Roger A. Chevalier

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (314)1739.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Searches for circumstellar material around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are one of the most powerful tests of the nature of SN Ia progenitors, and radio observations provide a particularly sensitive probe of this material. Here we report radio observations for SNe Ia and their lower-luminosity thermonuclear cousins. We present the largest, most sensitive, and spectroscopically diverse study of prompt (delta t <~ 1 yr) radio observations of 85 thermonuclear SNe, including 25 obtained by our team with the unprecedented depth of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. With these observations, SN 2012cg joins SN 2011fe and SN 2014J as a SN Ia with remarkably deep radio limits and excellent temporal coverage (six epochs, spanning 5--216 days after explosion, yielding Mdot/v_w <~ 5 x 10^-9 M_sun/yr / (100 km/s), assuming epsilon_B = 0.1 and epsilon_e = 0.1). All observations yield non-detections, placing strong constraints on the presence of circumstellar material. We present analytical models for the temporal and spectral evolution of prompt radio emission from thermonuclear SNe as expected from interaction with either wind-stratified or uniform density media. These models allow us to constrain the progenitor mass loss rates, with limits ranging from Mdot <~ 10^-9--10^-4 M_sun/yr, assuming a wind velocity v_w=100 km/s. We compare our radio constraints with measurements of Galactic symbiotic binaries to conclude that <~10% of thermonuclear SNe have red giant companions.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present all X-ray and radio observations of the Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl. The X-ray observations cover a period up to day 1500 with Chandra, XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Swift-XRT. The Chandra observations after 2012 June, the XMM-Newton observation in 2013 November, and most of the Swift-XRT observations until 2014 December are presented for the first time. All the spectra can be fitted by an absorbed hot thermal model except for \chandra spectra on 2011 October and 2012 June when an additional component is needed. Although the origin of this component is uncertain, it is spatially coincident with the supernova and occurs when there are changes to the supernova spectrum in the energy range close to that of the extra component, indicating that the emission is related to the supernova. The X-ray light curve shows an initial plateau followed by a steep drop starting at day $\sim 300$. We attribute the drop to a decrease in the circumstellar density. The column density to the X-ray emission drops rapidly with time, showing that the absorption is in the vicinity of the supernova. We also present Very Large Array radio observations of SN 2010jl. Radio emission was detected from \sn from day 570 onwards. The radio light curves and spectra suggest that the radio luminosity was close to its maximum at the first detection. The velocity of the shocked ejecta derived assuming synchrotron self absorption is much less than that estimated from the optical and X-ray observations, suggesting that free-free absorption dominates.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present imaging and spectroscopic observations with HST and VLT of the ring of SN 1987A from 1994 to 2014. After an almost exponential increase of the shocked emission from the hotspots up to day ~8,000 (~2009), both this and the unshocked emission are now fading. From the radial positions of the hotspots we see an acceleration of these up to 500-1000 km/s, consistent with the highest spectroscopic shock velocities from the radiative shocks. In the most recent observations (2013 and 2014), we find several new hotspots outside the inner ring, excited by either X-rays from the shocks or by direct shock interaction. All of these observations indicate that the interaction with the supernova ejecta is now gradually dissolving the hotspots. We predict, based on the observed decay, that the inner ring will be destroyed by ~2025.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015
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    Haifeng Yang · Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: The nature of the supernova leading to the Crab Nebula has long been controversial because of the low energy that is present in the observed nebula. One possibility is that there is significant energy in extended fast material around the Crab but searches for such material have not led to detections. An electron capture supernova model can plausibly account for the low energy and the observed abundances in the Crab. Here, we examine the evolution of the Crab pulsar wind nebula inside a freely expanding supernova and find that the observed properties are most consistent with a low energy event. Both the velocity and radius of the shell material, and the amount of gas swept up by the pulsar wind point to a low explosion energy ($\sim 10^{50}$ ergs). We do not favor a model in which circumstellar interaction powers the supernova luminosity near maximum light because the required mass would limit the freely expanding ejecta.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present radio and X-ray observations of the nearby Type IIb Supernova 2013df in NGC4414 from 10 to 250 days after the explosion. The radio emission showed a peculiar soft-to-hard spectral evolution. We present a model in which inverse Compton cooling of synchrotron emitting electrons can account for the observed spectral and light curve evolution. A significant mass loss rate, $\dot{M} \approx 8 \times 10^{-5}\,\rm M_{\odot}/yr$ for a wind velocity of 10 km/s, is estimated from the detailed modeling of radio and X-ray emission, which are primarily due to synchrotron and bremsstrahlung, respectively. We show that SN 2013df is similar to SN 1993J in various ways. The shock wave speed of SN 2013df was found to be average among the radio supernovae; $v_{sh}/c \sim 0.07$. We did not find any significant deviation from smooth decline in the light curve of SN 2013df. One of the main results of our self-consistent multiband modeling is the significant deviation from energy equipartition between magnetic fields and relativistic electrons behind the shock. We estimate $\epsilon_{e} = 200 \epsilon_{B}$. In general for Type IIb SNe, we find that the presence of bright optical cooling envelope emission is linked with free-free radio absorption and bright thermal X-ray emission. This finding suggests that more extended progenitors, similar to that of SN 2013df, suffer from substantial mass loss in the years before the supernova.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity Hα and Lyα emission in the outer debris of SN 1987 A. The Hα images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock (RS). For the first time we observe emission from the RS surface well above and below the equatorial ring (ER), suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the Hα imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the RS front, in the velocity intervals (−7500 < Vobs < −2800 km s−1) and (1000 < Vobs < 7500 km s−1), = 1.2 × 10−3M yr−1. We also present the first Lyα imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyα and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyα emission originates interior to the ER. The observed Lyα/Hα photon ratio, ≈ 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of ≈5 for neutral atoms crossing the RS front. We attribute this excess to Lyα emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyα and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyα production mechanism in SN 1987 A at this phase in its evolution.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present new {\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\alpha$ and Lyman-$\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals ($-$7,500~$<$~$V_{obs}$~$<$~$-$2,800 km s$^{-1}$) and (1,000~$<$~$V_{obs}$~$<$~7,500 km s$^{-1}$), $\dot{M_{H}}$ = 1.2~$\times$~10$^{-3}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. We also present the first Lyman-$\alpha$ imaging of the whole remnant and new $Chandra$ X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-$\alpha$ and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-$\alpha$ emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-$\alpha$/H-$\alpha$ photon ratio, $\langle$$R(L\alpha / H\alpha)$$\rangle$ $\approx$~17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of $\approx$ 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-$\alpha$ emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-$\alpha$ and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-$\alpha$ production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN 2012au, an energetic, radio-luminous supernova of Type Ib that exhibits multi-wavelength properties bridging subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae, hypernovae, and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from a shock-heated circumburst medium that has a wind density profile (?r ?2). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave v 0.2 c and a radius of r 1.4 × 1016cm at 25?days after the estimated date of explosion. For a wind velocity of 1000?km?s?1, we determine the mass-loss rate of the progenitor to be , consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio-emitting material to be E 1047 erg, which is intermediate to SN?1998bw and SN?2002ap. The evolution of the radio light curve of SN?2012au is in agreement with its interaction with a smoothly distributed circumburst medium and the absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to r 1017 cm from the supernova site. We conclude that the bright radio emission from SN?2012au was not dissimilar from other core-collapse supernovae despite its extraordinary optical properties, and that the evolution of the SN?2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet, marked with a steady mass loss, during the final years preceding explosion.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Xiaping Tang · Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: Recent gamma ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the ambient medium and direct interaction between supernova remnant and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission. For the re-acceleration process, standard DSA theory in the test particle limit produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure $\pi^0$-decay emission. We allow for a power law momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient, finding that a power law index of 0.5 is favored.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz ($\lambda$ 3.2 mm to 450 $\mu$m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component ($S_{\nu}\propto\nu^{-0.73}$) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at $T\sim22$ K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localised west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields $-0.4\lesssim\alpha\lesssim-0.1$ across the western regions, with $\alpha\sim0$ around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl was relatively nearby and luminous, allowing detailed studies of the near-infrared (NIR) emission. We present 1-2.4 micron spectroscopy over the age range of 36 to 565 days from the earliest detection of the supernova. On day 36, the Paschen H lines show an unresolved emission component along with a symmetric broad component that can be modeled as the result of electron scattering by a thermal distribution of electrons. Over the next hundreds of days, the broad components of the H lines shift to the blue by 700 km/s, as is also observed in optical lines. The narrow lines do not show a shift, indicating they originate in a different region. He I 10830 and 20587 lines both show an asymmetric broad emission component, with a shoulder on the blue side that varies in prominence and velocity from -5500 km/s on day 108 to -4000 km/s on day 219. This component may be associated with the higher velocity flow indicated by X-ray observations of the supernova. The absence of the feature in the H lines suggests that this is from a He rich ejecta flow. The He I 10830 feature has a narrow P-Cygni line, with absorption extending to -100 km/s and strengthening over the first 200 days, and an emission component which weakens with time. At day 403, the continuum emission becomes dominated by a blackbody spectrum with a temperature of 1900 K, suggestive of dust emission.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae provide a backdrop from which we can probe the end state of stellar evolution in the final years before the progenitor star explodes. As the shock from the supernova expands, the timespan of mass loss history we are able to probe also extends, providing insight to rapid time-scale processes that govern the end state of massive stars. While supernovae transition into remnants on timescales of decades to centuries, observations of this phase are currently limited. Here we present observations of SN 1970G, serendipitously observed during the monitoring campaign of SN 2011fe that shares the same host galaxy. Utilizing the new Jansky Very Large Array upgrade and a deep X-ray exposure taken by the Chandra Space Telescope, we are able to recover this middle-aged supernova and distinctly resolve it from the HII cloud with which it is associated. We find that the flux density of SN 1970G has changed significantly since it was last observed - the X-ray luminosity has increased by a factor of ~3, while we observe a significantly lower radio flux of only 27.5 micro-Jy at 6.75 GHz, a level only detectable through the upgrades now in operation at the Jansky Very Large Array. These changes suggest that SN 1970G has entered a new stage of evolution towards a supernova remnant, and we may be detecting the turn-on of the pulsar wind nebula. Deep radio observations of additional middle-aged supernovae with the improved radio facilities will provide a statistical census of the delicate transition period between supernova and remnant.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Xiaping Tang · Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of the middle-aged supernova remnants IC 443, W28 and W51C indicate that the brightnesses at GeV and TeV energies are correlated with each other and with regions of molecular clump interaction, but not with the radio synchrotron brightness. We suggest that the radio emission is primarily associated with a radiative shell in the interclump medium of a molecular cloud, while the gamma-ray emission is primarily associated with the interaction of the radiative shell with molecular clumps. The shell interaction produces a high pressure region, so that the gamma-ray luminosity can be approximately reproduced even if shock acceleration of particles is not efficient, provided that energetic particles are trapped in the cooling region. In this model, the spectral shape \ga 2 GeV is determined by the spectrum of cosmic ray protons. Models in which diffusive shock acceleration determines the spectrum tend to underproduce TeV emission because of the limiting particle energy that is attained.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Type IIn supernovae have bright optical emission and high bolometric luminosities. Due to their high mass loss, their are expected to have dense circumstellar interaction, thus produce bright radio and X-ray emission. We aim to carry out systematic study to understand their circumstellar interaction, mass loss properties. Here, I provide specific examples of two Type IIn supernovae, 2006jd and 2010jl.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze HST and ground based observations of the luminous Type IIn SN 2010jl from 26 to 1128 days. At maximum the bolometric luminosity was 3x10^{43} erg/s and even at ~ 850 days exceeds 10^{42} erg/s. An emission excess in the NIR, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the CSM. The observed total radiated energy is at least 6.5x10^{50} ergs. The spectral lines display two distinct components, one broad, due to electron scattering, and one narrow. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity, but becomes blueshifted after ~50 days. We find that dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and attribute this instead to radiative acceleration by the SN radiation. From the lines, and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large scale asymmetries in the circumstellar medium. The narrow line component suggests an expansion velocity of ~100 km/s for the CSM. The UV spectrum shows strong low and high ionization lines, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. From the narrow UV lines we find large N/C and N/O ratios, indicative of CNO processing in the progenitor. The luminosity evolution is consistent with a radiative shock in an r^{-2} CSM and indicates a mass loss rate of ~ 0.1 M_O/yr for a 100 km/s wind. The total mass lost is at least ~3 Msun. The mass loss rate, wind velocity, density and CNO enrichment are consistent with the SN expanding into a dense CSM characteristic of that of an LBV progenitor. Even in the last full spectrum at 850 days we do not see any indication of debris processed in a core collapse SN. We attribute this to the extremely dense CSM, which is still opaque to electron scattering. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these UV spectra for detecting Type IIn supernovae in high redshift surveys.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 μm, 870 μm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M ☉). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN\, 2012au, the energetic radio luminous supernova of type Ib that may be a link between subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from shock heated circum-burst medium that has a wind density profile ($\rho \propto r^{-2}$). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave $v \approx 0.2\,c$ and a radius of $r \approx 1.4 \times 10^{16} \rm cm$ at 25 days after the estimated date of explosion. For a constant wind velocity of 1000 km/s we determine the constant mass loss rate of the progenitor to be $\dot{M} = 3.6 \times 10^{-6} \rm M_{\odot} yr^{-1}$, consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio emitting material to be $E \approx 10^{47} \rm erg$, which is intermediate to SN\,1998bw and SN\,2002ap. Evolution of the radio light curves of SN\,2012au is consistent with interaction with a smoothly distributed circum-burst medium and absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to $r \approx 10^{17} \rm cm$ from the supernova site. Based on this we conclude that the evolution of the SN\,2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet during the final years preceding explosion. We find that the bright radio emission from SN2012au was not dissimilar from other core collapse supernovae despite it's extraordinary optical properties. We speculate that it was the nature of the explosion that led to the unusual demise of the SN2012au progenitor star.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013
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    ABSTRACT: We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ~10^49 erg is coupled to mildly-relativistic (Gamma=1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with rate Mdot ~10^-5 Msun yr^-1 (for wind velocity v_w = 1000 km s^-1). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB100316D as one of the weakest central-engine driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation which dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t>10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretion onto a newly formed black hole might explain the excess of radiation. However, significant departure from the standard fall-back scenario is required.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The double explosion of SN?2009ip in 2012 raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. Here we present a comprehensive study of SN?2009ip during its remarkable rebrightenings. High-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations from the?GeV to the radio band obtained from a variety of ground-based and space facilities (including the Very Large Array, Swift, Fermi, Hubble Space Telescope, and XMM) constrain SN?2009ip to be a low energy (E ~ 1050?erg for an ejecta mass ~0.5 M ?) and asymmetric explosion in a complex medium shaped by multiple eruptions of the restless progenitor star. Most of the energy is radiated as a result of the shock breaking out through a dense shell of material located at ~5 × 1014 cm with M ~ 0.1 M ?, ejected by the precursor outburst ~40?days before the major explosion. We interpret the NIR excess of emission as signature of material located further out, the origin of which has to be connected with documented mass-loss episodes in the previous years. Our modeling predicts bright neutrino emission associated with the shock break-out if the cosmic-ray energy is comparable to the radiated energy. We connect this phenomenology with the explosive ejection of the outer layers of the massive progenitor star, which later interacted with material deposited in the surroundings by previous eruptions. Future observations will reveal if the massive luminous progenitor star survived. Irrespective of whether the explosion was terminal, SN?2009ip brought to light the existence of new channels for sustained episodic mass loss, the physical origin of which has yet to be identified.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae of Type IIn (narrow line) appear to be explosions that had strong mass loss before the event, so that the optical luminosity is powered by the circumstellar interaction. If the mass loss region has an optical depth >c/vs , where vs is the shock velocity, the shock breakout occurs in the mass loss region and a significant fraction of the explosion energy can be radiated. The emission from the superluminous SN 2006gy and the normal luminosity SN 2011ht can plausibly be attributed to shock breakout in a wind, with SN 2011ht being a low energy event. Superluminous supernovae of Type I may derive their luminosity from interaction with a mass loss region of limited extent. However, the distinctive temperature increase to maximum luminosity has not been clearly observed in Type I events. Suggested mechanisms for the strong mass loss include pulsational pair instability, gravity-waves generated by instabilities in late burning phases, and binary effects.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2013 · Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,739.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1981-2015
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2013
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      University Park, Maryland, United States
  • 2008
    • Dartmouth College
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Hanover, NH, United States
    • Tel Aviv University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel
  • 2004
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1992
    • Pasadena City College
      Pasadena, Texas, United States
  • 1989
    • Livermore Instruments
      Oakland, California, United States
  • 1982-1984
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1979
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1975-1979
    • Sierra Tucson
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1978
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      Maryland, United States
  • 1977-1978
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States