[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modern comparative genomics has been established, in part, by the sequencing and annotation of a broad range of microbial
species. To gain further insights, new sequencing efforts are now dealing with the variety of strains or isolates that gives
a species definition and range; however, this number vastly outstrips our ability to sequence them. Given the availability
of a large number of microbial species, new whole genome approaches must be developed to fully leverage this information at
the level of strain diversity that maximize discovery. Here, we describe how optical mapping, a single-molecule system, was
used to identify and annotate chromosomal alterations between bacterial strains represented by several species. Since whole-genome
optical maps are ordered restriction maps, sequenced strains of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a (2457T and 301), Yersinia pestis (CO 92 and KIM), and Escherichia coli were aligned as maps to identify regions of homology and to further characterize them as possible insertions, deletions,
inversions, or translocations. Importantly, an unsequenced Shigella flexneri strain (serotype Y strain AMC[328Y]) was optically mapped and aligned with two sequenced ones to reveal one novel locus implicated
in serotype conversion and several other loci containing insertion sequence elements or phage-related gene insertions. Our
results suggest that genomic rearrangements and chromosomal breakpoints are readily identified and annotated against a prototypic
sequenced strain by using the tools of optical mapping.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2004 · Journal of Bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single molecule approaches offer the promise of large, exquisitely miniature ensembles for the generation of equally large data sets. Although microfluidic devices have previously been designed to manipulate single DNA molecules, many of the functionalities they embody are not applicable to very large DNA molecules, normally extracted from cells. Importantly, such microfluidic devices must work within an integrated system to enable high-throughput biological or biochemical analysis-a key measure of any device aimed at the chemical/biological interface and required if large data sets are to be created for subsequent analysis. The challenge here was to design an integrated microfluidic device to control the deposition or elongation of large DNA molecules (up to millimeters in length), which would serve as a general platform for biological/biochemical analysis to function within an integrated system that included massively parallel data collection and analysis. The approach we took was to use replica molding to construct silastic devices to consistently deposit oriented, elongated DNA molecules onto charged surfaces, creating massive single molecule arrays, which we analyzed for both physical and biochemical insights within an integrated environment that created large data sets. The overall efficacy of this approach was demonstrated by the restriction enzyme mapping and identification of single human genomic DNA molecules.
Preview · Article · Oct 2004 · Analytical Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An extended Brownian dynamics simulation method is used to characterize the dynamics of long DNA molecules flowing in microchannels. The relaxation time increases due to confinement in agreement with scaling predictions. During flow the molecules migrate toward the channel center line, and thereby segregate according to molecular weight. Capturing these effects requires the detailed incorporation of solvent flow in the simulation method, demonstrating the importance of hydrodynamic effects in the dynamics of confined macromolecules.
No preview · Article · Aug 2003 · Physical Review Letters
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues (also known as black death) and has been responsible
for recurrent devastating pandemics throughout history. To further understand this virulent bacterium and to accelerate an
ongoing sequencing project, two whole-genome restriction maps (XhoI and PvuII) of Y. pestis strain KIM were constructed using shotgun optical mapping. This approach constructs ordered restriction maps from randomly
sheared individual DNA molecules directly extracted from cells. The two maps served different purposes; the XhoI map facilitated sequence assembly by providing a scaffold for high-resolution alignment, while the PvuII map verified genome sequence assembly. Our results show that such maps facilitated the closure of sequence gaps and, most
importantly, provided a purely independent means for sequence validation. Given the recent advancements to the optical mapping
system, increased resolution and throughput are enabling such maps to guide sequence assembly at a very early stage of a microbial
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Applied and Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: this article were defrayed in part by payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked "advertisement" in accordance with 18 USC section 1734 solely to indicate this fact
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have constructed NheI and XhoI optical maps of Escherichia coli O157:H7 solely from genomic DNA molecules to provide a uniquely valuable scaffold for contig closure and sequence validation. E. coli O157:H7 is a common pathogen found in contaminated food and water. Our approach obviated the need for the analysis of clones, PCR products, and hybridizations, because maps were constructed from ensembles of single DNA molecules. Shotgun sequencing of bacterial genomes remains labor-intensive, despite advances in sequencing technology. This is partly due to manual intervention required during the last stages of finishing. The applicability of optical mapping to this problem was enhanced by advances in machine vision techniques that improved mapping throughput and created a path to full automation of mapping. Comparisons were made between maps and sequence data that characterized sequence gaps and guided nascent assemblies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bacterium Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a worldwide threat to public health and has been implicated in many outbreaks of haemorrhagic colitis, some of which included fatalities caused by haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Close to 75,000 cases of O157:H7 infection are now estimated to occur annually in the United States. The severity of disease, the lack of effective treatment and the potential for large-scale outbreaks from contaminated food supplies have propelled intensive research on the pathogenesis and detection of E. coli O157:H7 (ref. 4). Here we have sequenced the genome of E. coli O157:H7 to identify candidate genes responsible for pathogenesis, to develop better methods of strain detection and to advance our understanding of the evolution of E. coli, through comparison with the genome of the non-pathogenic laboratory strain E. coli K-12 (ref. 5). We find that lateral gene transfer is far more extensive than previously anticipated. In fact, 1,387 new genes encoded in strain-specific clusters of diverse sizes were found in O157:H7. These include candidate virulence factors, alternative metabolic capacities, several prophages and other new functions--all of which could be targets for surveillance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The unicellular parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the cause of human malaria, resulting in 1.7-2.5 million deaths each year. To develop new means to treat or prevent malaria, the Malaria Genome Consortium was formed to sequence and annotate the entire 24.6-Mb genome. The plan, already underway, is to sequence libraries created from chromosomal DNA separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The AT-rich genome of P. falciparum presents problems in terms of reliable library construction and the relative paucity of dense physical markers or extensive genetic resources. To deal with these problems, we reasoned that a high-resolution, ordered restriction map covering the entire genome could serve as a scaffold for the alignment and verification of sequence contigs developed by members of the consortium. Thus optical mapping was advanced to use simply extracted, unfractionated genomic DNA as its principal substrate. Ordered restriction maps (BamHI and NheI) derived from single molecules were assembled into 14 deep contigs corresponding to the molecular karyotype determined by PFGE (ref. 3).