[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iontophoresis is a strategy to increase the penetration of drugs through biological membranes; however, its use has been underexplored in mucosa. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of iontophoresis in the mucosal penetration of prilocaine hydrochloride (PCL) and lidocaine hydrochloride (LCL), which are largely used in dentistry as local anesthetics, when combined in the same formulation. Semisolid hydrogels containing these drugs either alone or in combination were developed at two different pHs (7.0 and 5.8) and presented adequate mechanical and mucoadhesive properties for buccal administration. The distribution coefficients between the mucosa and the formulations (Dm/f) and the in vitro mucosa permeation and retention rates were evaluated for both PCL and LCL. At pH 7.0, the combination of the drugs decreased the Dm/f of PCL by approximately 3-fold but did not change the Dm/f of LCL; iontophoresis increased the permeation rate of PCL by 12-fold and did not significantly change LCL flux compared with the passive permeation rate of the combined drugs. Combining the drugs also resulted in an increase in both PCL (86-fold) and LCL (12-fold) accumulation in the mucosa after iontophoresis at pH 7.0 compared with iontophoresis of the isolated drugs. Therefore, applying iontophoresis to a semisolid formulation of this drug combination at pH 7.0 can serve as a needle-free strategy to speed the onset and prolong the duration of buccal anesthesia.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungal biotransformations have become very important in the study of chiral drugs because the reactions performed by these microorganisms may be enantioselective. However, analyses of analytes present in liquid culture medium have proved to be very difficult due to the complexity of this matrix. The aim of this work was to couple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) with capillary electrophoresis to evaluate the biotransformation of the antidepressant drug venlafaxine (Vx) into its chiral metabolites, N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) and O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) by fungi. The chiral separation was carried out in 50 mmol L-1 sodium phosphate buffer pH 2.0 containing 8 mmol L-1-cyclodextrin and 1.0% (m/v) carboxymethyl-cyclodextrin. The temperature of the capillary was set at 20 C. A voltage of +20 kV was applied during analysis. The DLLME was accomplished using 300 L of isopropanol (disperser solvent) and 200 L of chloroform (extraction solvent). The method was completely validated and showed to be linear over the concentration range of 75-938 ng mL-1 for ODV and NDV enantiomers and of 500 15000 ng mL-1 for venlafaxine enantiomers with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99. The selectivity of the method was evaluated and no interference peaks were detected in the migration time of the analytes. The limit of quantification was 75 ng mL-1 for metabolite enantiomers and 500 ng mL-1 for venlafaxine enantiomers. The study showed a stereoselective biotransformation of venlafaxine into (+)-(S)-N-desmethylvenlafaxine by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028B with an enantiomeric excess of 100%.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple, isocratic, high-resolution and prompt HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of prilocaine (PCL) and lidocaine (LCL) hydrochlorides in in vitro buccal iontophoresis-driven permeation studies. A reversed-phase C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 3 µm, 110 Å) was used for the chromatographic separation. The mobile phase contained acetonitrile : 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer - pH 7.0 (1:1, v/v) plus 0.05% (v/v) diethylamine. Isocratic flow rate was set at 1 mL/min while detection wavelength was 203 nm. PCL and LCL eluted in 8.9 min and 13 min, respectively, and the system suitability parameters varied within an acceptable range. The method was selective, sensible, precise, accurate and robust, producing a linear plot at the concentration ranges of 0.25 to 10 µg/mL. The application of this method was demonstrated by a significant enhancement in the permeation of PCL and LCL with the application of iontophoresis (1 mA/cm2 per 1 hour) through isolated porcine esophageal epithelium. The amount of the drug retained in the epithelium also increased with the application of electrical current. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An enantioselective method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) using cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral selector was developed and validated for determination of lercanidipine (LER) enantiomers, a drug calcium channel blocker which exerts antihypertensive effects of long duration, in a pharmaceutical formulation. Optimum separation of LER enantiomers was obtained on a 50 cm × 50 μm id capillary using a sodium acetate buffer solution 200 mmol/L pH 4.0 containing 10 mmol/L of 2,3,6-o-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (TM-β-CD) as background electrolyte. The capillary temperature and voltage were 15°C and 25 kV, respectively, hydrodynamic injection and detection at 237 nm. Linearity was obtained in the range 12.5-100 μg/mL for both enantiomers (r ≥ 0.995). The RSD (%) and relative errors (E, %) obtained in precision and accuracy studies (intraday and interday) were lower than 5%. After validation, the method was applied to quantify the enantiomers of LER in commercial tablets and the results were satisfactory in terms of accuracy and precision, both less than 5%. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for enantioselective quality control of LER enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a capillary electrophoresis (CE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method to stereoselectively analyze hydroxyzine (HZ) and cetirizine (CTZ) in liquid culture media. The CE analyses were performed on an uncoated fused-silica capillary; 50mmolL(-1) sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 0.8% (w/v) S-β-CD was used as the background electrolyte. The applied voltage and temperature were +6kV and 15°C, respectively, and the UV detector was set to 214nm. Chloroform (300µL) and ethanol (400µL) were used as the extraction and disperser solvents, respectively, for the DLLME. Following the formation of a cloudy solution, the samples were subjected to vortex agitation at 2000rpm for 30s and to centrifugation at 3000rpm for 5min. The recoveries ranged from 87.4 to 91.7%. The method was linear over a concentration range of 250-12,500ngmL(-1) for each HZ enantiomer (r>0.998) and 125-6250ngmL(-1) for each CTZ enantiomer (r>0.998). The limits of quantification were 125 and 250ngmL(-1) for CTZ and HZ, respectively. Among the six fungi studied, three species were able to convert HZ to CTZ enantioselectively, particularly the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028B, which converted 19% of (S)-HZ to (S)-CTZ with 65% enantiomeric excess.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
After oral administration dipyrone is rapidly hydrolyzed to 4-methylaminoantipyrine, which is absorbed and further metabolized to 4-formylaminoantipyrine and to 4-aminoantipyrine, which is acetylated by a polymorphic N-acetyltransferase system to 4-acetylaminoantipyrine. To evaluate the presence of dipyrone metabolites in different rat matrices after intraperitoneal administration, an analytical method was developed and validated.
The four main dipyrone metabolites were extracted from plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and hypothalamus samples by LLE prior to LC-MS/MS.
Standard calibration graphs for all metabolites were linear (r > 0.99). The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values were both inferior to 15%.
This method is simple and specific for studying dipyrone metabolites after intraperitoneal administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple CE based method was developed and validated for the determination of interferon alpha-2a in a pharmaceutical formulation. After optimization, the best results were obtained using 30 mmol L−1 tetraborate buffer at pH 8.50 with 50 mmol L−1 of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and using a diode array detector at 200 nm. The applied voltage was +25 kV, and the sample injection was performed in the hydrodynamic mode. All analyses were carried out in a fused-silica uncoated capillary with an i.d. of 75 μm and an effective length of 50.0 cm. Under these conditions, the analysis was achieved in less than 12 min. Linearity was obtained in the range 0.41-1.54 MIU mL−1 (r ≥ 0.997). The RSD (%) and relative errors (%) obtained in precision and accuracy studies (intra-day and inter-day) were lower than 5%. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for controlling pharmaceutical formulations containing interferon alpha-2a.
No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · Analytical methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ractopamine (RAC) analysis at all stages in the feed chain until its final mixing into swine feed is necessary to ensure the safety of all meat consumers and to decrease waste and the cost of supplementation of feed. Two suitable HPLC methods were developed and validated for RAC determination in vitamin mineral complex (VMC) and in swine feed. Both methods employed reverse-phase (C18 column at 40°C) and isocratic elution, but with some modifications to the methods. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, trueness and robustness, were shown to be within the acceptable range. Therefore, the developed methods can be successfully applied for the monitoring of RAC concentrations in samples of VMC and swine feed ensuring economy to producers and security to consumers of swine meat.
No preview · Article · May 2013 · Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capillary electromigration techniques have proved to be very attractive for the analysis of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices. So, in this chapter, strategies to obtain reliable bioanalytical methods are critically discussed, with emphasis on improvements of selectivity, detectability, and repeatability. In addition, recent applications on pharmacokinetics and metabolism studies, enantioselective analysis of drugs and metabolites, clinical and forensic toxicology, and so on are also discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work describes for the first time the use of SPME coupled to LC-MS/MS employing the polar organic mode in a stereoselective fungal biotransformation study to investigate the fungi ability to biotransform the drug risperidone into its chiral and active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-RispOH). The chromatographic separation was performed on a Chiralcel OJ-H column using methanol:ethanol (50:50, v/v) plus 0.2% triethylamine as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1). The SPME process was performed using a C18 fiber, 30 min of extraction time and 5 min of desorption time in the mobile phase. The method was completely validated and all parameters were in agreement with the literature recommendations. The Cunninghamella echinulata fungus was able to biotransform risperidone into the active metabolite, (+)-9-RispOH, resulting in 100% of enantiomeric excess. The Cunninghamella elegans fungus was also able to stereoselectively biotransform risperidone into (+)- and (-)-9-RispOH enantiomers at different rates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents simple, rapid, precise and accurate stability-indicating HPLC and CE methods, which were developed and validated for the determination of nitrendipine, nimodipine and nisoldipine. These drugs are calcium channel antagonists of the 1,4-dihydropyridine type which are used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Experimental results showed a good linear correlation between the area and the concentration of drugs covering a relatively large domain of concentration in all cases. The linearity of the analytical procedures was in the range of 2.0–120.0 μg mL−1 for nitrendipine, 1.0–100.0 μg mL−1 for nimodipine and 100.0–600.0 μg mL−1 for nisoldipine, the regression determination coefficient being higher than 0.99 in all cases. The proposed methods were found to have good precision and accuracy. The chemical stability of these drugs was determined under various conditions and the methods have shown adequate separation for their enantiomers and degradation products. In addition, degradation products produced as a result of stress studies did not interfere with the detection of the drugs' enantiomers and the assays can thus be considered stability-indicating.
No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Analytical methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diclofenac sodium (DS) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is widely prescribed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and post surgery analgesia. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is the anhydrous form; however it can also exist in hydrate form. In this context, knowing the properties of the solid state is important and relevant in the pharmaceutical area because they have a significant impact on the solubility, bioavailability and chemical stability of the drugs. In the present study, data from XRPD, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis were used for the identification and characterization of DS forms (anhydrous and hydrate). An HPLC method was optimized to evaluate the plasma concentration of DS in rabbits. The optimized method exhibited good linearity over the range 0.1 - 60 µg/mL with correlation coefficients of > 0.9991. The mean recovery was 100%. Precision and accuracy were determined within acceptable limits. Finally, to compare the pharmacological properties of anhydrous and hydrate DS forms, we investigated their effects in the febrile response induced by lipopolysaccharide from E. coli in rabbits. The results show that the antipyretic effect of anhydrous and hydrate DS forms are similar.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple enantioselective method based on CE using CD as chiral selector was developed and validated for the determination of isradipine (IRD) enantiomers in a pharmaceutical formulation and for the determination of IRD enantiomers in degradation studies. After optimization, the best results were obtained using 15 mM borate buffer at pH 9.3 and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (2.5%, w/v) as chiral selector. The applied voltage was +30 kV, and the sample injection was performed in the hydrodynamic mode. All analyses were carried out in a fused-silica uncoated capillary with an id of 50 μm and total length of 60.0 cm. Under these conditions, a complete separation between IRD enantiomers was achieved in less than 7 min. Linearity was obtained in the range 50-300 μg/mL for both enantiomers (r≥0.9978). The RSD (%) and relative errors (%) obtained in precision and accuracy studies (intra-day and inter-day) were lower than 5%. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for controlling pharmaceutical formulations containing IRD enantiomers and the assay was considered to be stability indicating. The drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis and photolysis. In all stress conditions the drug presented considerable degradation when compared with a fresh sample (zero time).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowing that microbial transformations of compounds play vital roles in the preparation of new derivatives with biological activities, risperidone and its chiral metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis and hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction after a fungal biotransformation study in liquid culture medium. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL liquid culture medium into 1-octanol impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber, and into an acid acceptor solution inside the polypropylene hollow fiber. The electrophoretic separations were carried out in 100 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer pH 3.0 containing 2.0% w/v sulfated-α-CD and carboxymethyl-β-CD 0.5% w/v with a constant voltage of -10 kV. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-5000 ng/mL for risperidone and 50-5000 ng/mL for each metabolite enantiomer. Within-day and between-day assay precisions and accuracies for all the analytes were studied at three concentration levels, and the values of relative standard deviation and relative error were lower than 15%. The developed method was applied in a pilot biotransformation study employing risperidone as the substrate and the filamentous fungus Mucor rouxii. This study showed that the filamentous fungus was able to metabolize risperidone enantioselectively into its chiral active metabolite, (-)-9-hydroxyrisperidone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib (IMAT) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Despite the efficacy of IMAT therapy, some cases of treatment resistance have been described in CML. Developing a plasma method is important since there are several studies that provided a higher correlation between IMAT plasma concentration and response to treatment. Therefore, in this investigation we validated a method by CE as an alternative, new, simple and fast electrophoretic method for IMAT determination in human plasma. The analysis was performed using a fused silica capillary (50 μm id×46.5 cm total length, 38.0 cm effective length); 50 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, as BGE; hydrodynamic injection time of 20 s (50 mbar); voltage of 30 kV; capillary temperature of 35°C and detection at 200 nm. Plasma samples pre-treatment involved liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether as the extracting solvent. The method was linear from 0.125 to 5.00 μg/mL. The LOQ was 0.125 μg/mL. Mean absolute recovery of IMAT was 67%. The method showed to be precise and accurate with RSD and relative error values lower than 15%. Furthermore, the application of the method was performed in the analysis of plasma samples from CML patients undergoing treatment with IMAT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this work were preparation and physical-chemical characterization of a microparticulate release system for delivery of enoxaparin sodium (ENX), a low-molecular-weight heparin, as a potential vehicle for optimization of deep venous thrombosis therapy. Microparticles (MPs) containing ENX were prepared from polylactide-co-glycolic acid [PLGA; (50:50)] by a double emulsification/solvent evaporation method. The preparation parameters, such as proportion ENX/PLGA, surfactant concentration, type, time, and speed of stirring, were evaluated. The encapsulation efficiency and yield process were determined and optimized, and the in vitro release profile was analysed at 35 days. The MPs showed a spherical shape with smooth and regular surfaces. The size distribution showed a unimodal profile with an average size of 2.0 ± 0.9 μ m. The low encapsulation efficiency (<30%), characteristic of hydrophilic macromolecules was improved, reaching 50.2% with a procedure yield of 71.3%. The in vitro profile of ENX release from the MPs was evaluated and showed pseudo-zero-order kinetics. This indicated that diffusion was the main drug release mechanism.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmaceuticals can exist in many solid forms, which can have different physical and chemical properties. These solid forms include polymorphs, solvates, amorphous, and hydrates. Particularly, hydration process can be quite common since pharmaceutical solids can be in contact with water during manufacturing process and can also be exposed to water during storage. In the present work, it is proved that NQR technique is capable of detecting different hydrated forms not only in the pure raw material but also in the final product (tablets), being in this way a useful technique for quality control. This technique was also used to study the dehydration process from pentahydrate to trihydrate.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The (-)-hinokinin display high activity against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in vivo. (-)-Hinokinin-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles were prepared and characterized in order to protect (-)-hinokinin of biological interactions and promote its sustained release for treatment of Chagas disease. The microparticles contain (-)-hinokinin were prepared by the classical method of the emulsion/solvent evaporation. The scanning electron microscopy, light-scattering analyzer were used to study the morphology and particle size, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was determined, drug release studies were kinetically evaluated, and the trypanocidal effect was evaluated in vivo. (-)-Hinokinin-loaded microparticles obtained showed a mean diameter of 0.862 microm with smooth surface and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency was 72.46 +/- 2.92% and developed system maintained drug release with Higuchi kinetics. The preparation method showed to be suitable, since the morphological characteristics, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release profile were satisfactory. In vivo assays showed significant reduction of mice parasitaemia after administration of (-)-hinokinin-loaded microparticles. Thus, the developed microparticles seem to be a promising system for sustained release of (-)-hinokinin for treatment of Chagas disease.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · Parasitology Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple method was optimized and validated for determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in raw material and feed additives by HPLC for use in quality control in veterinary industries. The best-optimized conditions were a C8 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5.0 microm particle size) at room temperature with acetonitrile-100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. With these conditions, the retention time of RAC was around 5.2 min, and standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 160-240 microg/mL (correlation coefficient > or = 0.999). Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (ranged from 1.60 to 2.05 microg/mL), limit of quantification (ranged from 4.26 to 6.84 microg/mL), precision (relative standard deviation < or = 1.87%), accuracy (ranged from 96.97 to 100.54%), and robustness, gave results within acceptable ranges. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine quality control analysis of raw material and feed additives.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of AOAC International