O M S Minzi

Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dār es Salām, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

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Publications (8)11.23 Total impact

  • O M S Minzi · H Irunde · C Moshiro
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    ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral (ARV) drug toxicities pose treatment challenges and contribute to poor adherence. This study was carried out to document the commonly reported adverse reactions caused by ARV drugs in HIV patients in Tanzania. Information on drug induced adverse reactions (ADRs) in patients using ARV drugs was collected from the databases maintained in HIV clinics of Dar es Salaam and Mbeya. A total of 7502 and 1234 records of patients under ARV therapy by December 2006 were analysed in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, respectively. In May, 2008 a cross-sectional study was conducted in which, the association between nevirapine (NVP) plasma concentrations and skin rashes problems was determined in 50 patients put on NVP based HAART for less than 2 weeks. Determination of NVP plasma concentration was carried out using a validated HPLC method in which patients from Dar es Salaam were involved. The study revealed that, anaemia, liver toxicity, skin rash and peripheral neuropathy were the most reported ADRs. The NVP plasma level determination revealed that there was no difference between those who had experienced skin rashes and those who did not (mean of 6.05 and 5.5 microg/ml respectively). There was a slight increase in reported ADRs between 2005 and 2006. A total of 932 (12.4%) patients changed their regimen in Dar es Salaam between January 2005 and December, 2006. Similarly, a total of 542 (44%) patients in Mbeya changed their regimen during that period. It can be concluded that, in both Dar es Salaam and Mbeya patients developed ARV related ADRs which are similar to those reported elsewhere.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Tanzania journal of health research
  • O M S Minzi · AF Haule
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the knowledge of dispensers in private pharmacies on new malaria treatment guidelines which involved switching from chloroquine (CQ) to sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and from SP to artemether-lumefantrine. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the questions focused on whether the subjects were involved in the preparation or implementation of the guidelines or had undertaken any training on how to dispense new antimalarial medicines as recommended in the introduced new treatment guidelines. The study revealed that none of the participants had been involved in the preparation of the treatment guidelines, nor had they undertaken any training on their implementation. As many as 49% of the visited private pharmacies were found to continue stocking and selling CQ tablets and injections. Only 30% and 7% knew the correct dose regimen of SP and ALU respectively and none of them knew the condition of taking ALU with a fatty meal for improved absorption. Lack of involvement of the pharmaceutical personnel working in the private pharmacies, from the preparation of new malaria treatment guidelines to their implementation, contributed to their poor knowledge and skill on how to correctly dispense the medicines.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · East African journal of public health
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    O M S Minzi · A S Naazneen
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is very crucial for successful treatment outcomes. This study aimed to validate patient-self report (PSR) and hospital based pill count (HoPC) as adherence determination methods by using unannounced home visit pill count (HPC). The study was carried out at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and 215 patients purposively selected were recruited. On refi ll day, the remaining pills were counted. They were also asked to report on the number of doses they missed during the past 28 days. They were later visited in their homes without appointment where the remaining pills were counted. Ninety-eight percent and 93% reported to adhere to ART by PSR method and HoPC, respectively. However, only 58% of the same study patients were found to be adherent by ≥ 95% using HPC. In conclusion, PSR and HoPC do not always give reliable adherence data in patients undergoing ART. Therefore, we recommend application of combination methods for adherence measuring in patients starting to include patient self report and hospital based pill count in new patients and complementing them with unannounced home based pill count in experienced patients. Wherever possible, drug plasma concentration measurements should also be established.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2008 · Tanzania journal of health research
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of artesunate (AT) on the disposition kinetics of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) in humans. In a randomized cross-over study, 16 healthy volunteers were given a dose of three SP tablets containing 500 mg of sulfadoxine (SDX) and 25 mg of pyrimethamine (PYR) (=SP group), while the second arm received three SP tablets + two AT tablets of 200 mg in total followed by 100 mg AT for the next 4 days (SP+AT group). Blood samples (100 microl) were collected by means of a finger prick and dried on filter paper. The blood spots were wrapped in polythene folders and stored at room temperature until analysis. The samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. The peak concentration C(max)), time required to attain peak concentration (T(max)), half-life (t ((1/2))) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) were determined. The C(max) of SDX were 92.9 and 98.9 microg/ml for the SP and SP+AT arms, respectively; for PYR, these were 0.86 and 0.79 microg/ml, respectively. The T(max) of SDX were 10 and 8 h for the SP and SP+AT arms, respectively; for PYR, these were 4.0 and 3.0 h, respectively. The AUC(0-288) of SDX were 15,840 and 18,876 microg/ml h for the SP and SP+AT arms, respectively; for PYR, they were 124 and 112 microg/ml h, respectively. The t ((1/2)) of values for SDX were 165 and 180 h for the SP and SP+AT arms, respectively; for PYR, these were 158 and 177 h, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the C(max), T(max), AUC(0-288) and t ((1/2)) between the two arms (p > 0.05). Taking AT concomitantly with SP does not have any impact in the disposition of SP.
    No preview · Article · May 2007 · European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this work was to assess the relative bioavailability of two tablet formulations containing sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) and marketed in Tanzania. Twelve healthy volunteers were randomized to receive a single oral dose of three SP tablets each containing 500 mg sulfadoxine (SDX) and 25 mg pyrimethamine (PYR) in a form of either A (a locally manufactured SP tablet formulation, manufactured by a local pharmaceutical industry in Tanzania) or B (Fansidar), Hoffmann La Roche, Basel, Switzerland, an innovator's SP) after an overnight fasting. Serial blood samples (100 microL) were collected from a finger prick in duplicate up to 10 days and dried on Whatman filter paper. The samples were assayed for SDX and PYR using high-performance liquid chromatographic methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters of SDX and PYR were estimated by single compartment method. The pharmacokinetics of formulation A--maximum plasma concentration, the areas under the plasma concentration--time curve and the relative bioavailability (A versus B) were significantly lower than those of formulation B (P < 0.1). These observed differences indicate bioinequivalence between the two products.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2006 · Tropical Doctor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the diffusion of the change of first line antimalarial drug from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) at household level in a rural district of Tanzania less than a year after the policy implementation. Caretakers in 729 households were interviewed on knowledge of the new policy, home stocking of antimalarials, home-treatment practices of children younger than 5 years with fever, health-seeking behaviour and experience of SP. SP and CQ levels in blood were analysed from 328 children younger than 5 years in the households. Twelve focus group discussions (FGD) were performed with mothers, fathers and health workers. About 51% of the population knew that SP was the first line antimalarial. Only 8% of mothers stocked antimalarials, and only 4% stated self-treatment as the first action. We estimated that 84% of the children who had had fever during the last 4 weeks sought care at public health facilities. SP was detectable in 18% of the total child population and in 32% of those with reported fever, CQ in only 5% and 7%, respectively. The FGDs revealed negative perceptions of SP and fear of severe adverse reactions with mass media reported as key informant. The policy had diffused to the communities in the sense that CQ had been changed to SP, which was well known as first line treatment. Moreover, there was a reported dramatic change from self-treatment with CQ to seeking care at public health facilities where SP was given under observation.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2005 · Tropical Medicine & International Health
  • O.M.S. Minzi · A.Y. Massele · L.L. Gustafsson · Ö. Ericsson
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    ABSTRACT: A cost-effective HPLC method for determination of pyrimethamine (PYR) in human whole blood samples dried on filter paper (Whatman) is reported. Trimethoprim (TMP) was used as an internal standard. Whole blood spiked with PYR was transferred (100 microl) onto filter paper and dried at room temperature. Capillary blood samples (100 microl) after ingestion of three tablets of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) by one subject were also tested. PYR and an internal standard (IS) TMP were extracted into di-isopropyl ether as bases and then re-extracted with 150 microl mobile phase. A C-18 column was used and the mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 5):acetonitrile:concentrated perchloric acid (750:300:2.5, v/v/v). The absorbances of PYR and IS were monitored at 270 nm. The limit of quantification was 40 ng/ml. The within- and between-assay coefficient of variations were <10% at the limit of quantification.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Chromatography B
  • O M S Minzi · M Rais · J O Svensson · L L Gustafsson · Ö Ericsson
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    ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of amodiaquine (AQ), desethylamodiaquine (DAQ), chloroquine (CQ) and desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in human whole blood, plasma and urine is reported. 4-(4-Dimethylamino-1-methylbutylamino)-7-chloroquinoline was used as internal standard. The drugs and the internal standard were extracted into di-isopropyl ether as bases and then re-extracted into an acidic aqueous phase with 0.1 M phosphate buffer at pH 4.0 for AQ samples and at pH 2.5 for CQ filter paper samples. A C(18) column was used and the mobile phase consisted of methanol-phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 3)-perchloric acid (250: 747.5:2.5, v/v). The absorbance of the drugs was monitored at 333 nm and no endogenous compound interfered at this wavelength. The limit of quantification in whole blood, plasma and urine was 100 nM for AQ and DAQ (sample size 100 microliter) as well as for CQ and DCQ in blood samples dried on filter paper. For 1000 microliter AQ and DAQ samples, the limit of quantification was 10 nM in all three biological fluids. The within-assay and between-assay coefficients of variations were always <10% at the limits of quantification. Plasma should be preferred for the determination of AQ and DAQ since use of whole blood may be associated with stability problems.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Chromatography B