[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among acute coronary syndromes (ACS), ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has the most severe early clinical course. We aimed to describe the effectiveness and safety of P2Y12 receptor inhibitors in patients with STEMI based on data from contemporary European ACS registries. Twelve registries provided data in a systematic manner on outcomes in STEMI patients overall, and seven of these also provided data for P2Y12 receptor inhibitor-based dual antiplatelet therapy. Registries were heterogeneous in terms of site, patient and treatment selection, as well as in definition of endpoints (e.g. bleeding events). All-cause death rates based on data from 84,299 patients (9,612 patients on prasugrel, 11,492 on ticagrelor, and 27,824 on clopidogrel) ranged between 0.49% and 6.68% in-hospital, between 3.07% and 7.95% at 30 days (reported in 6 registries), between 8.15% and 9.13% at 180 days, and between 2.41% and 9.58% at 1 year (5 registries). Major bleeding rates were 0.09% to 3.55% in-hospital (8 registries), 0.09% to 1.65% at 30 days, and 1.96% at 1 year (one only). Fatal/life-threatening bleeding was rare occurring between 0.08% and 0.13% in-hospital (four registries) and 1.96% at 1 year (one registry). Real-world evidence from European contemporary registries shows that death, ischaemic events, and bleeding rates are lower than those reported in phase III studies of P2Y12 inhibitors. Regarding individual P2Y12 inhibitors, patients on prasugrel, and, to a lesser degree, ticagrelor, had fewer ischaemic and bleeding events at all time points than clopidogrel-treated patients. These findings are partly related to the fact that the newer agents are used in younger and less ill patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and purpose:
Selecting an ideal antithrombotic therapy for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can be challenging since they have a higher thromboembolic and bleeding risk than younger patients. The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of triple therapy (TT: oral anticoagulation plus dual antiplatelet therapy: aspirin plus clopidogrel) in patients ≥75 years of age with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
A prospective multicenter study was conducted from 2003 to 2012 at 6 Spanish teaching hospitals. A cohort study of consecutive patients with AF undergoing PCI and treated with TT or dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was analyzed. All outcomes were evaluated at 1-year of follow-up.
Five hundred and eighty-five patients, 289 (49%) of whom were ≥75 years of age (79.6±3.4 years; 33% women) were identified. TT was prescribed in 55.9% of patients at discharge who had a higher thromboembolic risk (CHA2DS2VASc score: 4.23±1.51 vs 3.76±1.40, p = 0.007 and a higher bleeding risk (HAS-BLED ≥3: 88.6% vs 79.2%, p = 0.02) than those on DAPT. Therefore, patients on TT had a lower rate of thromboembolism than those on DAPT (0.6% vs 6.9%, p = 0.004; HR 0.08, 95% CI: 0.01-0.70, p = 0.004). Major bleeding events occurred more frequently in patients on TT than in those on DAPT (11.7% vs 2.4%, p = 0.002; HR 5.2, 95% CI: 1.53-17.57, p = 0.008). The overall mortality rate was similar in both treatment groups (11.9% vs 13.9%, p = 0.38); however, after adjustment for confounding variables, TT was associated with a reduced mortality rate (HR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.86, p = 0.02).
In elderly patients with AF undergoing PCI, the use of TT compared to DAPT was associated with reduced thromboembolism and mortality rates, although a higher rate of major bleeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Bilirubin may elicit cardiovascular protection and heme oxygenase-1 overexpression attenuated post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and post-infarction remodeling is unknown.
Materials and methods:
In 145 patients with a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), we assessed whether plasma bilirubin on admission predicted adverse remodeling (left ventricular end-diastolic volume [LVEDV] increase ≥20% between discharge and 6 months, estimated by magnetic resonance imaging).
Patients' baseline characteristics and management were comparable among bilirubin tertiles. LVEDV increased at 6 months (P < 0.001) with respect to the initial exam, but the magnitude of this increase was similar across increasing bilirubin tertiles (10.8 [30.2], 10.1 [22.9], and 12.7 [24.3]%, P = 0.500). Median (25-75 percentile) bilirubin values in patients with and without adverse remodeling were 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.73 (0.60-0.92) mg/dL (P = 0.693). Absence of final TIMI flow grade 3 (odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.12-13.66) and a history of hypertension (2.04, 0.93-4.50), but not admission bilirubin, were independently associated with adverse remodeling. Bilirubin also did not predict the increase in ejection fraction at 6 months.
Admission bilirubin values are not related to LVEDV or ejection fraction progression after a first anterior STEMI and do not predict adverse ventricular remodeling. Key messages Bilirubin levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease, and overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (the enzyme that determines bilirubin production) has prevented post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and the progression of ventricular volumes and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction remained unexplored. In this cohort of patients with a first acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving contemporary management, bilirubin levels on admission were not predictive of the changes in left ventricular volumes or ejection fraction at 6 months measured by serial cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The data are contrary to a significant protective effect of bilirubin against post-infarction ventricular remodeling.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Annals of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients who have undergone angioplasty with stenting can be reintegrated into normal life at an early stage, thanks to the absence of sequelae associated with the procedure itself. Consequently, these patients can be involved earlier in the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation. Although rehabilitation for coronary patients follows the general guidelines used for all patients, which were developed with the secondary prevention of coronary artery atherosclerosis in mind, the specific form of rehabilitation adopted for each individual with ischemic heart disease will depend on the patient's circumstances, including the revascularization technique used. Regular physical exercise (i.e. physical training), in itself, has substantial cardiovascular benefits for both primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction, training decreases mortality, increases functional capacity and improves ventricular function and remodeling. It is also thought to boost the collateral circulation. In addition, training improves endothelial function and stimulates the circulation of stem cells. It has been shown that physical training after percutaneous revascularization decreases the number of cardiac events. Moreover, in patients with stable angina, it results in fewer events than percutaneous revascularization.
No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Revista Espanola de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of acute arterial hypertension in acute pulmonary edema (APE) as an associated or a triggering phenomenon has been poorly investigated and is relevant to patient management.
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Canadian journal of cardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patient registries that document real-world clinical experience play an important role in cardiology as they complement the data from randomised controlled trials, provide valuable information on drug use and clinical outcomes, and evaluate to what extent guidelines are followed in practice. The Platelet Inhibition Registry in ACS EvalUation Study (PIRAEUS) project is an initiative of registry holders who are managing national or international registries observing patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The aim of PIRAEUS is to systematically compare and combine available information/insights from various European ACS registries with a focus on P2Y12 inhibitors. The present publication introduces the 17 participating registries in narrative and tabular form, and describes which ACS groups and which dual antiplatelet therapies were investigated. It sets the basis for upcoming publications that will focus on effectiveness and safety of the antiplatelets used.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The effects of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT: DAPT plus oral anticoagulation) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) regarding to CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score remain undefined.We compare the effect of TT vs. DAPT in this setting regarding the CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc score.Methods and Results:In a prospective multicenter registry, 585 patients (75.2% male, 73.2±8.2 years) with AF undergoing PCI were followed up during 1 year. Of them, 157 (26.8%) had a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc=1, and 428 (73.2%) had a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥2. TT was prescribed in 51.6% with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc=1 and in 55.5% with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥2. Patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc=1 receiving TT had a similar thromboembolism rate to those on DAPT (1.2% vs. 1.3%, P=0.73), but more total (19.5% vs. 6.9%, P=0.01) and a tendency to more major (4.9% vs. 0%, P=0.06) bleeding. However, patients with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥2 receiving TT had a lower thromboembolism rate (1.7% vs. 5.3%, P=0.03) and a trend towards more bleeds (21.8% vs. 15.6%, P=0.06), with an excess of major bleeding (8.4% vs. 3.1%, P=0.01). Rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in both CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc subgroups were similar, irrespective of treatment. In a Cox multivariate analysis, TT was associated to major bleeding, but not with MACE.
In patients with AF and CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc=1 undergoing PCI, the use of TT involves a high risk of bleeding without a significant benefit in preventing thromboembolism.
Preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Circulation Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El coactivador 1α del receptor activado gamma del proliferador de peroxisoma (PGC-1α) es un regulador metabólico que se induce durante la isquemia y previene el remodelado cardiaco en modelos animales. Su actividad puede estimarse en pacientes con infarto agudo de miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Nuestro objetivo es evaluar el valor predictivo de los niveles en sangre de PGC-1α en la extensión del área necrótica y el remodelado ventricular tras infarto.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Revista Espa de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectives:
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a metabolic regulator induced during ischemia that prevents cardiac remodeling in animal models. The activity of PGC-1α can be estimated in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of blood PGC-1α levels in predicting the extent of necrosis and ventricular remodeling after infarction.
In this prospective study of 31 patients with a first myocardial infarction in an anterior location and successful reperfusion, PGC-1α expression in peripheral blood on admission and at 72 hours was correlated with myocardial injury, ventricular volume, and systolic function at 6 months. Edema and myocardial necrosis were estimated using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging during the first week. At 6 months, infarct size and ventricular remodeling, defined as an increase > 10% of the left ventricular end-diastolic volume, was evaluated by follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Myocardial salvage was defined as the difference between the edema and necrosis areas.
Greater myocardial salvage was seen in patients with detectable PGC-1α levels at admission (mean [standard deviation (SD)], 18.3% [5.3%] vs 4.5% [3.9%]; P = .04). Induction of PGC-1α at 72 hours correlated with greater ventricular remodeling (change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume at 6 months, 29.7% [11.2%] vs 1.2% [5.8%]; P = .04).
Baseline PGC-1α expression and an attenuated systemic response after acute myocardial infarction are associated with greater myocardial salvage and predict less ventricular remodeling.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Revista Espanola de Cardiologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most widely used imaging tool helping in diagnosis and initial management of patients presenting with symptoms compatible with acute coronary syndrome. Acute ischemia affects the configuration of the QRS complexes, the ST segments and the T waves. The ECG should be read along with the clinical assessment of the patient. ST segment elevation (and ST depression in leads V1–V3) in patients with active symptoms usually indicates acute occlusion of an epicardial artery with ongoing transmural ischemia. These patients should be triaged for emergent reperfusion therapy per current guidelines. However, many patients have ST segment elevation secondary to nonischemic causes. ST depression in leads other than V1–V3 usually are indicative of subendocardial ischemia secondary to subocclusion of the epicardial artery, distal embolization to small arteries or spasm supply/demand mismatch. ST depression may also be secondary to nonischemic etiologies, such as left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathies, etc. Knowing the clinical scenario, comparison to previous ECG and subsequent ECGs (in cases that there are changes in the quality or severity of symptoms) may add in the diagnosis and interpretation in difficult cases. This review addresses the different ECG patterns, typically seen in patients with active symptoms, after resolution of symptoms and the significance of such changes when seen in asymptomatic patients.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introducción y objetivos
Conocer la mortalidad y el manejo actuales de los pacientes ingresados por sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo en España. El último registro disponible (2004-2005) reportó una mortalidad hospitalaria del 5,7%.
Se incluyó a los pacientes ingresados consecutivamente de enero a junio de 2012 en 44 hospitales seleccionados al azar. Se recogió la evolución en el ingreso y los eventos a 6 meses.
Se incluyó a 2.557 pacientes ingresados con sospecha de síndrome coronario agudo: 788 (30,8%) con elevación del segmento ST, 1.602 (62,7%) sin elevación del segmento ST y 167 (6,5%) con síndrome coronario agudo inclasificable. La mortalidad hospitalaria fue del 4,1% (el 6,6, el 2,4 y el 7,8% respectivamente), significativamente menor que la registrada en 2004-2005. Se realizó tratamiento de reperfusión (más frecuentemente intervención coronaria percutánea primaria) en el 85,7% de los pacientes con elevación del segmento ST atendidos en < 12 h. La mediana del tiempo desde el primer contacto médico hasta la trombolisis fue 40 min y hasta el inflado del balón, 120 min. Al 80,6% de los pacientes sin elevación del segmento ST, se les realizó coronariografía; al 52,0%, intervención percutánea, y al 6,4%, se le indicó cirugía. La prescripción de tratamientos de prevención secundaria al alta aumentó respecto a registros previos. La mortalidad a 6 meses entre los pacientes dados de alta con vida (seguimiento disponible en el 97,1%) fue del 3,8%.
La mortalidad de los pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo en España ha disminuido respecto a los últimos datos disponibles, en paralelo a un uso más frecuente de los principales tratamientos recomendados.
No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Revista Espanola de Cardiologia