Tomonori Nakanishi

Kyushu University, Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan

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Publications (19)29.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Three experiments were conducted to test the role of the brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in mediating stress-induced behaviors and regulating food intake by using CRF receptor antagonists (α-helical CRF9-41 and astressin) in chicks. In Experiment 1, birds were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v,) injected with 10 μg of α-helical CRF9-41 or saline and placed individually into an acrylic glass recording chamber 20 min postinjection and automatically monitored by an audio analysis application for 60 seconds. The number of distress vocalizations (DVs) induced by isolation was significantly suppressed by α-helical CRF9-41 compared to the control group. Chicks were similarly treated with astressin in doses of 0, 5 and 10 μg in Experiment 2, but no significant difference of DVs was observed. In Experiment 3, after a 3h fast, birds were i.c.v. injected with either saline, 0.1 μg of CRF, 0.1 μg of CRF + 5 μg of α-helical CRF9-41 or 0.1 μg of CRF + 10 μg of α-helical CRF9-41 and food intake was measured for 2h. CRF suppressed food intake and α-helical CRF9-41 partially blocked such effect. The results suggested that 1) α-helical CRF9-41 attenuated the behavior changes induced by isolation and exogenous CRF; 2) CRF receptors in avian species may be somewhat different from that in mammals.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), linoleic acid (LA), and their combinations, on skin composition in mice were investigated. Mice (8 weeks old) were orally administered with either LA, GLA, CLA, LA + GLA, LA + CLA, or CLA + GLA for 4 weeks. Then, the skin was analysed for triacylglycerol content, fatty acid composition and collagen content. Additionally, thicknesses of the dermis layer and subcutaneous tissue layer, and the size and number of adipocytes were measured histologically. The skin fatty acid composition was modified depending upon the fatty acid composition of supplemented oils. In each oil-alone group, skin triacylglycerol content was the highest in LA, followed by GLA and CLA treatments. Combinations with CLA had a similar triacylglycerol content compared with the CLA-alone group. No significant changes in collagen content were observed among any treatments. The effects on subcutaneous thickness were similar to the results obtained in the triacylglycerol contents, where groups supplemented with CLA alone or other fatty acids had significantly thinner subcutaneous tissue compared with the LA-alone group. However, no significant difference was detected in the thickness of the dermis layers. The number of adipocytes was highest in the LA + GLA group and tended to be reduced by CLA with or without the other fatty acids. These results suggest that CLA alone or in combination with other fatty acids strongly modifies skin composition in mice.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · British Journal Of Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on the properties of mouse skin with or without 10% sucrose water loading was investigated. Mice (7-week-old) were given free access to a control diet or a diet containing Garcinia cambogia extract. They were also given water alone or both water and sucrose water. Their skin was compared by both biochemical and histological methods. The collagen and triacylglycerol contents were not significantly different among the four groups. Similarly, electron microscopy revealed no differences in the thickness of the dermis layer or the subcutaneous tissue layer. Mice given the diet containing Garcinia cambogia tended to have a reduced total number of adipocytes, but not significantly. These results suggest that Garcinia cambogia supplementation for at least 4 weeks does not induce a negative effect on skin properties in mice irrespective of excessive sucrose intake.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Phytotherapy Research
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was done to clarify the mechanism by which conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces fatty liver in mice and to attenuate this symptom by adding other dietary fatty acids. Mice were given CLA short (12 h) or long (4 wk) term or given CLA with linoleic acid (LA) or gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in the long term (4 wk). Total lipids, triacylglycerol, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in the liver were determined. A single administration of CLA significantly increased PGE(2) levels in the liver 12 h after administration. However, long-term administration of CLA significantly decreased the liver PGE(2) level and induced fatty liver. GLA increased PGE(2) levels, and coadministration with GLA, but not with LA, prevented the CLA-induced fatty liver. These data suggest that CLA initially stimulates PGE(2) production followed by depletion of PGE(2) sources in the liver. The fatty liver associated with PGE(2) reduction by CLA ingestion can be attenuated by GLA in mice.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Nutrition
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    ABSTRACT: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is one of the inhibitory factors in feeding regulation of mammals. However, no information is available for avian species. The present study was done to clarify the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PrRP on feeding in chicks. Firstly, we found that ICV injection of PrRP (94-1500 pmol) significantly increased food intake in chicks. The result was completely different from those obtained in mammals. The orexigenic effect of PrRP was significantly weaker than that of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent orexigenic peptide, on an equimolar basis. The orexigenic effect of NPY was further enhanced with coinjection of PrRP. These results suggest the existence of a novel orexigenic mechanism in the chick brain, which might differ from NPY-involved feeding regulatory pathway. In addition, ICV injection of PrRP significantly decreased the rectal temperature, but the effect was weaker than that of NPY, suggesting that PrRP may inhibit energy expenditure in chicks. Taken together, we showed here that PrRP may be involved in the regulation of both feeding behavior and energy metabolism in the chick brain.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Physiology & Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Sashihara, K., Yamashita, T., Takagi, T., Nakanishi, T. and Furuse, M. 2003. Effects of intrayolk injection of bisphenol A on hatchability and sex ratio in chickens. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 24: 113–122.The effect of intrayolk injection of bisphenol A (BPA) on hatching and sex ratio in domestic chicken was investigated. The fertilized eggs were injected with four levels (0, 1, 10, 100 ng/10 μl) of BPA in three experiments just before incubation, with a fifth level of 1000 ng/10 μl in experiment 2. The hatchability, embryonic stages of eggs failed to hatch and the phenotypical sex in gonadal organ were determined in experiment 1. There was no significant difference in hatchability and death ratios of each embryonic stage among all the treatments. In phenotype sexing, chicks injected with 100 ng BPA tended to show higher male ratio than the control. Besides phenotypical sexing in experiment 2, DNA sexing was conducted by polymerase chain reaction using a set of primers from the flanking sequences in chicken, but BPA did not affect gonadal sex differentiation in the chicken. BPA was not detected in the brain, liver and residual yolk in all treatments' in experiment 3. These findings suggest that low doses of BPA have no toxic effect on the hatchability and embryonic development in the chicken.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2003 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the influence of PUFA on the properties of mouse skin. Mice (3 wk old) were given free access to oils high in linoleic acid, CLA, or DHA for 4 wk. At the end of the experiment, their skins were compared by both biochemical and histological methods. No significant differences in lipid and collagen contents were detected among treatments, although the FA composition in the skin was altered depending upon the FA composition of the supplemented oils. Electron microscopy revealed that the subcutaneous tissue layers in the CLA and DHA groups were significantly thinner than that in the high linoleic acid group, whereas no differences in the thickness of dermis layers were observed among the three groups. These results suggest that skin properties in mice are readily modified by dietary FA sources within 4 wk of dietary oil supplementation.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Lipids
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    ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are naturally occurring fatty acids that have been recognized to modify prostaglandin (PG) production in specific tissues. So far, no relationship between PG production and CLA has been reported in the brain. Thus, the effects of CLA on cerebral prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 mRNA expression in mice were determined in the present study. Mice given the diet with or without 3% CLA at the age of 9 weeks were mated, reproduced and lactated. Offspring mice given each diet until 25 days and 8 weeks of age were sacrificed and their brains removed. Production of PGE(2) was reduced while COX mRNA was quantitatively increased by CLA supplementation. These results imply that brain PGE(2) production can be reduced by dietary CLA without inhibition of COX gene expression in mice.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Neuroscience Letters
  • K Hayamizu · H Hirakawa · D Oikawa · T Nakanishi · T Takagi · T Tachibana · M Furuse
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the effects of 3.3% Garcinia cambogia extract on 10% sucrose loading in mice for 4 weeks. Treatment was found to have no effect on body weight, fat pad weight or serum glucose level. On the other hand, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA were observed. Levels of serum insulin and leptin, as well as the leptin/WAT ratio, were lower in the treated mice than in the control. These findings suggested that G. cambogia extract efficiently improved glucose metabolism and displayed leptin-like activity.
    No preview · Article · May 2003 · Fitoterapia
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    ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that L-pipecolic acid (L-PA), a major metabolic intermediate of L-lysine (L-Lys) in the brain, is involved in the functioning of the -aminobutyric acid-ergic system. Previous study has shown that intracerebroventricular injection of L-PA suppressed feeding and induced sleep-like behavior in neonatal chicks. The present study examines whether the action of L-PA was induced by gavage in both chicks and mice. Oral administration of L-PA significantly inhibited food intake at 2 h after treatment in neonatal chicks, although no significant effect of L-Lys was detected. In mice, oral L-PA suppressed food intake compared to the control after 2 h of treatment. It was concluded that L-PA was effective for suppression of food intake after oral administration in both avian and mammalian species.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Animal Science Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Koutoku, T., Nakanishi, T., Takagi, T., Yamasaki, I., Zhang, R., Sashihara, K., Saito, E.-S., Saito, S. and Furuse, M. 2003. Effect of environmental lighting on aggressive and anxious behavior in male mice. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 23: 65–74.To study the influence of the different conditions of environmental lightning on aggressive behavior and open field activity, male mice were kept under different conditions of environmental lighting, i.e., A) 12-hour each light and dark (LD), B) continuous light (LL) and C) continuous dark (DD) for 27 days. Although no significant differences were observed among three groups, LL and DD conditions tended to show the inhibitory effect on aggression. In the open field test, the crossing, the time and the path significantly increased with the length of lighting period, but the rearing and defecation were not affected. The amounts of monoamines and their metabolites in the cerebellum, cerebrum and brainstem were hardly affected by lighting conditions. Taken together, DD condition was most preferable for mice to keep calm rather LL condition.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Domestic chickens, which are precocial, have relatively well developed mechanisms of food intake regulation at hatch. Although their body weight is similar at hatch, broiler- and layer-type chickens have different growth rates and food intake following hatch. The purpose of the present study was to compare the hypothalamic content of the monoamines norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylacetic acid (HVA) and 5-dihydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) between these strains on day 18 of incubation, and at 0 day-of-age. In both strains, 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels increased with age. On day 18 of incubation, the amounts of NE and E were almost the same between the two strains. Thereafter, the content of both monoamines rapidly increased at hatch in both strains, and layer-type chicken embryos had significantly higher E levels compared to broiler-type chicken embryos. The levels of DOPAC and HVA on day 18 of incubation were higher in broiler-type chicken embryos than in layer-type chicken embryos, but these differences were reduced at hatch. These changes at hatch may partly explain the difference in the performance between the two strains.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · The Journal of Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: Saito, E., Takagi, T., Nakanishi, T., Sashihara, K. and Furuse, M. 2002. Ghrelin activates behavior of neonatal chicks in a short period of post-intracerebroventricular injection. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 22: 33–41.Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide with an acylated side chain, is the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin stimulates GH secretion and feeding of rats, but ghrelin inhibited feeding of neonatal chicks. It was also confirmed that ghrelin induced sleep-like behavior later than 30 minutes post-administration in neonatal chicks. However, exciting behavior was observed in a short period (less than 30 min) in previous reports. Thus, we further investigated the behavioral changes in neonatal chicks by ICV administration of ghrelin within a short period. Chicks were divided into two groups and administered ICV saline or 2μg of ghrelin and the numbers of step and vocalization were monitored. Just after behavioral test, the amount of monoamines of chick hypothalamus was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Central ghrelin enhanced the numbers of step and kept the numbers of vocalization, but no significant difference in the amount of monoamines was detected. In conclusion, central ghrelin activates chick behavior in a short period without modification of hypothalamic monoamine contents.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on monoamine contents of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) was investigated in neonatal chicks. The PVN was isolated from the brains of neonatal chicks 15 minutes after the i.c.v. administration of 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1μg of CRF. The concentrations of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, dopamine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxytryptamine were determined. The monoamines and their metabolites showed some alterations, but the differences were not significant among all treatments. The results suggested that CRF did not affect the monoamine contents of the PVN in the neonatal chick.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · The Journal of Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: Nakanishi, T., Ohgushi, A., Yamashita, T., Sashihara, K., Takagi, T., Dobashi, E., Kamegai, T., Kasai, M., Yoshimatsu, T. and Furuse, M. 2001. Effect of orally administered conjugated linoleic acids on behaviors and tissue fatty acid compositions in mice. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 20: 157–170.To compare the influences of the oral administration of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on behaviors and fatty acid composition of some tissues with those of linoleic acid, (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), mice (8-week old) were orally administered with oils containing high levels of CLA DHA or LA for 4 weeks (6 days per week, 0.2 ml per day). Control, group was administered with saline. Behavioral tests such as locomotor activity swim test elevated plus maze lest and biting test, were done on the commencement of the study (0 week) and 2 and 4 weeks after treatments. No significant changes were observed in, all the parameters. Oral. CLA increased the liver weight and reduced the epididymal, white adipose tissue weight. The ratio of arachidonic acid to total, fatty acids was significantly increased by LA and decreased, by CLA compared with the control, especially in the liver. Small amounts of CLA were detected in the brain of mice administered with CLA or LA groups, but, not detected, in mice of the control and DHA groups. The level of DHA in the brain was not altered by DHA administration. It is concluded that oral administration of CLA influenced some tissues but not behaviours of mice at least after growth.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2001 · Journal of Applied Animal Research
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    ABSTRACT: Both corticortropin-releasing factor (CRF) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibit food intake of chicks, but they also produce other behaviors. The present experiments were undertaken to clarify the interaction of CRF and GLP-1 regarding their anorectic actions as well as other behaviors. In Experiment 1, birds were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), following a 3-h fast, with either saline, 0.1 microg of CRF, 0.1 microg of CRF+0.1 microg of GLP-1 or 0.1 microg of CRF+1 microg of GLP-1, and food intake was measured for 2 h. The injection of CRF decreased food intake, and CRF injected with GLP-1 suppressed food intake for up to 2 h. Birds were treated similarly in Experiment 2 in which the doses of CRF and GLP-1 were reversed. GLP-1 strongly suppressed food intake, and this effect was augmented by coadministration of CRF. In Experiment 3, the behaviors of chicks injected with saline, CRF (0.1 microg), GLP-1 (0.1 microg) or CRF (0.1 microg)+GLP-1 (0.1 microg) were monitored for the numbers of steps, vocalization and locomotion. Chicks were excited, moved more and vocalized loudly following injection of CRF, whereas an opposite response was seen with GLP-1. The behaviors were intermediate following the coinjection of the two peptides. In conclusion, CRF and GLP-1 interact in the chick brain, but the response depends on the behavior being measured.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · European Journal of Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urocortin and urotensin I share amino acid sequences, and they inhibit food intake in mammals. CRF plays a potent role in decreasing food intake in avian species, but the effects of urocortin and urotensin I have not been investigated. Therefore, the effect of these three peptides on food intake in the neonatal chick was compared. In Experiment 1, birds were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) with either 0, 0.01, 0.1 or 1 microg of urocortin following a 3-h fast, and food intake was measured for 2 h post-injection. Food intake was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. Using a similar design in Experiment 2, the effect of urotensin I was investigated. Urotensin I appeared to suppress food intake in neonatal chicks more than urocortin did. In Experiment 3, the efficacy of CRF, urocortin and urotensin I was directly compared using one dose, 0.1 microg. The results indicated that the suppressive effect on food intake was strongest for CRF followed by urotensin I, then urocortin. These results suggest that the structure of receptors for the CRF family in chicks may be somewhat different than in mammals.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2001 · European Journal of Pharmacology

  • No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · The Journal of Poultry Science
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of oral administration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on isolation-induced distress behavior in the chick was determined at 5min intervals over a 15min period. The two groups of 6 birds each were orally administered 1ml of CLA or high linoleic acid (HLA) for 4 days. After the fourth day treatment, behaviors were monitored by video camera. Two isomers of CLA were detected in the brain of chicks treated with CLA. However, CLA was not detected in the brain of the HLA group. In overall means, distress vocalizations (DVs) were significantly lower in the CLA than in the HLA group. Similar tendencies were observed in the number of steps and jumps, but not significantly different between two groups. In conclusion, isolation-induced DVs can be modified by oil source and CLA is a useful oil to reduce isolation-induced DVs in the chick compared with HLA.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Animal Science Journal

Publication Stats

226 Citations
29.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2001-2011
    • Kyushu University
      • Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2004
    • Kyoto Prefectural University
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan