P. Stoltz

Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, United States

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Publications (57)

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report experimental measurements of narrow-band, single-mode excitation, and drive beam energy modulation, in a dielectric wakefield accelerating structure with planar geometry and Bragg-reflector boundaries. A short, relativistic electron beam (∼1 ps) with moderate charge (∼100 pC) is used to drive the wakefields in the structure. The fundamental mode of the structure is reinforced by constructive interference in the alternating dielectric layers at the boundary, and is characterized by the spectral analysis of the emitted coherent Cherenkov radiation signal. Data analysis shows a narrow-band peak at 210 GHz corresponding to the fundamental mode of the structure. Simulations in both 2D and 3D provide insight into the propagating fields and reproduction of the electron beams dynamics observables and emitted radiation characteristics.
    Full-text Article · Dec 2014 · Physical Review Letters
  • Source
    F Lemery · H Panuganti · D Mihalcea · [...] · P Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dielectric-lined waveguides (DLW) are gaining popular-ity for beam driven acceleration applications. An experi-ment to demonstrate beam-driven acceleration using a slab-symmetric dielectric-lined waveguide driven by a flat beam is in preparation at the Advanced Superconducting Test Ac-celerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In this paper we detail an on-going experiment aimed at characterizing the structure using a THz pulse obtained from optical rectification. Af-ter propagation through the DLW structure, the THz pulse is analyzed using a Michelson interferometer and eventu-ally a single-shot electro-optical imaging.
    Full-text Conference Paper · Dec 2013
  • S. Mahalingam · Y. Choi · P. Stoltz · [...] · J. Menart
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: form only given. Next generation ion thrusters such as NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) are being considered for in-space propulsion applications to meet the future space mission needs of travel to asteroids and for satellite maneuvers. NASA has been actively pursuing new designs of ion thrusters to address the high power and high-thrust propulsion needs. Computational simulations of ion engine discharge chamber plasmas will help to understand the operation and performance of these high power ion thrusters. In this work, we describe a two-dimensional Particle-in-cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) model developed to simulate the ion engine discharge chamber plasma processes. We utilize VSimPD, a simulation package for plasma discharges based on the Vorpal computing engine. In this model, the electrons, singly charged xenon ions, doubly charged xenon ions and xenon neutrals are tracked as kinetic particles which includes the effects of both electric and magnetic fields. Also, the model solves the electric fields every time step based on the charge particle distributions. This detailed PIC-MCC model was benchmarked on NASA's NEXT ion engine discharge chamber and the simulation results are in good agreement with experimental plasma measurements. Recently we have focused on improving the numerical algorithms in VSimPD to speed up this discharge chamber model. New particle splitting and merging procedures are implemented. These procedures preserve the charge, energy, momentum and also the electron energy distribution functions (EEDF). We will discuss these numerical algorithms and compare the accuracies of these simulation results and provide speed up results. In addition, we will also provide speed up results from the parallel processing option and the convergence procedures developed with the numerical parameters considered in these simulations.
    Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • F. Lemery · P. Mullowney · P. Stoltz · [...] · J. Winans
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: GPU-based computing has gained popularity in recent years due to its growing software support and greater processing capabilities than its CPU counterpart. GPU computing was recently added in the finite-difference time-domain program VORPAL. In this paper we carry electromagnetic simulations through a slab-symmetric dielectric-lined waveguide (DLW). We use this simulation model to explore the scaling of the GPU version of VORPAL on a new TOP1000-grade hybrid GPU/CPU computer cluster available at Northern Illinois University (NIU).
    Conference Paper · May 2013
  • F. Lemery · D. Mihalcea · P. Piot · [...] · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA), presently under construction at Fermilab, will produce high-charge (∼ 3 nC) electron bunches with energies ranging from 50 to eventually 750 MeV. The facility is based on a superconducting linac capable of producing up to 3000 bunches in 1-ms macropulses repeated at 5 Hz. In this paper we explore the use of a short dielectric-lined-waveguide (DLW) linac to significantly increase the bunch energy. The method consists in (1) using advanced phase space manipulation techniques to shape the beam distribution and enhance the transformer ratio, and (2) optimize the generation and acceleration of a low-charge witness bunches. Piecewise simulations of the proposed concept are presented. This DLW module could also be used to test some aspects of a recently proposed concept for a multiuser short-wavelength free-electron laser utilizing a series of DLW linacs.
    Article · Jan 2013
  • P. Piot · C. Behrens · C. Gerth · [...] · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tailoring an electron bunch with specific current profile can provide substantial enhancement of the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration methods. We present a method relying on the use of a linac with accelerating sections operating at different frequencies followed by a magnetic bunch compressor. The experimental verfification of the technique in a two-frequency linac is presented. The compatibility of the proposed technique with the formation and acceleration of a drive and witness bunches is numerically demonstrated.
    Article · Dec 2012
  • D. Mihalcea · P. Piot · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An electron bunch passing through dielectric-lined waveguide generates $\check{C}$erenkov radiation that can result in high-peak axial electric field suitable for acceleration of a subsequent bunch. Axial field beyond Gigavolt-per-meter are attainable in structures with sub-mm sizes depending on the achievement of suitable electron bunch parameters. A promising configuration consists of using planar dielectric structure driven by flat electron bunches. In this paper we present a three-dimensional analysis of wakefields produced by flat beams in planar dielectric structures thereby extending the work of Reference [A. Tremaine, J. Rosenzweig, and P. Schoessow, Phys. Rev. E 56, No. 6, 7204 (1997)] on the topic. We especially provide closed-form expressions for the normal frequencies and field amplitudes of the excited modes and benchmark these analytical results with finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell numerical simulations. Finally, we implement a semi-analytical algorithm into a popular particle tracking program thereby enabling start-to-end high-fidelity modeling of linear accelerators based on dielectric-lined planar waveguides.
    Article · Apr 2012 · Review of Modern Physics
  • P Piot · C Behrens · C Gerth · [...] · M Vogt
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radio frequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced ~700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampère. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and, in particular, its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasilinear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.
    Article · Jan 2012 · Physical Review Letters
  • D. Smithe · P. Stoltz · Haipeng Wang · Gary Cheng
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: form only given. The VORPAL software, traditionally used to model plasma and EM problems on large scale supercomputers, has been upgraded to treat thermal conduction as well. This allows us to solve integrated thermal & EM problems, for vacuum electronics, where the heat source is either ohmic wall heating, or charged particle impact. We are presently using this capability in the area of nuclear physics accelerators which are powered by microwaves that travel in waveguides between room-temperature sources and cryogenic accelerator structures. In this problem, the ohmic heat load from the microwaves is strongly affected by the temperature-dependant surface resistance which in turn affects the cryogenic thermal conduction problem. We highlight thermal benchmarking work with a complex HOM feed-through geometry, done in collaboration with researchers at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory, and discuss upcoming design studies with this emerging tool. This work is also part of an effort to generalize the VORPAL framework to include generalized PDE capabilities, for wider multiphysics capabilities in the accelerator, vacuum electronics, plasma processing and fusion R&D fields. We will also discuss plans for additional multiphysics capabilities, such as non-linear magnetic simulations and plasma sheath models.
    Conference Paper · Jun 2011
  • Source
    F. Lemery · D. Mihalcea · P. Piot · [...] · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dielectric wakefield accelerators have shown great promise toward high-gradient acceleration. We investigate the performances of a possible experiment under consideration at the FLASH facility in DESY to explore wakefield acceleration with an enhanced transformer ratio. The experiment capitalizes on a unique pulse shaping capability recently demonstrated at this facility. In addition, the facility incorporates a superconducting linear accelerator that could generate bunch trains with closely spaced bunches thereby opening the exploration of potential dynamical effects in dielectric wakefield accelerators.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2011
  • Source
    D Abell · D Bruhwiler · Y Choi · [...] · M Stockli
    Full-text Article · Jan 2011
  • S. Mahalingam · Y. Choi · P. Stoltz · [...] · J. D. Williams
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) can be used for near Earth space missions to produce thrust to raise and lowe r a satellite orbit or change its inclination, and, in drag inducing (de-orbit) mode, EDTs can provide electrical power to the satellite. Recently there has been renewed interest in bare wire EDTs that operate at larger current and voltage levels, and hence it is becoming important to understand current collection along the positively biased regions of the tether and the plasma interactions these high current EDTs will induce. In this work, we describe numerical and experimental studies of EDTs with the goal to develop and validate computational tools for researchers who are designing tethers for future missions. In our numerical studies we will utilize two particle-in-cell codes VORPAL1 and OOPIC Pro2• VORPAL is a 1-0, 2-D and 3-D massively parallel electromagnetic simulation code and OOPIC Pro is a 2-D parallel electromagnetic simulation code with user-friendly aUI interfaces. We will develop suitable boundary conditions such as quasi-neutrality and open boundaries to simulate accurately the tethers operation in space. We will benchmark our 2-D electrostatic numerical simulations against other published analytical and numerical results. 3 In addition, we will conduct full electromagnetic simulations to consider self-induced magnetic field effects. On the experimental side, tests on thin tether tapes will be conducted in a vacuum facility equipped with a plasma source developed by Rubin et al. 4 that replicates the streaming plasma encountered by satellites in low Earth orbit. These experiments will characterize electron collection to the tape tethers under varying electrical bias and angle of attack.
    Article · Jan 2011 · IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science
  • C. C. Walton · S. C. Wilks · V. Ayyaswamy · [...] · P. H. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PIC simulations have been used to study ion energy distributions in magnetron plasmas, and coupled with other simulations to relate plasma processes to properties of sputtered films. The plasma is weakly ionized and exchanges heat with the background gas by scattering and charge-exchange reactions. Resulting heating of neutral background gas up to ˜1200K, leading to ˜5X rarefaction and increased plasma impedance, was studied with coupled PIC and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations. Effects of scaling the PIC simulations from 0.1X to 1X physical size, and modifying the plasma potential by a dc substrate bias, will be presented. Comparison to experimental I-V relations and importance for roughness and density of sputtered films will be discussed.
    Article · Nov 2010
  • Source
    C. Prokop · P. Piot · M. C. Lin · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terahertz (THz) radiation occupies a very large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and has generated much recent interest due to its ability to penetrate deep into many organic materials without the damage associated with ionizing radiation such as x-rays. One path for generating copious amount of tunable narrow-band THz radiation is based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser (SPFEL) effect. In this Letter we propose a simple concept for a compact two-stage tunable SPFEL operating in the superradiant regime capable of radiating at the grating's fundamental bunching frequency. We demonstrate its capabilities and performances via computer simulation using the conformal finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver {\sc vorpal}.
    Full-text Article · May 2010 · Applied Physics Letters
  • Source
    S. O. Leathem · P Stoltz · P Messmer · [...] · J.-L Cambier
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study put forth demonstrates that the seed electrons average kinetic energy influences the discharge characteristics making it possible to maximize the rate of development of the virtual anode in a pseudospark, with a suitable choice of the neutral gas pressure as determined by the seed's average injection speed. This investigation also brings to light two distinct operating regimes; (1) mid-energy, where electron-impact ionization energy losses result in a decrease in the cross-section as the electrons travel downstream and (2) high-energy, where, in contrast, the ionization cross-section increases. In the latter case, both the fastest delay time and the neutral gas pressure producing this value have linear dependencies on the seed electrons energy resulting in a constant value of their product over the different injection speeds. The discharge is seeded by injecting a current pulse for a period of one nanosecond along the axis from the hollow cathode cavity back wall over a range of mean speeds corresponding to 100 to 900 V accelerations; the initial electric field is insufficient to enhance ionization throughout most of the hollow cathode backspace. Data is obtained through computer simulation using the two-dimensional kinetic plasma code OOPIC Pro. 51.50.+v, 52.75.Kq, 52.80.Tn.
    Full-text Article · Feb 2010 · The Open Plasma Physics Journal
  • Source
    C. Prokop · P Piot · M. C. Lin · P. Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terahertz (THz) radiation has generated much recent interest due to its ability to penetrate deep into many organic materials without the damage associated with ionizing radiations. Smith-Purcell free-electron lasers (SPFELs) offer a viable path toward generating copious amounts of narrow-band THz radiation. In this paper we present numerical simulations, performed with the conformal finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic solver VORPAL of a SPFEL operating in the superradiant regime. We first explore the standard (single grating) configuration and investigate the impact of incoming beamparameters. We also present a new concept based a double grating configuration to efficiently bunch the electron beam, followed by a single grating to produce super-radiant SP radiation.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2010
  • Source
    D T Abell · I V Pogorelov · P H Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imagine a virtual cylinder passing through an rf cav-ity. Given field data on the surface of this cylinder, one can compute accurate high-order transfer maps for particles traversing the cavity [1]. This technique is robust against er-rors or noise present in the surface data; moreover, it is not limited to accelerating modes. We describe this technique and present recent work that uses VORPAL [2] field data as a starting point for modeling crab cavities. In addition, we present realistic models, including fringes, for several standing-wave modes. These models, which include a sim-ple accelerating mode and a TM-110 (crab) mode, are use-ful for the accurate computation of transfer maps as well as for constructing model fields that can be used for testing and comparing a variety of rf cavity codes.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2010
  • Source
    S. Mahalingam · C. Nieter · J. Loverich · [...] · P. Stoltz
    Full-text Article · Jun 2009 · The Open Plasma Physics Journal
  • Source
    C R Prokop · P Piot · M C Lin · P Stoltz
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terahertz (THz) radiation occupies a very large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and has generated much recent interest due to its ability to penetrate deep into many organic materials without the damage associated with ion-izing radiation such as X-rays. One path for generating copious amount of tunable narrow-band THz radiation is based on the Smith-Purcell free-electron laser (SPFEL) ef-fect first proposed by Wachtel [1]. In this paper we present the design and start-to-end simulation of a compact SPFEL. The device is based on a low energy (< 100 keV) elec-tron accelerator capable of producing sheet electron beams needed to enhance the SPFEL interaction. The beam dy-namics and electromagnetics of the SPFEL interaction are modeled using a finite-difference time-domain electromag-netic solver (VORPAL from Tech-X Corporation).
    Full-text Article · Jan 2009
  • Source
    C. Nieter · C. Roark · P. Stoltz · K. Tian
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We will present the results of benchmarking simulations run to test the ability of VORPAL to model multipacting processes in Superconducting Radio Frequency structures. VORPAL is an electromagnetic (FDTD) particle-in-cell simulation code originally developed for applications in plasma and beam physics. The addition of conformal boundaries and algorithms for secondary electron emission allow VORPAL to be applied to multipacting processes. We start with simulations of multipacting between parallel plates where there are well understood theoretical predictions for the frequency bands where multipacting is expected to occur. We reproduce the predicted multipacting bands and demonstrate departures from the theoretical predictions when a more sophisticated model of secondary emission is used. Simulations of existing cavity structures developed at Jefferson National Laboratories will also be presented where we compare results from VORPAL to experimental data.
    Full-text Article · Jan 2009

Publication Stats

264 Citations


  • 2005-2013
    • Tech-X Corporation
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      • Physics Division
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Northern Illinois University
      • Department of Physics
      DeKalb, Illinois, United States
  • 2011
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      Oak Ridge, Florida, United States