[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency is a rare inborn disorder of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism complicated by striatal damage during acute encephalopathic crises. Three decades after its description, the natural history and how to treat this disorder are still incompletely understood. To study which variables influenced the outcome, we conducted an international cross-sectional study in 35 metabolic centers. Our main outcome measures were onset and neurologic sequelae of acute encephalopathic crises. A total of 279 patients (160 male, 119 female) were included who were diagnosed clinically after clinical presentation (n = 218) or presymptomatically by neonatal screening (n = 23), high-risk screening (n = 24), or macrocephaly (n = 14). Most symptomatic patients (n = 185) had encephalopathic crises, characteristically resulting in bilateral striatal damage and dystonia, secondary complications, and reduced life expectancy. First crises usually occurred during infancy (95% by age 2 y); the oldest age at which a repeat crisis was reported was 70 mo. In a few patients, neurologic disease developed without a reported crisis. Differences in the diagnostic criteria and therapeutic protocols for patients with GCDH deficiency resulted in a huge variability in the outcome worldwide. Recursive partitioning demonstrated that timely diagnosis in neurologically asymptomatic patients followed by treatment with L-carnitine and a lysine-restricted diet was the best predictor of good outcome, whereas treatment efficacy was low in patients diagnosed after the onset of neurologic disease. Notably, the biochemical phenotype did not predict the clinical phenotype. Our study proves GCDH deficiency to be a treatable disorder and a good candidate for neonatal screening.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2006 · Pediatric Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MIM 252150) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder with about 100 cases reported worldwide. We have identified a male with molybdenum cofactor deficiency and analyzed the molybdenum cofactor synthesis (MOCS)1 gene, MOCS2 gene, MOCS3 gene and GEPH gene. We homozygously identified the CGA insertion after A666 of the MOCS1 gene which produces arginine insertion at codon 222 of MOCS1A. The parents, his brother and his sister who did not have any symptoms were heterozygous for the same mutation. This region was highly conserved in various species. The N-terminal part of MOCS1 a protein is suggested to form the central core of the protein and be composed of an incomplete [(alpha/beta)6] triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel with a lateral opening that is covered by the C-terminal part of the protein. The insertion is located in the loop connecting the fifth beta strand to the sixth alpha helices of the TIM barrel structure. This arginine insertion would induce the conformation change and the lack of the activity.
No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Nucleosides Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of phenylalanine (Phe)-free essential amino acid (AA) tablets enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan on the performance of intellectually disabled adult patients with untreated phenylketonuria (PKU).
Phe-free AA tablets and placebo tablets were administered to 19 untreated PKU subjects on a normal diet for 6 mo in a prospective double-blinded crossover study. The adaptive behaviour of the patients was tested prior to the study and at 6 and 12 mo after the start, using a simplified version of the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale. For each sub-domain, the patients were rated either "0" (for poor performance) or "1" (for good performance). Neurological signs and symptoms and specific behavioural characteristics were recorded monthly by caretakers. Every 6 mo, neurological examination of the patients was performed, and the caretakers were interviewed. The statistical significance of the results was tested by means of the Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests.
The most significant changes were an improved concentration and the development of a meaningful smile, which were observed in 44% and 43% of the patients on AA tablet treatment, respectively, but not patients on placebo. Other important but less significant changes included increased awareness of external stimuli (63%) and less self-injury (43%), and 40% were smiling and laughing occasionally. The mean overall rating increased from an initial value of 6.3 to 10.1 in patients when on AA tablet treatment (p=0.002), and to 7.0 in patients when on placebo (p=0.068). The difference between active AA treatment and placebo was statistically significant (p=0.027).
This pilot study suggests that Phe-free AA tablets enriched in tyrosine and tryptophan may improve the quality of life in some intellectually disabled adults with untreated PKU.
No preview · Article · Oct 2005 · Acta Paediatrica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the morphology and function of platelets in nephropathic cystinosis (NC).
Seven patients (mean age, 6.5 years; SD, 20 months) with NC were investigated. Their platelets were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the characteristics of the dense granules (DGs) were determined by mepacrine labelling and the uranaffin reaction. Bleeding time, turbidometric aggregation, and luminescence aggregation were studied and intraplatelet cystine was measured.
Increased intraplatelet cystine, primary and secondary aggregation defects, and the absence of ATP release were demonstrated. TEM revealed DGs of various shapes and sizes and lamellary or amorphous cytoplasmic inclusions. Viscous material had been released into the vacuolar spaces and enlarged open canalicular system. Mepacrine labelling revealed that the numbers of DGs/platelet were comparable between the patients and the controls (mean, 2.9 (SD, 0.22) v 3.32 (0.18); p = 0.34). The uranaffin reaction revealed that the numbers of type 1, 3, and 4 DGs were comparable between the patients and the controls, but that there were fewer type 2 DGs in the patients (mean, 8.5 (SD, 1.95) v 17.22 (1.58); p = 0.01). TEM for platelet aggregation revealed a lack of induction and/or defective execution and/or delayed transmission. The patients' intraplatelet cystine concentrations were higher than the controls (mean, 1.56 (SD, 0.84) v 0.08 (0.01) nmol/mg protein; p = 0.009).
This is the first report to demonstrate raised intraplatelet cystine, abnormal platelet ultrastructural findings, and defective aggregation in NC.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2005 · Journal of Clinical Pathology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the carnitine status and the effect of carnitine supplementation on serum lipid profiles in children with hyperlipoproteinaemia, a clinical open trial was conducted at Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital, Section of Nutrition and Metabolism.
Patients were given carnitine at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for 12 wk. Blood samples for the determination of lipid profile and carnitine levels and urine samples for carnitine levels were obtained on admission, at week 4 and week 12 of the study period.
A total of 41 children were enrolled in the study: 20 patients had type II heterozygotes, eight patients had type II homozygotes, three patients had type III, six patients had type V and four patients had secondary hyperlipidaemias. Serum and urine carnitine levels were within normal limits on admission. No significant correlations were found between serum carnitine levels and serum lipid profiles. Serum HDL and apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly during the 12 wk of intervention in type II heterozygotes. In type II homozygotes, total cholesterol and LDL levels at weeks 4 and 12 increased significantly compared to initial levels. No significant change was noted for lipid parameters in hyperlipoproteinaemia type V.
The results of this trial demonstrated that carnitine supplementation was of no benefit for children with hyperlipidaemias, especially in primary hyperlipoproteinaemia type II heterozygotes, homozygotes and type V.
No preview · Article · Jul 2005 · Acta Paediatrica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. In the majority of patients FH is caused by mutations in the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and to date more than 700 mutations have been reported worldwide. In this study, 36 paediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH (20 homozygous and 16 heterozygotes) were screened for mutations in the LDLR gene. Each exon, with intron-exon junctions, was screened by capillary fluorescent SSCP (F-SSCP) and heteroduplex analysis. Samples showing different band patterns were sequenced. Ten novel (including three frame shift small deletions or insertions) and seven known mutations were detected. A total of 37 out of the predicted 56 FH-causing alleles were identified (66.1%). No patients with the R3500Q mutation in the APOB gene were found. W556R was the most common mutation, explaining 21.4% of the predicted defective LDLR alleles. The novel sequence changes were deemed to be pathogenic if they altered a conserved amino acid (L143P, D147E, Q233H-C234G, C347G) or occurred in or close to a splice site (IVS 16+5) and were absent in DNA from 50 healthy Turkish subjects. These data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of FH in Turkey, and demonstrate the usefulness of F-SSCP for mutation detection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the carnitine status and the effect of carnitine supplementation on serum lipid profiles in children with hyperlipoproteinaemia, a clinical open trial was conducted at Hacettepe University Ihsan Dogramaci Children's Hospital, Section of Nutrition and Metabolism. Methods: Patients were given carnitine at a dose of 100 mg/kg/d for 12 wk. Blood samples for the determination of lipid profile and carnitine levels and urine samples for carnitine levels were obtained on admission, at week 4 and week 12 of the study period. Results: A total of 41 children were enrolled in the study: 20 patients had type II heterozygotes, eight patients had type II homozygotes, three patients had type III, six patients had type V and four patients had secondary hyperlipidaemias. Serum and urine carnitine levels were within normal limits on admission. No significant correlations were found between serum carnitine levels and serum lipid profiles. Serum HDL and apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly during the 12 wk of intervention in type II heterozygotes. In type II homozygotes, total cholesterol and LDL levels at weeks 4 and 12 increased significantly compared to initial levels. No significant change was noted for lipid parameters in hyperlipoproteinaemia type V.
Conclusion: The results of this trial demonstrated that carnitine supplementation was of no benefit for children with hyperlipidaemias, especially in primary hyperlipoproteinaemia type II heterozygotes, homozygotes and type V.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Acta Paediatrica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial cytopathies are a group of heterogeneous disorders characterized by multisystem involvement. Renal involvement in mitochondrial cytopathies is usually manifested as tubular dysfunction owing to impaired energy metabolism; however, a few cases with glomerular changes have also been reported. Herein we report the case of a 4-month-old Turkish girl with a mitochondrial DNA deletion and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Child Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 4 1/2-year-old boy with signs and symptoms of spastic paraparesis and dyspnea is presented. Biotinidase deficiency was considered and was confirmed by both urine organic acid analysis and biotinidase activity measurement. The child recovered gradually on biotin therapy. Because other systemic signs and symptoms of the disease might not be present initially or might develop later, biotinidase deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a child presenting with acute or subacute spastic paraparesis.
No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Journal of Child Neurology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical citrullinemia (CTLN1), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by mutations of the argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) gene, localized on chromosome 9q34.1. ASS functions as a rate-limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Previously, we identified 32 mutations in the ASS gene of CTLN1 patients mainly in Japan and the United States, and to date 34 different mutations have been described in 50 families worldwide. In the present study, we report ASS mutations detected in 35 additional CTLN1 families from 11 countries. By analyzing the entire coding sequence and the intron-exon boundaries of the ASS gene using RT-PCR and/or genomic DNA-PCR, we have identified 16 novel mutations (two different 1-bp deletions, a 67-bp insertion, and 13 missense) and have detected 12 known mutations. Altogether, 50 different mutations (seven deletion, three splice site, one duplication, two nonsense, and 37 missense) in 85 CTLN1 families were identified. On the basis of primary sequence comparisons with the crystal structure of E. coli ASS protein, it may be concluded that any of the 37 missense mutations found at 30 different positions led to structural and functional impairments of the human ASS protein. It has been found that three mutations are particularly frequent: IVS6-2A>G in 23 families (Japan: 20 and Korea: three), G390R in 18 families (Turkey: six, U.S.: five, Spain: three, Israel: one, Austria: one, Canada: one, and Bolivia: one), and R304W in 10 families (Japan: nine and Turkey: one). Most mutations of the ASS gene are "private" and are distributed throughout the gene, except for exons 5 and 12-14. It seems that the clinical course of the patients with truncated mutations or the G390R mutation is early-onset/severe. The phenotype of the patients with certain missense mutations (G362V or W179R) is more late-onset/mild. Eight patients with R86H, A118T, R265H, or K310R mutations were adult/late-onset and four of them showed severe symptoms during pregnancy or postpartum. However, it is still difficult to prove the genotype-phenotype correlation, because many patients were compound heterozygotes (with two different mutations), lived in different environments at the time of diagnosis, and/or had several treatment regimes or various knowledge of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DILBER, E., et al.: Permanent Transfemoral Pacemaker Implantation in a Child with Maroteaux Lamy Syndrome. Permanent transfemoral pacing has been described as an alternative route in patients in whom the superior venous approach is not feasible. This report describes the use of the femoral venous approach to insert a permanent pacemaker in a child with Maroteaux Lamy syndrome who has complete atrioventricular block and abnormal subclavian venous anatomy. Transfemoral pacing may be a suitable alternative in children with short stature.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), the most frequently occurring organic acidaemia in Turkey, is caused by a deficiency of the activity of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme (BCKAD) complex. Mutation analysis of the E1alpha, E1beta, and E2 genes of the BCKAD complex in 12 Turkish MSUD patients yielded three disease-specific mutations and a polymorphism in the E1alpha gene, none in the E1beta gene and one mutation in the E2 gene. Among them, three missense mutations (Q80E, C213Y, T106M) and the F280F polymorphism occurring in the E1alpha gene and the splice site mutation (IVS3 - 1G>A) in the E2 gene were novel. Three of the missense mutations and the splicing mutation occurred homozygously and caused classical MSUD. One patient carried the splicing mutation homozygously and the T106M mutation in the heterozygous state; this patient is the first case having simultaneously two different mutations in two different genes in the BCKAD complex. IVS3 - IG>A splicing mutation detected on the E2 gene causes deletion of the first 14 bp of exon 3 in the mutant mRNA extending between 190 and 204 nt. The deletion spans the cleavage point between mitochondrial targeting and lipoyl-bearing site of the E2 protein.
No preview · Article · Jun 2002 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) is an enzyme involved in the recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), which is an obligate co-factor of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. DHPR deficiency is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the QDPR gene. DHPR-deficient patients are diagnosed by a lack of response to a low phenylalanine diet and by severe neurological symptoms. Final diagnosis is made by measurements of neurotransmitters and pterin metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine, in addition to DHPR enzyme activity, which can be assessed in whole red blood cells. Treatment of DHPR deficiency can be difficult and the outcome is not always satisfying, even if all treatment strategies are followed. Therefore prenatal diagnosis is of great importance in affected families. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by measuring DHPR activity in different cell types but this is time consuming. More than 25 different mutations have to date been identified in the QDPR gene and direct identification of a mutation in a fetus would be easy and rapid. We have developed a method based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for the analysis of the QDPR gene. The method is useful for rapid and simultaneous scanning of all exons and flanking intronic sequences of the QDPR gene. We describe the first prenatal diagnosis conducted using this method.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · Prenatal Diagnosis
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirteen Turkish patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) were screened for the three common mutations, A149P, A174D and N334K, in the aldolase B gene that have been detected frequently in European population. We found that nine of the patients carry the A149P mutation in both alleles, which corresponds to a frequency of about 55%. Single-strand conformation analysis of all coding exons of the gene was also performed to detect unknown mutations in four patients not carrying the three common mutations. No aberrant migration patterns were observed in these patients.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Venous and arterial thromboembolism can occur in patients with homocystinuria. Resistance to activated protein C, which is caused by a single point mutation in the gene for factor V, renders an individual at risk for thrombosis. It has been suggested that coexistence of hereditary homocystinuria and factor V Leiden mutation might jointly play a role in the development of thrombosis. We analysed six patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Only one patient was found to have the factor V Leiden mutation in homozygous form and this patient had suffered from severe thrombosis. One patient was found to be heterozygous with no documented thrombosis. None of the patients had prothrombin G20210A mutation. We stress the necessity for screening for known thrombophilic risk factors in patients with cystathonine beta-synthase deficiency. The coexistence of the factor V Leiden mutation can cause severe thrombotic events in patients with homocystinuria.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: M467T mutation (exon 8) in rBAT gene is found to be the most common mutation in cystinuria type I patients. In our series consisting of 24 patients, the allele frequency of the M467T mutation was 8.3 percent (4/48). The second most frequent mutation at the same nucleotide position was M467K, with an allele frequency of 4.2 percent (2/48). The polymorphism which is found in linkage disequilibrium with the M467T is 231T/A (exon 1). We also found that 231T/A was associated with the M467T mutation in our series.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · The Turkish journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At present, pkenylketonuria screening is a national child health program in Turkey which is carried out collaboratively by the Ministry of Health and three University Children's Hospitals in Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. Since 1986 the number of cities included in the screening program has gradually increased, now and it covers all the metropolises the country. A total of 383 babies were found with persistent hyperphenylalaninemia (1:4,172) among 1,605,582 babies screened by the Guthrie test at the Hacettepe Screening Center in Ankara. By taking into account pretreatment phenylalanine levels and phenlyalanine tolerances at five years of age, the numbers of classical and mild-moderate phenylketonuria and mild hyperphenylalaninemia cases were 216, 102 and 58, respectively. The major problems encountered in the screening program and in management of the detected cases were unsatisfactory sample collection, early discharge from maternity hospitals, difficulties in reaching some detected cases, and noncompliance with dietary therapy due to illiterate parents or to lack of social insurance. To screen and treat all newborns for phenylketonuria and to include at least hypothyroidism in the screening program, there is a need for a more disciplinary intersectoral approach than exists at present.
No preview · Article · Apr 2001 · The Turkish journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) catalyses the conversion of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin (qBH2) to tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which serves as the obligatory cofactor for the aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. DHPR deficiency, caused by mutations in the QDPR gene, results in hyperphenylalaninemia and deficiency of various neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, with severe neurological symptoms as a consequence. We have studied, at the clinical and molecular levels, 17 patients belonging to 16 Turkish families with DHPR deficiency. The patients were detected at neonatal screening for hyperphenylalaninemia or upon the development of neurological symptoms. To identify the disease causing molecular defects, we developed a sensitive screening method that rapidly scans the entire open reading frame and all splice sites of the QDPR gene. This method combines PCR amplification and "GC-clamping" of each of the seven exonic regions of QDPR, resolution of mutations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and identification of mutations by direct sequence analysis. A total of ten different mutations were identified, of which three are known (G23D, Y150C, R221X) and the remaining are novel (G17R, G18D, W35fs, Q66R, W90X, S97fs and G149R). Six of these mutations are missense variants, two are nonsense mutations, and two are frameshift mutations. All patients had homoallelic genotypes, which allowed the establishment of genotype-phenotype associations. Our findings suggest that DGGE is a fast and efficient method for detection of mutations in the QDPR gene, which may be useful for confirmatory DNA-based diagnosis, genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in DHPR deficiency.