William Mak

Seneca College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (2)7.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hemodilution and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genetic polymorphism may contribute to cerebral and renal injury after cardiopulmonary bypass. This study tested the hypothesis that cardiopulmonary bypass and anemia stimulate an increase in cerebral and renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression in an experimental model of cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthetized rats underwent a sham procedure without cardiopulmonary bypass (sham, n = 5), normothermic bypass for 1 hour (CPB, n = 7), or bypass plus hemodilutional anemia (CPB anemia, n = 9). After 24 hours of recovery, RNA was extracted from the cerebral cortex, renal cortex, and renal medulla. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to assess endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels in brain and kidney tissues. The hemoglobin concentration of anemic CPB rats was significantly lower than that of nonanemic rats on bypass (64 +/- 5 vs 99 +/- 8 g x L(-1), P < .001). Cerebral cortical endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels were increased after cardiopulmonary bypass relative to those of the sham group (11.2 +/- 4.2 vs 6.3 +/- 1.5 fg, P = .031), without a further increase in anemic rats. Renal medullary endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels were significantly higher in the CPB anemia group than in the sham and CPB groups (7.1 +/- 4.4 fg vs 1.8 +/- 0.4 fg vs 3.0 +/- 0.6 fg, P < .001). Renal cortical endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels did not change significantly. Normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with higher endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels in kidney and brain than was the sham procedure 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anemia accentuated the increase in renal medullary, but not cerebral cortical, endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. These data provide an approach for exploring potential mechanisms by which endothelial nitric oxide synthase may contribute to renal and cerebral dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass and anemia.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Severe hemodilutional anemia may reduce cerebral oxygen delivery, resulting in cerebral tissue hypoxia. Increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression has been identified following cerebral hypoxia and may contribute to the compensatory increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) observed after hypoxia and anemia. However, changes in cerebral NOS gene expression have not been reported after acute anemia. This study tests the hypothesis that acute hemodilutional anemia causes cerebral tissue hypoxia, triggering changes in cerebral NOS gene expression. Anesthetized rats underwent hemodilution when 30 ml/kg of blood were exchanged with pentastarch, resulting in a final hemoglobin concentration of 51.0 +/- 1.2 g/l (n = 7 rats). Caudate tissue oxygen tension (Pbr(O(2))) decreased transiently from 17.3 +/- 4.1 to 14.4 +/- 4.1 Torr (P < 0.05), before returning to baseline after approximately 20 min. An increase in CBF may have contributed to restoring Pbr(O(2)) by improving cerebral tissue oxygen delivery. An increase in neuronal NOS (nNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the cerebral cortex of anemic rats after 3 h (P < 0.05, n = 5). A similar response was observed after exposure to hypoxia. By contrast, no increases in mRNA for endothelial NOS or interleukin-1beta were observed after anemia or hypoxia. Hemodilutional anemia caused an acute reduction in Pbr(O(2)) and an increase in cerebral cortical nNOS mRNA, supporting a role for nNOS in the physiological response to acute anemia.
    Preview · Article · May 2003 · Journal of Applied Physiology