Gus Gill

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, California, United States

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Publications (13)22.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was twofold: 1) to search for potential biomarkers that were overexpressed in cell lines that could represent both a clinical premalignant (immortalized) and a malignant state, and 2) to attempt to correlate metallothionein gene expression with clinical outcome in laryngeal carcinoma. A series of in vitro experiments were used to unearth differentially expressed genes among normal, immortalized and tumorigenic cell lines. Secondarily, a retrospective analysis was undertaken. Differential display analysis was conducted to identify differentially expressed genes between human papillomavirus-infected immortalized HOK16B and benzo[ ]pyrene-derived tumorigenic cell line, HOK16B-BaP-T. The cell-specific expressions were examined by Northern blot analysis and compared with other known immortalized and cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining was also conducted to localize metallothionein (MT I/II) protein expression among the different cell lines studied. A retrospective analysis of laryngeal specimens from archival tissues of 29 cancer patients who underwent primary surgical resection was also undertaken after immunohistochemical staining. Twenty-one differentially expressed complementary cDNA clones, both novel and known, were identified using the differential display analysis. Northern blot analysis confirmed that clone 6 hybridized to a 1.6-kb RNA in HOK16B-Bap-T cell line. Clone 4 showed decreased expression in immortalized and cancer cell compared with NHOK. MT I/II transcript was observed in HOK16B, which was further elevated in HOK16B-Bap-T. Retrospective analysis showed that high immunoreactivity to MT I/II in surgically resected laryngeal cancer specimen correlated with increased frequency of recurrence within 2 years of surgery. These findings suggest that clone 4 may potentially function as a tumor suppressor gene, which may be significant in tumor progression and invasion. Clone 6 may participate in viral-mediated oncogenic transformation of normal cells. Clone 6 may also have potential as a tumor maker differentiating normal from malignant tissue, as in the determination of surgical resection margins. MT I/II gene product may serve as a prognostic biomarker for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The differentially expressed genes and gene products may serve as sensitive biomarkers for improved early detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2003 · The Laryngoscope
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments were carried out to investigate whether different lymphatic tumour cell lines have similar kinetic characteristics of phagocytosis of microorganisms. Six tumour cell lines were used. These were a human T-cell line (CEM), a mouse T-cell line (YAC-1), a human B-cell line (LAZ), and a human erythroleukemic tumour cells (K562), whereas 2 cell lines of professional phagocytosis were used as controls, a human macrophage cell line (THP1) and a mouse macrophage cell line (P388D1). Tumour cells were mixed with candida albicans at a ratio of 10:1 of candida to tumour cells and the percentage of tumour cells that had attached/phagocytosed candida was determined. After 4 h coculture with candida, tumour cells not of T-cell origin (LAZ and K562) showed moderate level of phagocytosis (28%), whereas tumour cells of T-cell origin (CEM and YAC-1) demonstrated low levels of phagocytosis (15%) as compared to macrophage cell lines (THP1 and P388D1) that showed maximum phagocytosis (64-78%). Acid phosphatase (AcPase) activity was increased by 33% during coculture of YAC-1 cells and yeast cells. In conclusion, the results suggest that lymphatic tumour cells of nonphagocytic origin acquire phagocytic properties during the course of malignancy, and digestion of phagocytosed yeast cells maybe related with AcPase activity, as well as that of other lysosomal enzymes. This phenomenon may represent one mechanism by which tumour cells downregulate immune surveillance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2003 · Acta Histochemica
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines the effect of methylcholanthrene (MCA), a a carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbon, on the carbohydrate receptor determinants (RD) on natural killer (NK) cell surface using the bead-coupled lectin assay. Murine NK cells exhibited different degrees of preferential binding to the specific lectins tested. Of the ten lectins tested, five exhibited a positive binding affinity while the remaining five exhibited no or insignificant binding. NK cells bind to beads derivatized with mannose specific lectins: Concanavalin A (Con A), Lens culinaris, and Pisum sativum. NK cells also bind to other lectin beads such as Triticum vulgaris (GalNac) and Vicia villosa (D-GlcNAc). All these lectin beads exhibited greater than 90% adhesion. The underivatized control beads exhibited no NK binding. The NK cells that were exposed to MCA for 2 h demonstrated a significant decrease in lectin bead-cell coupling in a dose dependent manner. MCA (10 micrograms/mL) caused a 17.8%, 40% and 4.7% decrease in binding affinity when introduced to the mannose specific lectins; Con A, L. culinaris and P. sativum beads, respectively. The binding of T. vulgaris and V. villosa to NK cells was inhibited (23.4% and 28%) by MCA treatment. An increase in the dose to 20 micrograms/mL resulted in a greater inhibition in binding affinity towards lectin beads. Con A, 35.3%, L. culinaris, 62.6%, P. sativum, 30.9%, T. vulgaris, 44.2% and V. villosa, 46.2%. The effect of MCA activation and cytotoxic response. Hydrolysis of PI metabolites (PIP and PIP2) cause generation of secondary messenger: inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, both of which elicit an immune response through their products (Ca2+ and PKC) respectively. Identification of the relationship between receptor level, induction of second messenger and cytotoxic activity may resolve the molecular basis of suppression of NK cytotoxicity by MCA and other PAH compounds.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1997 · Toxicology and Industrial Health
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of therapy with active hemicellulose compound (AHCC) were examined in 11 cancer patients. AHCC is a myecelic extract of basidiomycota originating from hybrid mushrooms. Significant anticancer activity by AHCC was observed with advanced malignancies in patients given 3 g of AHCC daily. The percentages of patients with complete remission were as follows: (i) prostatic, 2/3 (66%), PSA level < 0.2; (ii) ovarian, 2/3 (66%), CA 125 < 35; (iii) multiple myeloma, 1/2 (50%), BJP < 5; (iv) breast, 1/3 complete remission and 2 partial. Two mechanisms by which AHCC exerts its effect were investigated. The first was natural killer (NK) immunomodulation. Patients demonstrated a low base level of NK activity (18.8%), which was significantly enhanced by AHCC at 2 weeks (2.5-fold), and was maintained at a high level. The second was direct anticancer properties. In vitro studies showed that AHCC possesses suppressive effects on tumour cell growth. AHCC (1 mg/ml) cultured with K562 and Raji tumour cells caused 21% and 43% decrease in cell counts, respectively, as compared to control untreated cells. It is concluded that the high augmentory effect of AHCC and the absence of notable side-effects make AHCC a promising immunotherapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer patients.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1995
  • M. Ghoneum · A. Vojdani · K. Suzuki · G. Gill
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    ABSTRACT: Natural Killer (NK) cells have been characterized from several viewpoints. However, we still know very little about the nature of phagocytosis by these cells. In this report, we demonstrated that murine NK cells are indeed phagocytic cells using Candida albicans (CA) as test organism. NK cells were isolated by percoll discontinuous gradients technique and their percentage was appoximately 90% as the cells were identified morphologically in cytospin preparation and by asialo GM1 surface marker using flow cytometry, while the percentage of macrophage in the LGL preparation was 1-2%. Phagocytosis by NK cells is an active process which has been demonstrated at 5-10 min after culture of NK cells with CA. The phagocytic activity was maximized (65%) at 1-2 hr and started to decline (53%) at 4 hr. The studies also revealed an interesting relationship between phagocytosis by NK cells and the antitumor activity by these effector cells. NK cells that were cultured with CA exhibited a significant decrease in their cytotoxic reactivity against YAC-1 targets. The mechanism by which phagocytosis suppresses NK activity is not yet known, but could be attributed to a defect in NK lytic stage since effector cell binding capacity to their tumor targets was not altered. We conclude that: 1) phagocytosis of CA may provide a new evidence of origin of NK cells as phagocytic cell precursors, and 2) phagocytosis induced suppression in NK activity via interference with the cytolytic pathway of effector cells.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1993
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) and inorganic tin (IT) on murine natural killer (NK) cell activity were tested in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice fed with TBT (10 and 100 ppm) daily for 1 week exhibited suppression in NK activity 38-46% at effector:target (E:T) ratio = 50:1 compared to control mice. On the other hand, animals treated with inorganic tin showed no change in activity of NK cells. In vitro studies showed leukocytes, preincubated with TBTCl (0.01-0.1 ppm) at room temperature for 1 h and then washed three times, demonstrated significant suppression in NK activity (41 and 85%) at concentrations 0.01 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Increasing the dose to 0.1 ppm, resulted in complete inhibition of the activity of NK cells. In contrast, IT had no effect on NK activity in vitro at the same concentrations of TBTCl. The effect of TBTCl appears to be due to interference with the binding capacity of effector cells, a necessary prerequisite for target cell lysis. In conclusion, TBTCl proved to be a very potent inhibitor of NK activity; this inhibition may predispose animals to malignancy, which is a characteristic feature reported recently for some TBT compounds.
    No preview · Article · Sep 1990 · Environmental Research
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    M Ghoneum · IA Sadek · G Gill · EL Cooper

    Full-text · Article · Aug 1990 · Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
  • M Ghoneum · F Salem · H Allen · G Gill
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    ABSTRACT: Eighty-nine random Pap smears of the uterine cervix were examined to evaluate the phagocytic abnormal cells (PACs) of atypical, dysplastic and neoplastic tissues against infiltrated blood cells. The results revealed that none of the PACs have been identified in atypical (II) and mild dysplastic cells (IIIa). Low levels (1.2%) of PACs were initially demonstrated in patients with moderate dysplasia (IIIb) that increased 1.7-fold in subsequent severe dysplasia (IIIc) and further increased 2.8-fold in invasive carcinomas of the cervix (V). In addition, the data showed age-related responsiveness toward the development of PACs, where 82% of old patients have developed phagocytic activity in moderate dysplastic cells compared with 27% of young patients. However, the difference became less significant at the subsequent classes of the disease. These data further demonstrated that PACs are class-dependent and it may explain one mechanism by which precancerous cells escape immunosurveillance.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1988 · Natural immunity and cell growth regulation
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    ABSTRACT: Natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity was studied in 18 patients with vitiligo and 13 healthy age-, race-, and sex-matched control subjects. The 4-hour chromium51 (51Cr) release assay was used to determine the activity of natural killer (NK) cells in the peripheral blood against K562 and Molt-4 target cells. Patients with vitiligo had a 50%, 67%, and 60% decrease in the cytotoxic response with Molt-4 cells at effector-target ratios of 25:1, 50:1, and 100:1, respectively, in comparison with control subjects (p less than 0.001). This inhibition was consistent with an 80% decrease in the binding capacity of NK cells to Molt-4 target cells (p less than 0.005). In contrast, cytotoxic responses did not differ in patients and control subjects with K562 target cells. These results suggest that patients with vitiligo have a decreased capacity for effector cell recognition of Molt-4 target cells but not K562 target cells. Hence patients with vitiligo may have defective clones of NK cells that are incapable of initial recognition of Molt-4 target cells, a necessary prerequisite for target cell lysis. Perhaps this phenomenon occurs with other tumor cells, which would explain the association of vitiligo with certain internal malignancies.
    No preview · Article · Nov 1987 · Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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    M Ghoneum · G Gill · P Assanah · W Stevens
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    ABSTRACT: We determined an in vivo response of NK cells in young and old rats towards the suppressive effect of stress. Stress was developed by isolating rats in separate cages, but control littermates were kept together. Animals were subjected to stress for 7 days, and alterations of NK cell activities were examined in the spleen, peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM). The results showed that old rats subjected to stress had a remarkable decrease in splenic and PB-NK activity compared to old control rats, concomitant with a highly increased level of NK cell activity in BM. Suppression of the lytic activity in the spleen of stressed old rats was correlated with a decrease in the percentage of conjugate formation between splenic NK cells and target tumour cells. In contrast, stressed young rats demonstrated relatively unchanged activity of NK cells examined in different tissues compared to age-matched controls. We concluded that old animals are more sensitive to the suppressive effect of stress compared to young ones, and the mechanism of this suppression is probably due to the migration of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) from spleen and PB to other sites such as BM.
    Preview · Article · Apr 1987 · Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: C3H mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with a tumorigenic dose (150 micrograms/mouse) of 3-methylcholanthrene (MC), followed by a 24-h injection and subsequent weekly injections of Corynebacterium parvum (CP) i.p. for a total of 100 days. Basal and CP-augmented NK cell activities were measured in controls and treatment groups during pre-tumor and tumor development stages. Basal NK activity in spleen, peripheral blood and lung tissue was enhanced by CP, but was suppressed by MC. A resulting transient MC induced suppression of splenic NK activity at 10 days was partially restored and sustained by CP treatment and immunosuppression was again observed in tumor-bearing compared to control mice. Mice treated with MC alone showed a higher tumor incidence than animals treated with MC + CP at 45-60 days, while there was no difference in tumor incidence in these two treatment groups at 100 days post injection. The mechanism of the observed transient immunosuppression induced by MC appears to be related to an early toxic effect on large granular lymphocytes (LGL) which was decreased at 10 days and again at 100 days in tumor-bearing mice. Although MC did not appear to exert an effect on effector:target cell conjugate formation, an early suppression in the lytic activity of LGL, may have predisposed the animal to malignant transformation of susceptible cells at the site of MC injection.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · International Journal of Immunopharmacology
  • M Ghoneum · F Salem · S.-S.T. Shum · L Perry · G Gill
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphophagocytosis by nonlymphoreticular neoplasms has been observed. Twenty cancer patients having either adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma were the subjects of our study. Malignant cells were found to phagocytize autologous lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and red blood cells (RBCs). Papanicolaou smears from cancer patients revealed that 30% (6/20) of the patients had phagocytic malignant cells in situ, the mean phagocytosis for this group was 3.7%. Different cellular elements showed differences in their susceptibility towards phagocytic activity of tumor cells: 2.6% for lymphocytes, 0.7% for PMNs and 0.4% for RBCs. The patients having phagocytic malignant cells showed complete absence of monocytes in their peripheral blood. In contrast, other patients had peripheral blood monocyte percentages within the limits of control values (7.2). However, there was no correlation between development of phagocytic activity of malignant cells and age and sex of patients or type of tumor. This study further confirms that phagocytic activity of nonlymphoreticular neoplasms is a general phenomenon which can be directed against erythroid elements. In addition, we have demonstrated that these tumor cells also phagocytize autologous leukocytes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1987 · Natural immunity and cell growth regulation
  • M Ghoneum · G Gill · L Perry

    No preview · Article · Dec 1986 · The Laryngoscope