[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is modified by fatty acid at the third serine residue. In this study, derivation of fatty acid for acylation of ghrelin was investigated using a hatchling chicken model. We first studied ghrelin gene expression and production in the neonatal chick proventriculus and then investigated the effect of exogenous octanoic acid (OA) administration on acylated ghrelin production. In a free-feeding condition on day 2.5 after hatching, the density of ghrelin mRNA-expressing (ghrelin-ex) cells was greater than that of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells, but no difference was found between those densities in adult chickens. Intraperitoneal or oral administration of OA for a few days significantly increased the density of ghrelin-ip cells without any changes in ghrelin-ex cells and elevated only octanoylated ghrelin levels in the proventriculus. The results indicate that fatty acid absorbed from food is directly utilized in acylated ghrelin production in the chicken.
No preview · Article · Aug 2005 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin was recently identified as an endogenous ligand for GH secretagogue receptor. In this study, we investigated the effects of ovariectomy on the numbers of ghrelin-immunopositive and -expressing cells, ghrelin mRNA levels, and plasma ghrelin concentrations in 4- and 9-week-old female rats. Three days after ovariectomy, the number of ghrelin cells and plasma ghrelin level significantly increased in both 4- and 9-week-old rats and the ghrelin mRNA level also increased in 4-week-old rats. These responses were reversed by 17beta-estradiol replacement. We also found that ghrelin-immunopositive cells express estrogen receptor alpha. These results suggested that estrogen is involved in the regulation of ghrelin expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ghrelin was isolated from the rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and has been found in the gastrointestinal tract of many vertebrates. Although the sequence and structure of chicken ghrelin has recently been determined, morphological characteristics of ghrelin cells in the chicken gastrointestinal tract are still obscure. In this study, we investigated ghrelin expression and distribution of ghrelin-producing cells in the hatching and adult chicken gastrointestinal tract by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Ghrelin mRNA expression was observed mainly in the proventriculus in the hatching chicken and in the proventriculus, pylorus and duodenum of the adult chicken by RT-PCR. Ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the proventriculus were located at the mucosal layer but not in the myenteric plexus or smooth muscle layer. The number of ghrelin-ip cells in the adult chicken was greater than that in the hatching chicken. Interestingly, in the adult chicken, the number of ghrelin-ip cells were almost the same as that of ghrelin mRNA-expressing (ghrelin-ex) cells; however, in the hatching chicken, the number of ghrelin-ex cells was greater than that of ghrelin-ip cells. These results clearly demonstrate that ghrelin-producing cells exist in the chicken gastrointestinal tract, especially in the proventriculus, from hatching to adult stages of development, as well as in mammals.
No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · Regulatory Peptides