[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A distinct feature of malignant gliomas is the intrinsic ability of single tumor cells to disperse throughout the brain, contributing to the failure of existing therapies to alter the progression and recurrence of these deadly brain tumors. Regrettably, the mechanisms underlying the inherent invasiveness of glioma cells are poorly understood. Here, we report for the first time that engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) and dedicator of cytokinesis 1 (Dock180), a bipartite Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), are evidently linked to the invasive phenotype of glioma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of primary human glioma specimens showed high expression levels of ELMO1 and Dock180 in actively invading tumor cells in the invasive areas, but not in the central regions of these tumors. Elevated expression of ELMO1 and Dock180 was also found in various human glioma cell lines compared with normal human astrocytes. Inhibition of endogenous ELMO1 and Dock180 expression significantly impeded glioma cell invasion in vitro and in brain tissue slices with a concomitant reduction in Rac1 activation. Conversely, exogenous expression of ELMO1 and Dock180 in glioma cells with low level endogenous expression increased their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and in brain tissue. These data suggest that the bipartite GEF, ELMO1 and Dock180, play an important role in promoting cancer cell invasion and could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of diffuse malignant gliomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B and its receptor (PDGF-R) beta are overexpressed in human gliomas and responsible for recruiting peri-endothelial cells to vessels. To establish the role of PDGF-B in glioma angiogenesis, we overexpressed PDGF-B in U87MG glioma cells. Although PDGF-B stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of PDGF-Rbeta in U87MG cells, treatment with recombinant PDGF-B or overexpression of PDGF-B in U87MG cells had no effect on their proliferation. However, an increase of secreted PDGF-B in conditioned media of U87MG/PDGF-B cells promoted migration of endothelial cells expressing PDGF-R beta, whereas conditioned media from U87MG cells did not increase the cell migration. In mice, overexpression of PDGF-B in U87MG cells enhanced intracranial glioma formation by stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in neovessels and by attracting vessel-associated pericytes. When PDGF-B and VEGF were overexpressed simultaneously by U87MG tumors, there was a marked increase of capillary-associated pericytes as seen in U87MG/VEGF(165)/PDGF-B gliomas. As a result of pericyte recruitment, vessels induced by VEGF in tumor vicinity migrated into the central regions of these tumors. These data suggest that PDGF-B is a paracrine factor in U87MG gliomas, and that PDGF-B enhances glioma angiogenesis, at least in part, by stimulating VEGF expression in tumor endothelia and by recruiting pericytes to neovessels.
Preview · Article · May 2003 · American Journal Of Pathology