo effects of platelet factor 4 (PF4) and tetrapeptide N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro (AcSDKP) on haemopoietic progenitors were studied in mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The mice were injected with PF4 (40 micrograms/kg) or AcSDKP (4 micrograms/kg) twice at 6 h intervals, and 20 h after the second injection they were given one injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg). 6, 8 and 13 d later the high proliferative potential-colony forming cell (HPP-CFC), burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), colony forming unit granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) colony forming unit megakaryocyte (CFU-MK), and megakaryocytes (MK) were examined. The results showed that the administration of PF4 or AcSKDP resulted in a significant increase in the number of HPP-CFC on days 6-8 and BFU-E and CFU-GM on day 8 when compared to 5-FU alone. Furthermore, PF4 was found to increase significantly the number of CFU-MK and MK on day 8, which was not observed with AcSDKP. However, both molecules had no obvious effect on peripheral blood cells. These data indicate that PF4 or AcSDKP accelerate the recovery in vivo of HPP-CFC, CFU-GM and BFU-E after 5-FU treatment but their effect may be different on megakaryocytic progenitors and suggests that both molecules may have a haemoprotective effect against chemotherapeutic agents.
No preview · Article · Oct 1996 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms of the action of platelet factor 4 (PF4) on the growth of megakaryocyte (MK) progenitor cells in CD34+ cord blood (CB) cells were studied in comparison with transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1). Development of MK from CD34+ CB cells in both plasma clot culture and liquid culture was significantly inhibited by either purified human PF4 and by recombinant human TGFbeta1. Inhibition of MK colony formation by PF4 was reversible because CD34+ cells preincubated with PF4 could regenerate colonies after washing and replating into secondary cultures. In contrast, TGFbeta1-preincubated CD34+ cells gave rise to few colonies following replating. Moreover, incubation of CD34+ cells with PF4 in liquid culture caused the increased number of both stem cell factor (SCF)-binding cells and CD34 antigen-bearing cells. In addition, PF4-preincubated CD34+ cells exhibited a higher potential in MK colony formation in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). These results demonstrate that both PF4 and TGFbeta1 inhibit MK development from CD34+ CB cells by different mechanisms, and suggest that PF4, unlike TGFbeta1, exerts its inhibitory effect on the growth of the target cells in a reversible manner which results in a preservation of a more immature and 5FU-resistant cell population.
No preview · Article · Jun 1996 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that platelet factor 4 (PF4) and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) inhibit the growth of the human erythroleukemia cell line (HEL). We further studied the effect of PF4, beta-TG, and various related peptides on human leukemic lineages to determine the specificity and the relationship between the inhibitory activity and the molecular structure of PF4. The results showed that PF4 and beta-TG had an inhibitory activity on the megakaryocytic growth. Furthermore, peptides corresponding to the 1-24 and 13-24 residues but not to the 16-24 residue of the PF4 C-terminal region, the 21-29 and 20-28 C-terminal region of beta-TG and IL-8, inhibited only the megakaryocytic cell growth. Interestingly, when Gln and Asn located at positions 15 and 24, respectively, of the PF4 C-terminal region were replaced by Glu and Asp (C13-24DE), an increase in the inhibitory activity was observed. Moreover, the 13-24 monomeric form (13-24M) and modified form (13-24A), where a cysteine in C-terminal position 19 was substituted by arginine, were no longer active. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of PF4 and its related peptides might be localized in their 13-24 C-terminal region and that a dimeric structure seems to be necessary to exert inhibitory activity.
No preview · Article · Mar 1996 · Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis and granulopoiesis in vitro and that normal haematopoietic cells and several leukaemic cell lines express FGF receptors. In this paper, we demonstrate by reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) that bFGF mRNA is expressed in two leukaemia cell lines with megakaryocytic features (Meg-01 and K562), in two lymphocytic cell lines (Hut 78 and CA) and in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, the conditioned media of Meg-01, but not Dami, contained a potent fibroblast-stimulating activity which could be neutralized by bFGF antibodies. Furthermore, bFGF antibody significantly inhibited the autocrine growth of Meg-01 cells in vitro. However, we could not detect cell-associated 18 kDa bFGF or HMW bFGF by immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation or Western blotting. These data indicate that bFGF is expressed by certain haematopoietic cells and support further a role of this FGF prototype in haematopoiesis.
No preview · Article · Oct 1995 · European Journal Of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of recombinant human interleukin (IL)-13 on in vitro haemopoiesis from non-adherent mononuclear cells (NAMC) or highly enriched CD34+ cells of human cord blood (CB) were studied. IL-13 significantly increased megakaryocyte (MK) colony formation from either NAMC or CD34+ cells cultured in a plasma clot system supplemented with aplastic anaemia serum (AAS) and phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood leucocyte-conditioned medium (PHA-LCM) in a dose-dependent manner. Experiments using a modified plasma clot culture, in which normal AB serum and various cytokines were added to replace AAS and PHA-LCM, demonstrated an increased MK colony number in the presence of IL-13, especially in combination with IL-3. However, IL-13 had no stimulatory effect, but rather a slight inhibitory effect in some cases on granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony formation in both plasma clot cultures. Furthermore, the growth of GM progenitor cells in a methylcellulose culture system in the presence of IL-3, GM-CSF, Epo, G-CSF or in combination was significantly inhibited by the addition of IL-13. On the other hand, high concentrations (100 ng/ml) of IL-13 were needed to cause a slight inhibition on the growth of BFU-E-derived colonies under the same methylcellulose culture. These results indicate that IL-13, alone and synergistically with the effect of IL-3, promotes MK colony formation, but it inhibits the growth of GM and erythroid progenitor cells in vitro.
No preview · Article · Sep 1995 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-3 (IL-3), a cytokine konw to be produced by activated T lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils, is a potent stimulator of normal haemopoiesis, particularly magakaryocytopoiesis. However, it remains unknown whether leukaemic magakaryoblasts can produce IL-3 and whether IL-3 is involved in the pathological process of megakaryoblastic leukaemia. In this study, several human leukaemia cell lines with or without megakaryocytic features the DAMI, MEG-01, HEL, K562, HL-60 and U937, were chosen as the models. It was first demonstrated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and indirect immunofluorescence assay that IL-3 was expressed in DAMI and MEG-01 cells, but not in other cell lines, although two erythroleukaemic cells, the HEL and K562, also possess some megakaryocytic features. Interestingly, the mRNA for IL-3 receptor was detected in nearly all the cell lines except K562 cells, suggesting that expression of IL-3 and its receptor may be dissociated in most of the cell lines and that co-expression of IL-3 and its receptor exists in megakaryoblastic cell lines, the DAMI and MEG-01. Of the cell lines which did not express IL-3 under unstimulated condition, only HEL cells were able to express IL-3 mRNA after treatment with PMA for 72 h. Furthermore, the proliferation of DAMI and MEG-01 cells could be enhanced in the presence of IL-3 and suppressed by the anti-IL-3 antibody and the IL-3 antisense oligodexyonucleotides (ODNs). These findings indicate that IL-3, as an autocrine growth factor, is involved in the growth of some megakaryocytic leukaemia cell lines.
No preview · Article · Oct 1994 · British Journal of Haematology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of cytokines on murine megakaryocyte (MK) colony formation from either unfractionated marrow cells or purified early haematopoietic cells were studied. Recombinant interleukin-3 (IL3), interleukin-6 (IL6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), erythropoietin (Epo) and acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF and bFGF) each was able to stimulate MK colony growth although they varied somewhat in their potential. IL6 and FGFs, in addition to their effect on MK colony growth, increased the size of individual MK. The combination of IL3 with IL6 or FGF resulted in an additive action. Monoclonal anti-IL6 antibody completely neutralized the activity of mouse IL6 and FGFs but had no effect on human IL6, mouse IL3 and GM-CSF. When using purified lineage negative marrow cells, only IL3 and IL6 promoted MK colony formation. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) at 10–200 pg/ml selectively inhibited IL3-induced MK colony formation, and at 0·2–0·5 ng/ml it still had no obvious effect on the activity of IL6 or GM-CSF but caused an inhibition of FGF-induced MK colony formation. These data suggest that differential mechanisms are involved in the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis by IL3, IL6, FGFs and GM-CSF, and that TGF-β1 negatively regulates MK development mainly by interfering with the action of IL3.
No preview · Article · Apr 1992 · British Journal of Haematology