R. Neri

Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France

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Publications (300)1324.17 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present observations of the $^{12}$CO(6-5) line and 686GHz continuum emission in NGC253 with the Submillimeter Array at an angular resolution of ~4arcsec. The $^{12}$CO(6-5) emission is clearly detected along the disk and follows the distribution of the lower $^{12}$CO line transitions with little variations of the line ratios in it. A large-velocity gradient analysis suggests a two-temperature model of the molecular gas in the disk, likely dominated by a combination of low-velocity shocks and the disk wide PDRs. Only marginal $^{12}$CO(6-5) emission is detected in the vicinity of the expanding shells at the eastern and western edges of the disk. While the eastern shell contains gas even warmer (T$_{\rm kin}$>300~K) than the hot gas component (T$_{\rm kin}$=300K) of the disk, the western shell is surrounded by gas much cooler (T$_{\rm kin}$=60K) than the eastern shell but somewhat hotter than the cold gas component of the disk (for similar H$_2$ and CO column densities), indicative of different (or differently efficient) heating mechansisms. The continuum emission at 686GHz in the disk agrees well in shape and size with that at lower (sub-)millimeter frequencies, exhibiting a spectral index consistent with thermal dust emission. We find dust temperatures of ~10-30K and largely optically thin emission. However, our fits suggest a second (more optically thick) dust component at higher temperatures (T$_{\rm d}$>60K), similar to the molecular gas. We estimate a global dust mass of ~10$^6$Msun for the disk translating into a gas-to-dust mass ratio of a few hundred consistent with other nearby active galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: We present high resolution (0.″ 4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS 17208-0014, Arp220, IC 860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (ν2 = 1) J = 3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r< 17-70 pc) nuclei that have very high implied mid-infrared surface brightness > 5 × 1013 L⊙ kpc-2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, ν2 = 1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 μm mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses, and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1024 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, we show strong evidence that the ground vibrational state (ν = 0), J = 3-2and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions owing to strong self-and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions-possibly in the form of in-or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early-type spiral LIRGs, and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Protostellar outflows are a crucial ingredient of the star-formation process. However, the physical conditions in the warm outflowing gas are still poorly known. Aims. We present a multi-transition, high spectral resolution CO study of the outflow of the intermediate-mass Class 0 protostar Cep E-mm. The goal is to determine the structure of the outflow and to constrain the physical conditions of the various components in order to understand the origin of the mass-loss phenomenon. Methods. We have observed the J = 12-11, J = 13-12, and J = 16-15 CO lines at high spectral resolution with SOFIA/GREAT and the J = 5-4, J = 9-8, and J = 14-13 CO lines with HIFI/Herschel towards the position of the terminal bowshock HH377 in the southern outflow lobe. These observations were complemented with maps of CO transitions obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope (J = 1-0, 2-1), the Plateau de Bure interferometer (J = 2-1), and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (J = 3-2, 4-3). Results. We identify three main components in the protostellar outflow: the jet, the cavity, and the bowshock, with a typical size of 1.7″ × 21″, 4.5″, and 22″ × 10″, respectively. In the jet, the emission from the low-J CO lines is dominated by a gas layer at Tkin = 80-100 K, column density N(CO) = 9 × 1016 cm-2, and density n(H2) = (0.5-1) × 105 cm-3; the emission of the high-J CO lines arises from a warmer (Tkin = 400-750 K), denser (n(H2) = (0.5-1) × 106 cm-3), lower column density (N(CO) = 1.5 × 1016 cm-2) gas component. Similarly, in the outflow cavity, two components are detected: the emission of the low-J lines is dominated by a gas layer of column density N(CO) = 7 × 1017 cm-2 at Tkin = 55-85 K and density in the range (1-8) × 105 cm-3; the emission of the high-J lines is dominated by a hot, denser gas layer with Tkin = 500-1500K, n(H2) = (1-5) × 106 cm-3, and N(CO) = 6 × 1016 cm-2. A temperature gradient as a function of the velocity is found in the high-excitation gas component. In the terminal bowshock HH377, we detect gas of moderate excitation, with a temperature in the range Tkin ≈ 400-500 K, density n(H2) ≃ (1-2) × 106 cm-3 and column density N(CO) = 1017 cm-2. The amounts of momentum carried away in the jet and in the entrained ambient medium are similar. Comparison with time-dependent shock models shows that the hot gas emission in the jet is well accounted for by a magnetized shock with an age of 220-740 yr propagating at 20-30 km s-1 in a medium of density n(H2) = (0.5-1) × 105 cm-3, consistent with that of the bulk material. Conclusions. The Cep E protostellar outflow appears to be a convincing case of jet bowshock driven outflow. Our observations trace the recent impact of the protostellar jet into the ambient cloud, produing a non-stationary magnetized shock, which drives the formation of an outflow cavity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first observations of H$^{13}$CN$(1-0)$, H$^{13}$CO$^+(1-0)$ and SiO$(2-1)$ in NGC 6240, obtained with the IRAM PdBI. Combining a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) code with Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) modelling we derive posterior probability density functions (pdfs) for the dense gas parameters, including mass$-$luminosity conversion factors, finding a large amount of dense molecular gas $(\sim10^{10}M_\odot)$ in cold, dense clouds ($T_k\sim10$ K, $n_{{\rm H}_2}\sim10^6$ cm$^{-3}$) with a small volume filling factor $(<0.002)$. Including literature CO data we present simultaneously fitted multi-species, two phase models which spontaneously separate into a hot, diffuse phase ($\log_{10}\left(T_k / [{\rm K}]\right) = 3.2^{3.3}_{3.1}$, $\log_{10}\left(n_{{\rm H}_2} / [{\rm cm}^{-3}]\right)=3.6^{3.8}_{3.5}$) and a cold, dense phase ($\log_{10}\left(T_k / [{\rm K}]\right) = 0.9^{0.9}_{0.8}$, $\log_{10}\left(n_{{\rm H}_2} / [{\rm cm}^{-3}]\right)=6.6^{6.8}_{6.3}$). A restricted three phase model is used to include the ubiquitous diffuse, CO bearing gas phase and we derive a global $\alpha_{\rm CO}=1.5^{7.1}_{1.1}$ with gas masses $\log_{10}\left(M / [M_\odot]\right)=10.1_{10.0}^{10.8}$, dominated by the dense gas. We find that the [$^{12}$C]/[$^{13}$C] ratio is only slightly elevated ($98^{230}_{65}$), contrary to the very high [CO]/[$^{13}$CO] ratio (300-500) reported in the literature. The high [HCN]/[H$^{13}$CN] and [HCO$^+$]/[H$^{13}$CO$^+$] abundance ratios $(300^{500}_{200})$ we find are due to isotope fractionation in the cold, dense clouds.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Galaxy evolution scenarios predict that the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity (AGN) can drive the transformation of gas-rich spiral mergers into ULIRGs, and, eventually, lead to the build-up of QSO/elliptical hosts. We study the role that star formation and AGN feedback have in launching and maintaining the molecular outflows in two starburst-dominated advanced mergers, NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of their molecular gas reservoirs. We have used the PdBI array to image with high spatial resolution (0.5"-1.2") the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) line emissions in NGC1614 and IRAS17208-0014, respectively. The velocity fields of the gas are analyzed and modeled to find the evidence of molecular outflows in these sources and characterize the mass, momentum and energy of these components. While most (>95%) of the CO emission stems from spatially-resolved (~2-3kpc-diameter) rotating disks, we also detect in both mergers the emission from high-velocity line wings that extend up to +-500-700km/s, well beyond the estimated virial range associated with rotation and turbulence. The kinematic major axis of the line wing emission is tilted by ~90deg in NGC1614 and by ~180deg in IRAS17208-0014 relative to their respective rotating disk major axes. These results can be explained by the existence of non-coplanar molecular outflows in both systems. In stark contrast with NGC1614, where star formation alone can drive its molecular outflow, the mass, energy and momentum budget requirements of the molecular outflow in IRAS17208-0014 can be best accounted for by the existence of a so far undetected (hidden) AGN of L_AGN~7x10^11 L_sun. The geometry of the molecular outflow in IRAS17208-0014 suggests that the outflow is launched by a non-coplanar disk that may be associated with a buried AGN in the western nucleus.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics

  • No preview · Article · May 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present high resolution (0."4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS17208-0014, Arp220, IC860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (v2=1) J=3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r<17-70 pc) nuclei that have very high implied mid-infrared surface brightness >5e13 Lsun/kpc2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, v2=1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 micron mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1e24 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, the ground vibrational state (v=0), J=3-2 and 4-3 rotational lines of HCN and HCO+ fail to probe the highly enshrouded, compact nuclear regions due to strong self- and continuum absorption. The HCN and HCO+ line profiles are double-peaked because of the absorption and show evidence of non-circular motions - possibly in the form of in- or outflows. Detections of vibrationally excited HCN in external galaxies are so far limited to ULIRGs and early type spiral LIRGs and we discuss possible causes for this. We tentatively suggest that the peak of vibrationally excited HCN emission is connected to a rapid stage of nuclear growth, before the phase of strong feedback.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Our goal is to determine the molecular composition of the circumstellar disk around AB Aurigae (hereafter, AB Aur). AB Aur is a prototypical Herbig Ae star and the understanding of its disk chemistry is of paramount importance to understand the chemical evolution of the gas in warm disks. Methods. We used the IRAM 30-m telescope to perform a sensitive search for molecular lines in AB Aur as part of the IRAM Large program ASAI (A Chemical Survey of Sun-like Star-forming Regions). These data were complemented with interferometric observations of the HCO+ 1-0 and C17O 1-0 lines using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). Single-dish and interferometric data were used to constrain chemical models. Results. Throughout the survey, several lines of CO and its isotopologues, HCO+, H2CO, HCN, CN and CS, were detected. In addition, we detected the SO 54-33 and 56-45 lines, confirming the previous tentative detection. Comparing to other T Tauri's and Herbig Ae disks, AB Aur presents low HCN 3-2/HCO+ 3-2 and CN 2-1/HCN 3-2 line intensity ratios, similar to other transition disks. AB Aur is the only protoplanetary disk detected in SO thus far. Conclusions. We modeled the line profiles using a chemical model and a radiative transfer 3D code. Our model assumes a flared disk in hydrostatic equilibrium. The best agreement with observations was obtained for a disk with a mass of 0.01 Msun , Rin=110 AU, Rout=550 AU, a surface density radial index of 1.5 and an inclination of 27 deg. The intensities and line profiles were reproduced within a factor of 2 for most lines. This agreement is reasonable taking into account the simplicity of our model that neglects any structure within the disk. However, the HCN 3-2 and CN 2-1 line intensities were predicted more intense by a factor of >10. We discuss several scenarios to explain this discrepancy.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: The high abundances of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) with respect to methanol, the most abundant COM, detected towards low-mass protostars, tend to be underpredicted by astrochemical models. This discrepancy might come from the large beam of the single-dish telescopes, encompassing several components of the studied protostar, commonly used to detect COMs. To address this issue, we have carried out multi-line observations of methanol and several COMs towards the two low-mass protostars NGC1333-IRAS2A and -IRAS4A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer at an angular resolution of 2 arcsec, resulting in the first multi-line detection of the O-bearing species glycolaldehyde and ethanol and of the N-bearing species ethyl cyanide towards low-mass protostars other than IRAS 16293. The high number of detected transitions from COMs (more than 40 methanol transitions for instance) allowed us to accurately derive the source size of their emission and the COMs column densities. The COMs abundances with respect to methanol derived towards IRAS2A and IRAS4A are slightly, but not substantitally, lower than those derived from previous single-dish observations. The COMs abundance ratios do not vary significantly with the protostellar luminosity, over five orders of magnitude, implying that low-mass hot corinos are quite chemically rich as high-mass hot cores. Astrochemical models still underpredict the abundances of key COMs, such as methyl formate or di-methyl ether, suggesting that our understanding of their formation remains incomplete.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We present interferometric observations of the CN 1-0 (113.491 GHz), N2H+ 1-0 (93.173 GHz), H(41)a (92.034 GHz), CH3CN (91.987 GHz), CS 3-2 (146.969 GHz), c-C3H2 3-2 (145.089 GHz), H2CO 2-1 (145.603 GHz) and HC3N 16-15 (145.601 GHz) lines towards M82, carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). PDR chemical modelling is used to interpret these observations. Our results show that the abundances of N2H+, CS and H13 CO+ remain quite constant across the galaxy confirming that these species are excellent tracers of the dense molecular gas. On the contrary, the abundance of CN increases by a factor of 3 in the inner x2 bar orbits. The [CN]/[N2 H+ ] ratio is well correlated with the H(41)a emission at all spatial scales down to 100 pc. Chemical modelling shows that the variations in the [CN]/[N2H+] ratio can be explained as the consequence of differences in the local intestellar UV field and in the average cloud sizes within the nucleus of the galaxy. Our high-spatial resolution imaging of the starburst galaxy M 82 shows that the star formation activity has a strong impact on the chemistry of the molecular gas. In particular, the entire nucleus behaves as a giant photon-dominated region (PDR) whose chemistry is determined by the local UV flux. The detection of N2H+ shows the existence of a population of clouds with Av >20 mag all across the galaxy plane. These clouds constitute the molecular gas reservoir for the formation of new stars and, although distributed all along the nucleus, the highest concentration occurs in the outer x1 bar orbits (R = 280 pc).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5mm and 1.2mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), imaging the two nuclear disks in H$^{13}$CN$(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, H$^{13}$CO$^+(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, and HN$^{13}$C$(3 - 2)$ as well as SiO$(2 - 1)$ and $(6 - 5)$, HC$^{15}$N$(3 - 2)$, and SO$(6_6 - 5_5)$. The gas traced by SiO$(6 - 5)$ has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO$^+(3 - 2)$. Spatial offsets $0.1''$ north and south of the continuum centre in the emission and absorption of the SiO$(6 - 5)$ P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of $\sim40$ pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO$(6 - 5)$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+(3 - 2)$ by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H$^{13}$CO$^+$ emission throughout our analysis. Large velocity gradient (LVG) modelling is used to constrain the physical conditions of the gas and to infer abundance ratios in the two nuclei. Our most conservative lower limit on the [H$^{13}$CN]/[H$^{13}$CO$^+$] abundance ratio is 11 in the WN, cf. 0.10 in the eastern nucleus (EN). Comparing these ratios to the literature we argue on chemical grounds for an energetically significant AGN in the WN driving either X-ray or shock chemistry, and a dominant starburst in the EN.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We obtained high resolution (0."25 to 0."90) observations of HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 of the ultraluminous QSO galaxy Mrk231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find luminous HCN and HCO+ 3-2 emission in the main disk and we detect compact (r<90 pc) vibrationally excited HCN 3-2, v2=1f emission centred on the nucleus. The velocity field of the vibrationally excited HCN is strongly inclined (PA=155 deg.) compared to the east-west rotation of the main disk. The nuclear molecular mass is estimated to 8e8 Msun with an average N(H2)of 1.2e24 cm-2. Prominent, spatially extended (>350 pc) line wings are found for HCN 3-2 with velocities +-750 km/s. Line ratios indicate that the emission is emerging in dense gas n=1e4 - 5e5 cm-3 of elevated HCN abundance X(HCN)=1e-8 to 1e-6. High X(HCN) also allows for the emission to originate in gas of more moderate density. We tentatively detect nuclear emission from the reactive ion HOC+ with HCO+/HOC+=10-20. The HCN v2=1f line emission is consistent with the notion of a hot, dusty, warped inner disk of Mrk231 where the v2=1f line is excited by bright mid-IR 14 micron continuum. We estimate the vibrational temperature T_vib to 200-400 K. We propose that 50% of the main HCN emission may have its excitation affected by the radiation field through IR pumping of the vibrational ground state. The HCN emission in the line wings, however, is more extended and thus likely not strongly affected by IR pumping. Our results reveal that dense clouds survive (and/or are formed) in the AGN outflow on scales of at least several hundred pc before evaporating or collapsing. The elevated HCN abundance in the outflow is consistent with warm chemistry possibly related to shocks and/or X-ray irradiated gas. An upper limit to the mass and momentum flux is 4e8 Msun and 12L_AGN/c, respectively, and we discuss possible driving mechanisms for the dense outflow.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: Past observations of QSO host galaxies at z >6 have found cold gas and star formation on compact scales of a few kiloparsecs. We present new high sensitivity IRAM PdBI follow-up observations of the [CII] 158micron emission line and FIR continuum in the host galaxy of SDSS J1148+5152, a luminous QSO at redshift 6.4189. We find that a large fraction of the gas traced by [CII] is at high velocities, up to ~1400 km/s relative to the systemic velocity, confirming the presence of a major quasar-driven outflow indicated by previous observations. The outflow has a complex morphology and reaches a maximum projected radius of ~30 kpc. The extreme spatial extent of the outflow allows us, for the first time in an external galaxy, to estimate mass-loss rate, kinetic power and momentum rate of the outflow as a function of the projected distance from the nucleus and the dynamical time-scale. These trends reveal multiple outflow events during the past 100 Myr, although the bulk of the mass, energy and momentum appear to have been released more recently, within the past ~20 Myr. Surprisingly, we discover that also the quiescent gas at systemic velocity is extremely extended. More specifically, we find that, while 30% of the [CII] within v\in(-200, 200) km/s traces a compact component that is not resolved by our observations, 70% of the [CII] emission in this velocity range is extended, with a projected FWHM size of 17.4+-1.4 kpc. We detect FIR continuum emission associated with both the compact and the extended [CII] components, although the extended FIR emission has a FWHM of 11+-2 kpc, thus smaller than the extended [CII] source. Overall, our results indicate that the cold gas traced by [CII] is distributed up to r~30 kpc. A large fraction of extended [CII] is likely associated with star formation on large scales, but the [CII] source extends well beyond the FIR continuum.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We report the serendipitous detection of the CO(17-16) emission line toward the quasar SDSSJ114816.64+525150.3 (J1148) at redshift z = 6.4 obtained with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. The CO(17-16) line is possibly contaminated by OH+ emission, that may account for ~ 35 - 60% of the total flux observed. Photo-Dissociation and X-ray Dominated Regions (PDRs and XDRs) models show that PDRs alone cannot reproduce the high luminosity of the CO(17-16) line relative to low-J CO transitions and that XDRs are required. By adopting a composite PDR+XDR model we derive molecular cloud and radiation field properties in the nuclear region of J1148. Our results show that highly excited CO lines represent a sensitive and possibly unique tool to infer the presence of X-ray faint or obscured supermassive black hole progenitors in high-z galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2 and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion time scale (tdepl) and gas fraction (Mmolgas/M*) with redshift, specific star formation rate (sSFR) and stellar mass (M*) in SFGs. The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO-H2 mass conversion factor varies little within +-0.6 dex of the main sequence line, and less than a factor of 2 throughout this redshift range. We find that tdepl scales as (1+z)^-0.3 *(sSFR)^-0.5, with no M* dependence. The resulting steep redshift dependence of Mmolgas/M* ~ (1+z)^3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M* relation. At constant M*, a larger sSFR is due to a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion time scale. As a result galaxy integrated samples of the Mmolgas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine Mmolgas with an accuracy of +-0.1 dex in relative terms, and +-0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) is characterized by a peak around redshift z=2-3 and a subsequent drop by an order of magnitude. High levels of star formation are sustained by a continuous supply of fresh gas and high molecular gas fractions. But once galaxies exceed a certain mass or enter a harsh environment, star formation is quenched, and different phenomena could explain the resulting evolution of the cosmic SFR. Is it mostly driven by the available molecular gas, or because star formation processes are more efficient at high redshift? Here we present the results and the perspectives of the PHIBSS programs, which aim at understanding early galaxy evolution and the winding-down of star formation from the perspective of the galaxies' molecular gas reservoirs. These programs use statistically meaningful samples of galaxies belonging to the massive end of the star formation main-sequence at different redshifts. The previous IRAM PHIBSS program has already uncovered large molecular gas reservoirs at redshifts z∼1-2, with gas fractions 4 to 10 times higher than in the local Universe, and the ongoing IRAM and ALMA programs extend the sample to a wider range of redshifts and to a more complete sampling of the stellar mass-SFR plane. The IRAM PHIBSS2 legacy program is designed to make full use of the upcoming NOEMA capabilities.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The existence of disks around high-mass stars has yet to be established on a solid ground, as only few reliable candidates are known to date. The disk rotating about the ~104 L⊙ protostar IRAS 20126+4104 is probably the most convincing of these. Aims. We would like to resolve the disk structure in IRAS 20126+4104 and, if possible, investigate the relationship between the disk and the associated jet emitted along the rotation axis. Methods. We performed observations at 1.4 mm with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer attaining an angular resolution of ~0".4 (~660 AU). We imaged the methyl cyanide J = 12 → 11 ground state and vibrationally excited transitions as well as the CH313CN isotopologue, which had proved to be disk tracers. Results. Our findings confirm the existence of a disk rotating about a ~7-10 M⊙ star in IRAS 20126+4104, with rotation velocity increasing at small radii. The dramatic improvement in sensitivity and spectral and angular resolution with respect to previous observations allows us to establish that higher excitation transitions are emitted closer to the protostar than the ground state lines, which demonstrates that the gas temperature is increasing towards the centre. We also find that the material is asymmetrically distributed in the disk and speculate on the possible origin of such a distribution. Finally, we demonstrate that the jet emitted along the disk axis is co-rotating with the disk. Conclusions. We present iron-clad evidence of the existence of a disk undergoing rotation around a B-type protostar, with rotation velocity increasing towards the centre. We also demonstrate that the disk is not axially symmetric. These results prove that B-type stars may form through disk-mediated accretion as their low-mass siblings do, but also show that the disk structure may be significantly perturbed by tidal interactions with (unseen) companions, even in a relatively poor cluster such as that associated with IRAS 20126+4104.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA observations of the [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z=6.96 Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of sigma_line = 240 micro-Jy/beam (40 km/s channel) and sigma_cont = 21 micro-Jy/beam, we found the galaxy undetected in both [CII] and continuum. Comparison of UV - FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3 sigma FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M_dust < 6.4 x 10^7 M_sun, FIR luminosity L_FIR < 3.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (42.5 - 122.5 micron), total IR luminosity L_IR < 5.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (8 - 1000 micron) and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M_sun/yr, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that < 29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3 sigma [CII] flux limit translates into [CII] luminosity, L_[CII] < 3.4 x 10^7 L_sun. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L_[CII] vs. SFR and L_[CII]/L_FIR vs. L_FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA observations of the [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z=6.96 Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of sigma_line = 240 micro-Jy/beam (40 km/s channel) and sigma_cont = 21 micro-Jy/beam, we found the galaxy undetected in both [CII] and continuum. Comparison of UV - FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3 sigma FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M_dust < 6.4 x 10^7 M_sun, FIR luminosity L_FIR < 3.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (42.5 - 122.5 micron), total IR luminosity L_IR < 5.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (8 - 1000 micron) and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M_sun/yr, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that < 29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3 sigma [CII] flux limit translates into [CII] luminosity, L_[CII] < 3.4 x 10^7 L_sun. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L_[CII] vs. SFR and L_[CII]/L_FIR vs. L_FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · The Astrophysical Journal
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    ABSTRACT: A class of post-AGB/protoplanetary objects are characterized by their low-mass nebula and NIR excess, probably indicative of dust kept close to the central star. We performed deep systematic observations of CO line emission in them. Almost all sources have been detected and show characteristic profiles that, both from theoretical and observational grounds, are known to be very good indicators of rotating disks. We conclude that, very probably, extended rotating disks are systematically present in this class of post-AGB objects. The main properties of the disks (mass, size, dynamics) are estimated, in particular they show a moderate mass of ~ 1e-3 - 1e-2 solar mass. Our observations also show that slow outflows (~ 10 km/s) coexist with the rotating disk in many of these objects, probably in all them. In general they represent a small fraction of the nebular mass, but can be dominant in some cases. Recent high-quality ALMA maps have shown the complex structure of the best studied source, the Red Rectangle. The equatorial disk and the outflow are accurately described. In particular we suggest that the expanding gas has been pulled away from the disk, probably by interaction with the collimated and fast post-AGB jets.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014

Publication Stats

8k Citations
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Institutions

  • 1991-2015
    • Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • Hospital Universitario Henares
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • University of Cambridge
      • Department of Physics: Cavendish Laboratory
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Saint Martin's University
      Мариго, Saint Martin
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy "Galileo Galilei"
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
    • University of Portsmouth
      • Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation ICG
      Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
      • Department of Physics
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 2006-2011
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2002
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Molecular Physics
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2001
    • Universidad de Cantabria
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain
  • 1988-1990
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany