Per Hallgren

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden

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Publications (4)8.55 Total impact

  • Joakim Hjältén · Per Hallgren

    No preview · Chapter · May 2007
  • Per Hallgren · Joakim Hjältén
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the influence of plant hybridization on plant–animal interactions has become an important issue; however, these studies have mainly focused on insects or slugs and to a large degree ignored mammalian herbivores despite their importance in many ecosystems. This study aims to determine the preference of voles for pure Salix caprea, S. repens, and their F1, F2, and backcross hybrids to evaluate whether voles select against hybrids in natural willow populations. To address this, we conducted two field studies and a cafeteria experiment in the laboratory with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). We found no strong indications of reduced resistance in any of the hybrid taxa. Voles damaged more S. repens than S. caprea individuals. There was a general decreasing trend of utilization from pure S. repens to pure S. caprea, hybrid taxa being intermediate between the parents. Thus, voles seemingly do not have a more detrimental effect on hybrid fitness than on the fitness of pure individuals and probably will not select against hybrids in these willows populations.
    No preview · Article · May 2004 · Oikos
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    Per Hallgren
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    ABSTRACT: Interspecific hybridisation is common between many plant species and causes rapid changes in a variety of plant characters. This may pose problems for herbivores because changes in recognition characters may be poorly correlated with changes in quality characters. Many studies have examined different systems of hybrids and herbivores in attempts to understand the role of hybridisation in the evolution of plant resistance. The results from different systems are variable. Studies of hybrids between Salix caprea (L., Salicaceae) and S. repens show that they are intermediate between the two parental species in most resistance characters. However, a plants herbivore resistance depends also on its biotic and abiotic environment. Important biotic factors that may influence plant growth and plant chemistry include the interactions between different herbivores that occur through their exploitation of common host plants. Although the effects on plants of previous herbivory are likely to be strongly affected by environmental conditions, they are also species-specific. Damage may therefore have different effects on hybrids than on their parental species, and this could influence the performance of herbivores on pure and hybrid species of plants. To evaluate the effects of hybridisation on insect performance, the development and survival rates of Phratora vitellinae (L. 1758, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae on pure S. repens, pure S. caprea and Fl hybrids of the two species was monitored. Further, to examine the effect of herbivorous mammals on the performance of the larvae, plants were damaged to simulate winter foraging by voles or spring leaf stripping by moose. The results show that development rates were highest on S. repens and equally low on S. caprea and the Fl hybrid. In addition, development of the plants treated to simulate mammalian herbivore damage was slower than that of corresponding controls. The results of this experiment suggest that P. vitellinae has a higher development rate, and thus probably higher performance, on species with high concentrations of phenolic glucosides. Therefore, it would be of adaptive benefit for P. vitellinae females to have an ovipositional preference for S. repens, compared to S. caprea and intermediate preference for Fl hybrids. The faster development observed on S. repens supports the hypothesis that P. vitellinae obtains additional adaptive benefits from phenolic glucosides beyond protection against predators. Therefore, it is important to consider further factors, such as damage caused by other herbivores, when studying this hybrid complex.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2003 · BMC Ecology
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the inheritance pattern of phenolic secondary compounds in pure and hybrid willows and its consequences for plant resistance to leaf-feeding insects. F1, F2, and back-cross hybrids along with pure species were produced by hand pollination of pure, naturally-growing Salix caprea (L., Salicaceae) and S. repens (L.) plants. Leaf concentrations of condensed tannins and seven different phenolic glucosides were determined by using butanol-HCI and HPLC analyses. Insect herbivore leaf damage was measured on the same leaves as used for chemical analyses. We found hybrids to be approximately intermediate between the parental species: S. caprea with high levels of condensed tannins and no phenolic glucosides. and S. repens with low levels of condensed tannins and high levels of phenolic glucosides. We also found a negative correlation between concentrations of condensed tannins and phenolic glucosides, suggesting a trade-off in production of these two substances. F2 hybrids and the hybrid back-crossed to S. caprea were significantly more damaged by insect herbivores than the parental species and the F1 hybrid, indicating reduced resistance and possibly a selective disadvantage for these hybrid categories.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2003 · Journal of Chemical Ecology