[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-polio human enteroviruses are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis in children. The role of enterovirus PCR for diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis has not been fully explored.
A retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis and to evaluate the role of enterovirus PCR for the diagnosis and management of this clinical entity. The medical records of children who had as discharge diagnosis aseptic or viral meningitis were reviewed. A total of 506 children, median age 5 years, were identified. The annual incidence rate was estimated to be 17/100,000 children less than 14 years of age. Most of the cases occurred during summer (38%) and autumn (24%). The dominant clinical symptoms were fever (98%), headache (94%) and vomiting (67%). Neck stiffness was noted in 60%, and irritation in 46% of the patients. The median number of CSF cell count was 201/mm(3) with polymorphonuclear predominance (>50%) in 58.3% of the cases. Enterovirus RNA was detected in CSF in 47 of 96 (48.9%) children tested. Children with positive enterovirus PCR had shorter hospitalization stay as compared to children who had negative PCR or to children who were not tested (P = 0.01). There were no serious complications or deaths.
Enteroviruses accounted for approximately one half of cases of aseptic meningitis. PCR may reduce the length of hospitalization and plays important role in the diagnosis and management of children with aseptic meningitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in children with human immunodeficiency virus disease without cytomegalovirus retinitis or visual symptoms.
Thirty-eight eyes of 19 human immunodeficiency virus-positive children (group A) with visual acuity of 20/20 or better, normal color vision testing and no ophthalmoscopically detectable disorders were prospectively examined. All subjects of group A had no history of cytomegalovirus retinitis and CD4 counts consistently above 100. Patients in group B (40 eyes of 21 patients) were human immunodeficiency virus-negative age-matched control subjects. Thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer along a 3.4-mm-diameter circle centered on the optic nerve head was evaluated using third-generation optical coherence tomography. CD8 T-lymphocyte count, presence of systemic infection, hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum beta-microglobulin levels were also recorded.
The mean overall retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in groups A and B were 89.2 +/- 24.01 microm and 102.82 +/- 29.168 microm (SD) respectively. The difference was considered extremely significant (P < 0.0001). Group A had significantly thinner average nerve fiber layer in temporal, nasal, superior and inferior retinal areas.
Significant retinal nerve fiber layer thinning occurs in human immunodeficiency virus-positive children with no visual impairment or ophthalmologic evidence or retinitis.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder due to a genetic defect concerning programmed cell death (apoptosis). Most patients are carriers of a heterozygous mutation affecting the TNFRSF6 (Fas). Treatment of autoimmune complications of ALPS includes corticosteroids, gamma-globulin infusions, and in refractory cases, splenectomy, cytostatic agents, and bone marrow transplantation. A 10-year-old boy with ALPS manifested by recurrent febrile episodes, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias refractory to corticosteroid therapy is presented. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil, an immunosuppressive agent typically used in organ transplantation was initiated. This treatment was successful with resolution of thrombocytopenia, decrease in lymphadenopathy, and improvement of his general clinical condition for over 2 years of duration.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 7-valent CRM197 conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV)-induced immune response were evaluated in all Greek symptomatic HIV-1 infected children and 21 age-matched controls. PCV immunogenicity was inferior in HIV patients compared with the controls although differences in geometric mean concentrations (GMC) were not significant (P>.05). Immune responses were strikingly different after anamnestic immunization, given in all study subjects, 12 months later. HIV-positive children achieved lower GMC for all serotypes compared with the controls (P=.002) and avidity for all except serotype 6B was inferior compared to baseline. Long-term PCV effectiveness is expected to be reduced among symptomatic HIV-1 infected children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A retrospective study was conducted between July 1990 and July 2002 to investigate the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and the outcome of Salmonella bacteraemia in children. A total of 148 episodes of bacteraemia were identified in 144 children. The annual incidence ranged from 1.6 to 8.3 cases per 100,000 children < or = 14 y of age, and higher numbers of cases occurred in summer than in winter months. In 22 children the bacteraemia was caused by S. typhi and in 122 by S. non-typhi. S. enteritidis was the most common serotype isolated. Resistance to ampicillin was exhibited by 28.5% of Salmonella isolates, whereas all S. typhi isolates were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics. The mean age was 40.3 months (range 50 d to 14 y). Children with S. typhi bacteraemia were significantly older than children with S. non-typhi bacteraemia (7.8 vs 2.4 y, p < 0.01). 11 children were immunosuppressed. The immunosuppressed children had longer duration of fever, longer hospitalization stay, and higher relapse rates compared to normal children (p < 0.05). Four children developed complications and 1 died. Although the incidence of S. typhi bacteraemia is decreasing, the non-typhi species continue to cause significant morbidity in our geographical region.
No preview · Article · Aug 2004 · Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine-induced immunological memory was evaluated in all Greek symptomatic HIV-1-infected children. Patients had significantly lower anti-Hib polysaccharide IgG levels at one month, compared with controls [geometric mean concentration (μg/ml) 4.4 versus 41.24, P < 0.001]. Avidity declined post-vaccination and remained low thereafter. A second booster 18 months later failed to increase the concentration and avidity of polyribosylribitol phosphate. Immunological memory is impaired among symptomatic children and cannot be restored by repeated immunizations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In response to an increase in the incidence in invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) due to Neisseria meningitidis, a system of hospital- and laboratory-based surveillance was used in a prospective epidemiological and clinical assessment of IMD in children 0-13 years of age hospitalized in the Athens area between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2000. The annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed disease was 10.2/100,000. Serogroup B strains were predominant. There was a sharp decrease in serogroup C from 19% of cases in 1999 to 3% in 2000 (P=0.013). Of note was the emergence of serogroup A responsible for 7% of the cases. The overall case fatality rate was 4.5%, but 2.8% for microbiologically confirmed cases. A remarkable decrease in disease severity assessed by admissions to intensive care units was noted during the second study year. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods for detection of meningococcal DNA were the sole positive laboratory test in 45% of the cases and the only test on which serogroup determination was based in 52% of groupable cases. The epidemiological and clinical profile of meningococcal disease appears to be rapidly evolving and close monitoring is required particularly for input into decisions regarding use of meningococcal vaccines.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2003 · FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three vertically HIV-infected children showed, in addition to oral candidiasis, HIV-gingivitis, which healed on antimycotic treatment. The intense linear gingival erythema of a fourth child was also clinically evaluated as a possible form of erythematous oral candidiasis. Direct microscopic examination of material from the gingival lesions of the latter disclosed yeast cells and hyphae. Subsequent culture, biochemical and serological tests identified the yeast as Candida dubliniensis. As the patient was on long-term prophylaxis with fluconazole, ketoconazole was administered and led to a good clinical response. This is the first report implicating this new Candida species as a pathogen in linear gingival erythema in a HIV-positive individual. The case reports presented provide evidence that linear gingival erythema may be of candidal origin. Further clinical and laboratory observations are required to establish whether this condition constitutes a variant of erythematous candidiasis associated with paediatric HIV infection.
No preview · Article · May 1999 · Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine