[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to the production of virus and cell lysis seen in baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) infected with the strain 1086C of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), in buffalo rat liver cells (BRL) neither virus replication nor cytopathic effects were observed. After 29 passages in BRL cells, each alternating with boosts of the recovered virus in BHK-21 cells, the virus acquired the ability to replicate effectively in BRL cells, attaining virus titres comparable to those in BHK-21 cells and producing complete cell destruction. The binding of virus on BRL cells was increased after adaptation and was similar to that observed on BHK-21 cells. Treatment of BRL cells with sialidase resulted in an 87 % reduction in virus binding and inhibition of infection. Sequence analyses revealed three mutations in the VP1 amino acid sequence of the adapted virus at positions 49 (Lys-->Glu), 142 (Leu-->Phe) and 180 (Ile-->Ala). The residue 49 is exposed at the surface of the capsid and is known to be part of a neutralization epitope. These results suggest that the adaptation of EMCV to BRL cells may have occurred through a mutation in a neutralizing site that confers to the virus a capacity to interact with cell surface sialic acid residues. Taken together, these data suggest a link between virus neutralization site, receptor binding and cell permissivity to infection.
Preview · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of General Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging disease in regions where HEV is nonendemic.
In France, the prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in the general population has never been studied. Using blood donors' samples,
we have found a prevalence of 3.20%, which is similar to that of other industrialized countries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Samples of serum from 76 gilts, 1440 sows, 1473 piglets and 3093 finishing pigs from 96 farrow-to-finish herds were tested for antibodies to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in microtitre serum neutralisation tests employing two strains of virus, one associated with myocarditis and the other with reproductive failure. The total seroprevalence of EMCV infection was 2.48 per cent. There was no significant difference between the seroprevalence of the reproductive failure strain (1.6 per cent) and the myocardial strain (1.85 per cent). The seroprevalence was higher in the gilts (6.57 per cent) and sows (5.13 per cent) than in the piglets (1 per cent) and finishing pigs (1.84 per cent), and the highest titres were observed in the sows (1:540) and finishing pigs (1:640). In the gilts, the difference in seroprevalence between the reproductive failure strain (3.95 per cent) and the myocardial strain (5.33 per cent) was wider than in the other groups.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2006 · The Veterinary record
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A recombinant encephalomyocarditis virus (rEMCV2887A-egfp) expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was produced. The EGFP gene was inserted in frame within the leader protein coding sequence of a full-length cDNA clone of EMCV. RNA transcripts derived from the recombinant full-length cDNA were synthesized in vitro and transfected into BHK-21 cells. The recombinant transcript RNA remained infectious despite the insertion of EGFP as shown by cytopathic effects on BHK-21 cells and by propagation of the rescued virus. The replication kinetics in BHK-21 cells and the pathogenicity in mice of rEMCV2887A-egfp did not differ significantly from that of the parental virus. The recombinant virus was shown to produce fluorescence in infected cells after at least five passages in BHK-21 cells. However, a decrease of EGFP expression was observed following serial passages, and this was associated with the accumulation of deletion mutations within the EGFP gene. Nevertheless, using EGFP autofluorescence, infected cells were easily detected in the brain of mice infected with the first-passage recombinant virus. These data demonstrate that rEMCV2887A-egfp could be a useful tool to study virus dissemination and pathogenicity when used at low passages.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although veterinary authorities aim to limit persistence of classical swine fever (CSF) in wild boar (Sus scrofa), to avoid potential transmission to pigs, factors influencing CSF transmission and persistence are not clearly understood. Here we analyse incidence and persistence in a CSF epidemic that occurred in the French Vosges Forest. Higher incidence was found in large forests compared to smaller isolated ones, being highest near the starting point of the epidemic, but poorly related to the local density. We hypothesize that the spatial and social structure of wild boar populations may be responsible for this variability of incidence over space. Persistence was highest near the starting point of the epidemic and where initial density was highest. We hypothesize that persistence was favoured by the abundance of young wild boar, itself encouraged by CSF. Our results allow us to propose management measures aimed at limiting CSF persistence.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Epidemiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the European Community, epizootics of classical swine fever (CSF) in the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are compulsorily monitored because transmission may occur between wild boars and domestic pigs, causing heavy economic losses to the pork industry. The estimation of incidence in populations of wild boars is generally based on viroprevalence. However, viral isolation becomes rare when the incidence is low because the virus cannot be detected for more than a few weeks following infection. On the contrary, seroprevalence is detectable at low incidence levels, because antibodies can be detected for the lifetime of the infected animal. We thus attempted to analyse the long-term evolution of CSF incidence using serological data. The data came from France, where CSF had been monitored from 1992 to 2002, and where the virus has not been detected since 1997. We assumed that the overall seroprevalence would estimate the proportion of immune wild boars, that seroprevalence in juveniles would approximate incidence and that seroprevalence in different age classes would show the evolution of incidence in a given cohort. Spatial and temporal trends of incidence and seroprevalence were explored using logistic modelling and the spatial trend was analysed using polynomial regression. In 1992, incidence peaked in the northern area. After 1993, incidence decreased but remained the highest in the northern area. After 2000, no seropositive juvenile was observed, suggesting the extinction of the epizootic. Our results support the reliability of serological monitoring since it allowed a longer detection of viral transmission and provided more information on the spatio-temporal evolution of incidence than did viral isolation. We advocate that the highest persistence of infection in northeastern France is not independent from infection persistence in Reinland-Pfalz (Germany). Such persistence may be due to favourable local conditions and/or the social organisation of wild boars.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oysters harvested in western France, from five sites associated with outbreaks of food-borne norovirus gastroenteritis between February 2000 and March 2001, were assayed for enterovirus RNA by reverse transcriptase-heminested polymerase chain reaction (RT-heminested PCR). Forty percent (21/52) of shellfish samples (pool of seven oysters) were contaminated by enteroviruses. Infectious coxsackieviruses serotype A21 were isolated from three of these positive samples. Amplicons corresponding to 65 base sequences in the 5' untranslated region of the enteroviral genome were analyzed by direct sequencing. Interpretable results were obtained from 18 amplicons, but mixtures of sequences confused the results from 3 samples. Sequences isolated from samples from the different sites were different but similarities were observed between sequences detected in shellfish from two sites at different dates. Sequences were also compared to sequences of human, bovine and porcine enteroviruses. Both human and animal origins of enterovirus contamination of shellfish seemed likely.
Preview · Article · May 2004 · International Journal of Food Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an important veterinary pathogen which can cause widespread epidemics. Due to the high antigenic variability of FMDV, it is important to undertake mutation analysis under immunological pressure. To study the bovine antibody response at a molecular level, phage display technology was used to produce bovine anti-FMDV Fabs. CH1-VH chains with FMDV specific binding could be isolated after selection from a library made from vaccinated cattle. Though their involvement in the bovine immune response remains to be ascertained, it is planned to express the five different selected VH domains in bacterial or insect systems as sequence homologies with integrin beta6 chain could shed light on the basis of FMDV type receptor specificities.
No preview · Article · Apr 2004 · Journal of Immunological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We described the construction of a recombinant filamentous phage displaying on its surface the immunodominant site of VP1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The coding sequence was inserted at the amino-terminus of the major coat protein pVIII via a spacer. The hybrid phage proved to be antigenic as it was recognized by polyclonal and monoclonal anti FMDV sera. In two experiments involving immunisation of guinea-pigs with the recombinant phage, a low antibody response was generated. This suggests a possible role for phage displayed peptides in inducing anti FMDV immunity and the possibility of further development is discussed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A PCR-based sequencing method was developed which permits detection and characterization of African swine fever virus (ASFV) variants within 5 and 48 h, respectively, of receipt of a clinical specimen. Amplification of a 478 bp fragment corresponding to the C-terminal end of the p72 gene, confirms virus presence with genetic characterization being achieved by nucleotide sequence determination and phylogenetic analysis. The method was applied to 55 viruses including those representative of the major ASF lineages identified previously by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results confirmed that the p72 genotyping method identifies the same major viral groupings. Characterization of additional viruses of diverse geographical, species and temporal origin using the PCR-based method indicated the presence of ten major ASF genotypes on the African continent, the largest of which comprised a group of genetically homogeneous viruses recovered from outbreaks in Europe, South America, the Caribbean and West Africa (the ESAC-WA genotype). In contrast, viruses from southern and East African countries were heterogeneous, with multiple genotypes being present within individual countries. This study provides a rapid and accurate means of determining the genotype of field and outbreak strains of ASF and is therefore useful for molecular epidemiological clarification of ASF.
Full-text · Article · May 2003 · Archives of Virology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fruits and vegetables may act as a vehicle of human enteric virus if they are irrigated with sewage-contaminated water or prepared by infected food handlers. An elution-concentration method was modified to efficiently detect, by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or by cell culture, contamination by poliovirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Norwalk-like virus (NLV) of various fresh and frozen berries and fresh vegetables. The protocol included washing the fruit or vegetable surface with 100 mM Tris-HCl, 50 mM glycine, and 3% beef extract, pH 9.5 buffer, which favors viral elution from acid-releasing berries, supplemented with 50 mM MgCl2 to reduce the decrease in viral infectivity during the process. The viral concentration method was based on polyethylene glycol precipitation. Copurified RT-PCR inhibitors and cytotoxic compounds were removed from viral concentrates by chloroform-butanol extraction. Viruses from 100 g of vegetal products could be recovered in volumes of 3 to 5 ml. Viral RNAs were isolated by a spin column method before molecular detection or concentrates were filtered (0.22-microm porosity) and inoculated on cell culture for infectious virus detection. About 15% of infectious poliovirus and 20% of infectious HAV were recovered from frozen raspberry surfaces. The percentage of viral RNA recovery was estimated by RT-PCR to be about 13% for NLV, 17% for HAV, and 45 to 100% for poliovirus. By this method, poliovirus and HAV RNA were detected on products inoculated with a titer of about 5 x 10(1) 50% tissue culture infectious dose per 100 g. NLV RNA was detected at an initial inoculum of 1.2 x 10(3) RT-PCR amplifiable units. This method would be useful for the viral analysis of fruits or vegetables during an epidemiological investigation of foodborne diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of food protection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the best techniques to detect hemadsorbing, non-hemadsorbing, and/or noncytopathic African swine fever (ASF) strains. In some circumstances, the collection, storage, and transport of biologic samples to an appropriate laboratory are not easy. For this purpose, the blood sampling on filter paper, a method widely used for the research of genomes by PCR, might be useful. This study has shown that ASFV DNA remains detectable by PCR after dry storage of blood on filter paper for at least 3 months at 30˚C. Thus, the PCR was applied to filter paper blood samples from 62 pigs collected in Malagasy areas infected by ASFV. The ASFV DNA was amplified for 34 of 62 dried blood samples. The results were similar to the previous ones obtained with fresh samples collected at the beginning of the epizootic.
No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine, The
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in clinical samples, an internal control was constructed to identify false negative results in each reaction. The internal control was designed in such a way that the same primer pair was used to amplify the internal control and the target DNA which were differentiated by size. The lower detection limit was reached at about 30 internal control DNA copies and about 50 genomic ASFV DNA copies. The use of the internal control revealed that from a total of 12 uninfected samples, 10 samples contained inhibitors. After a one in two dilution, all ten of these samples amplified the internal control satisfactorily. From a total of 16 samples from pigs suspected of having ASF infection, nine contained inhibitors. After a one in two dilution, we observed internal control amplification and target DNA amplification for four samples.
No preview · Article · Jul 2002 · Molecular and Cellular Probes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method of immunomagnetic separation and one-step reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for the detection of Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). EMCV was captured from sample on magnetic beads with homologous monoclonal antibody and then heat denatured. The heated beads were used directly in one-step RT-PCR reaction to amplify a 285-bp PCR fragment at the 3' end of the genomic region that encodes the viral polymerase. This method detected as little as 3.5 TCID(50) of EMCV from infected cell culture. It was shown with this method that the sensitivity of RT-PCR increased when applied for the detection of EMCV added to fecal extract. Using this protocol EMCV was detected from heart homogenate samples containing less than 100 TCID(50)/ml. The amplified product was sequenced to ensure specificity. The immunomagnetic-RT/PCR procedure described here should be useful for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of EMCV in clinical samples. This technique is rapid, reliable and can be readily adapted to detect EMCV from other clinical samples.
No preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Journal of Virological Methods
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A full-length cDNA clone of an Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) strain (2887A) isolated from aborted swine fetus was constructed and sequenced. Sequence comparison showed more than 99% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity with two other EMCV strains, EMCV-PV21 and -R. However, the 2887A genomic sequence showed only about 84% nucleotide identity and 96% amino acid identity with EMCV-B, -D and -PV2 variants. RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription of this cDNA clone was infectious upon transfection of BHK21 cells, as shown by cytopathic effects and identification by neutralization test, and by propagation of the virus released into the culture media. The transcript RNA led to the production of infectious particles despite the presence of two nongenomic nucleotide residues at the 5' end, the short poly(C) tract (C(10)TCTC(3)TC(10)), the short poly(A) tail (7A), and the presence of six nongenomic nucleotides at the 3' end. The rescued virus was also found to be highly pathogenic for mice by intra-peritoneal inoculation producing a fatal disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. An important finding concerning the molecular basis of infectivity was that the in vitro synthesized EMCV RNA transcript is infectious, although it contains a very short poly(A). The availability of the infectious cDNA clone of the reproductive failure strain of EMCV should prove to be useful for studying the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of EMCV in pig.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African swine fever (ASF) suspected clinically in Madagascar (1998-9) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleotide sequencing, following virus isolation. No haemadsorption or cytopathic effect could be detected following leukocyte inoculation, but viral growth in cells was confirmed by PCR. Detection of ASF virus genome was carried out by amplification of a highly conserved region coding for the p72 protein. Nucleotide sequencing of the amplicon revealed 99.2% nucleotide identity between the recent Malagasy strains and a virus recovered from the 1994 outbreak in Mozambique (SPEC265). A serological survey performed on 449 sera, revealed that only 5.3% of the sera taken from pigs between 1998 and 1999 were positive.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2001 · Epidemiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A serological survey was carried out on French cattle to establish a reference pattern of residual vaccine antibodies and non-specific reactions against the foot-and-mouth disease virus 6 years after the ban on vaccination and in the absence of any foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. Most of the multi-vaccinated cattle still displayed high titres of antibodies and up to 50% of those which had received a single injection still had antibodies. Non-specific reactors were also recorded among animals born during and after 1991. Most of them displayed low titres close to the threshold. Sheep were also tested and, as for cattle, 4.6% of non-specific reactors were recorded, with titres close to the threshold for two-thirds of them. As part of these animals have been resampled and retested, sera revealed negative confirming that these animals are true non-specific reactors. Serological testing as a mean of FMD control should take these facts into account.
Preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Veterinary Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three filamentous phage random peptide display libraries were used in biopanning experiments with purified IgG from the serum of a gnotobiotic foal infected with equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) to enrich for epitopes binding to anti-EHV-1 antibodies. The sequences of the amino acids displayed were aligned with protein sequences of EHV-1, thereby identifying a number of potential antibody binding regions. Presumptive epitopes were identified within the proteins encoded by genes 7 (DNA helicase/primase complex protein), 11 (tegument protein), 16 (glycoprotein C), 41 (integral membrane protein), 70 (glycoprotein G), 71 (envelope glycoprotein gp300), and 74 (glycoprotein E). Two groups of sequences, which aligned with either glycoprotein C (gC) or glycoprotein E (gE), identified type-specific epitopes which could be used to distinguish between sera from horses infected with either EHV-1 or EHV-4 in an ELISA using either the phage displaying the peptide or synthetic peptides as antigen. The gC epitope had been previously identified as an immunogenic region by conventional monoclonal antibody screening whereas the gE antibody binding region had not been previously identified. This demonstrates that screening of phage display peptide libraries with post-infection polyclonal sera is a suitable method for identifying diagnostic antigens for viral infections such as EHV-1.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2000 · Journal of Virological Methods