Publications (2)10.23 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Ubiquitylation is an important biochemical reaction found in all eukaryotic organisms and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes. Conventional ubiquitylation requires the formation of polyubiquitin chains linked through Lys48 of the ubiquitin, which targets specific proteins for degradation. Recently polyubiquitylation through a noncanonical Lys63 chain has been reported, and is required for error-free DNA damage tolerance (or postreplication repair) in yeast. To date, Ubc13 is the only known ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (Ubc) capable of catalyzing the Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation reaction and this function requires interaction with the Ubc variant Mms2. No information is available on either Lys63-linked ubiquitylation or error-free damage tolerance in plants. We thus cloned and functionally characterized two Arabidopsis thaliana UBC13 genes, AtUBC13A and AtUBC13B. The two genes are highly conserved with respect to chromosomal structure and protein sequence, suggesting that they are derived from a recent gene duplication event. Both AtUbc13 proteins are able to physically interact with yeast or human Mms2, implying that plants also employ the Lys63-linked polyubiquitylation reaction. Furthermore, AtUBC13 genes are able to functionally complement the yeast ubc13 null mutant for spontaneous mutagenesis and sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, suggesting the existence of an error-free DNA damage tolerance pathway in plants. The AtUBC13 genes appear to express ubiquitously and are not induced by various conditions tested.
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ABSTRACT: Interactor/inhibitor 1 of Cdc2 kinase (ICK1) from Arabidopsis thaliana is the first plant cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, and overexpression of ICK1 inhibits CDK activity, cell division and plant growth in transgenic plants. In this study, ICK1 and deletion mutants were expressed either alone or as green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Deletion of the C-terminal 15 or 29 amino acids greatly reduced or completely abolished the effects of ICK1 on the transgenic plants, and recombinant proteins lacking the C-terminal residues lost the ability to bind to CDK complex and the kinase inhibition activity, demonstrating the role of the conserved C-terminal domain in in vivo kinase inhibition. In contrast, the mutant ICK1DeltaN108 with the N-terminal 108 residues deleted had much stronger effects on plants than the full-length ICK1. Analyses demonstrated that this effect was not because of an enhanced ability of ICK1DeltaN108 protein to inhibit CDK activity, but a result of a much higher level of ICK1DeltaN108 protein in the plants, indicating that the N-terminal domain contains a sequence or element increasing protein instability in vivo. Furthermore, GFP-ICK1 protein was restricted to the nuclei in roots of transgenic plants, even with the C-terminal or the N-terminal domain deleted, suggesting that a sequence in the central domain of ICK1 is responsible for nuclear localization. These results provide mechanistic understanding about the function and regulation of this cell cycle regulator in plants.
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
- Department of Plant Science
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
- Department of Biochemistry