Wiktor Wesołowski

Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (24)13.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the potential use of predictive models to estimate professional exposure to chemicals in the workplace, such as the operating room, by simultaneous determination of the levels of exposure using a model and measurements. Methods. Measurements included determinations of sevoflurane (SEV) in the workplace air of 117 operating rooms of 31 hospitals in one Polish region. Measurements were carried out at the time of various surgical procedures during administration of anaesthetics by endotracheal intubation. The measurement results were compared with the values estimated using two models: ECETOC TRA and Stoffenmanager. Results. In one case the ECETOC TRA estimated the exposure concentration almost equal to the measured concentration but, because of the need to maintain a margin of safety in case of modelling, it can be concluded that the model underestimated the concentration. The Stoffenmanager model provided accurate exposure estimates in the examined case, and it can be used as a screening tool for the assessment of occupational inhalation exposure of medical personnel to anaesthetics. Conclusions. The results are of particular importance to the circumstances in Eastern Europe, where the levels of anaesthetics often exceed the relevant occupational exposure limits.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · International journal of occupational safety and ergonomics: JOSE
  • WIKTOR WESOŁOWSKI · MAŁGORZATA KUCHARSKA

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of patients to organic substances produced and identified in surgical smoke formed in the abdominal cavity during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Identification of these substances in surgical smoke was performed by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selective ion monitoring (SIM). The selected biomarkers of exposure to surgical smoke included benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Their concentrations in the urine samples collected from each patient before and after the surgery were determined by SPME-GC/MS. Qualitative analysis of the smoke produced during laparoscopic procedures revealed the presence of a wide variety of potentially toxic chemicals such as benzene, toluene, xylene, dioxins and other substances. The average concentrations of benzene and toluene in the urine of the patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in contrast to the other determined compounds, were significantly higher after the surgery than before it, which indicates that they were absorbed. The source of the compounds produced in the abdominal cavity during the surgery is tissue pyrolysis in the presence of carbon dioxide atmosphere. All patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures are at risk of absorbing and excreting smoke by-products. Exposure of the patient to emerging chemical compounds is usually a one-time and short-term incident, yet concentrations of benzene and toluene found in the urine were significantly higher after the surgery than before it.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
  • Małgorzata Kucharska · Wiktor Wesołowski · Jan P. Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: A new procedure has been developed for the assay of cyclopentane using gas chromatography with mass detection. The method is based on the adsorption of cyclopentane on activated charcoal and desorption with carbon disulfide. The resulted solutions are analyzed by gas chromatography using mass detection. The working range of the analytical method is from 150 to 5000 µg/ml (300 to 10 000 mg/m3 for 0,5 l air sample and 30 to 1 000 mg/m3 for 5 l air sample). Limit of quantification: 131,2 µg/ml.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014
  • Małgorzata Kucharska · Wiktor Wesołowski
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC) values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures. Material and methods: The method for the determination of all anesthetics used in Poland, i.e. nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and halothane, was developed and validated. The measurements were performed in 2006-2010 in 31 hospitals countrywide. The study covered 117 operating rooms; air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 146 anesthesiologists, and 154 nurses, mostly anaesthetic. The measurements were carried out during various surgical operations, mostly on adult patients but also in hospitals for children. Results: Time weighted average concentrations of the anesthetics varied considerably, and the greatest differences were noted for N2O (0.1-1438.5 mg/m3); 40% of the results exceeded the MAC value. Only 3% of halothane, and 2% of sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the respective MAC values. Conclusions: Working in operating theatres is dangerous to the health of the operating staff. The coefficient of combined exposure to anesthesiologists under study exceeded the admissible value in 130 cases, which makes over 40% of the whole study population. Most of the excessive exposure values were noted for nitrous oxide.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Medycyna pracy
  • W.Wesołowski · M.Kucharska · J.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: A new procedure has been developed for the assay of ethyl bromide with gas chromatography with mass detection(GC-MS). The method is based on the adsorption of ethyl bromide on petroleum charcoal and desorption with 10% acetone in toluene, The resulting solutions are analysed with GC-MS. The working range of this analytical method is 10 to 1500 micrograms/mL (1-150 mg/m3 for a 10 L air sample). LOQ: 1.76 microgram/mL.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to show the diagnostic procedure used in the two cases with false-positive serum acetaminophen results in suspected acetaminophen poisoning. The determination of serum acetaminophen were carried out using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer (Specord 40 Analytik Jena), coupled with an analytic computer station WinASPECT. The employed method of determination was based on the acetaminophen reaction with sodium nitrite, which yields yellow colour of solution in the presence of sodium hydrate. The intensity of the yellow colour depends on the concentration of acetaminophen in serum. The relationship between absorbance and concentration was linear at concentrations in the range 50-600 microg/mL, with relative standard deviation of +/- 2.1% and detection limit of 30 microg/mL. To confirm or reject the doubtful results of colorimetric assays, the serums of patients were measured with high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. The analysis of presented cases leads to a conclusion that acetaminophen results should be confirmed either by scanning urine for p-aminophenol presence (which is a routine procedure in our laboratory) or by using a different method of measuring acetaminophen serum levels.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Przegla̧d lekarski
  • W.Wesołowski · M.Kucharska · J.P.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: The method is based on the adsorption of butan-2-one on Petroleum Charcoal, desorption with carbon disulfide and gas chromatographic (GC-MSD) analysis of the resulting solution. The determination limit of the method is 44,5 mg/m3
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
  • M.Kucharska · W.wesołowski · J.P.Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: The method is based on the adsorption of cyclohexanol on charcoal, desorption with 5% solution of isopropanol in carbon disulfide and gas chromatographic (GC-MSD) analysis of the resulting solution. The determination limit of the method is 1 mg/m3.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the usefulness of determining unchanged forms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely toluene (TOL), ethylbenzene (EB) and xylene (XYL), in urine with the effectiveness of the already used biomarkers of occupational exposure. Surveys were conducted in two workplaces (paint factory and footwear factory). In total, 65 subjects participated in the study. Air samples were collected using individual samplers during work shift. Urine and blood samples were collected at the end of work shift. Urine samples were analyzed for unchanged compounds and selected metabolites, while blood samples were tested for unchanged compounds. VOCs in blood and urine were determined by solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GC-MS). In the paint factory, the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of VOCs in the air ranged as follows: 0.2-4.7 mg/m(3) for TOL, 0.4-40.9 mg/m(3) for EB and 0.1-122.6 mg/m(3) for XYL. In the footwear factory, the GM concentration of TOL in the air amounted to 105.4 mg/m(3). A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between VOCs in blood, urine and air. The regression analyses performed for paint factory workers showed that TOL-U and TOL-B were better biomarkers of exposure (r = 0.72 and r = 0.81) than benzoic acid (r = 0.12) or o-cresol (r = 0.55). The findings of the study point out that the concentration of unchanged VOCs in urine can be a reliable biological indicator of low level occupational exposure to these compounds.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: Several hundred chemical compounds were found in workroom environments in the rubber industry, but most of the published exposure data relate to the production of tyres; information from the "non-tyre" sections are very limited, if any. This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C12, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Environmental Monitoring
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    ABSTRACT: Some clinical and laboratory studies indicate that industrial solvents such as toluene, styrene, xylene, trichloroethylene and carbon disulfide or their mixtures may affect the inner ear, although the mechanism of this process is still not well understood. The aim of this investigation was to assess the incidence of hearing and vestibular disorders (using modem audiological and vestibular tests) in 61 workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents at the production of paints and varnishes; the control group included 40 age-matched non-exposed subjects. Environmental and biological monitoring revealed that the most significant exposure can be attributed to the following mixture constituents: ethylbenzene, xylene and trimethylbenzene isomers such as pseudocumene, mesitylene and hemimellitene. Electronystagmographic examinations showed the symptoms of vestibular dysfunction, as well as the decreased duration, amplitude and slow phase angular velocity of induced nystagmus in 47.5% of the subjects exposed versus 5% of controls. This was accompanied by sensorineural high frequency hearing loss, identified by means of pure tone audiometry in 42% of those exposed versus 5% controls, and reduced amplitudes of transiently evoked and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. The findings closely correspond with the rate of the total exposure to the solvent mixture. A possible mechanism responsible for ototoxicity of solvents is discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicokinetics and metabolism of pseudocumene after inhalation exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to pseudocumene vapors at nominal concentrations of 25,100 or 250 ppm in the dynamic inhalation chambers for 6 h. Blood samples were collected during (between 1st and 6th h) and after exposure (betwen 6th min and 6th h). Blood concentrations of pseudocumene were estimated by gas chromatography using the headspace technique. During a six-hour exposure, the concentration of pseudocumene in blood increased rapidly within the first 2 h reaching then a plateau. The elimination of pseudocumene from blood followed an open two-compartment model. Urine samples were collected from the exposed animals, and metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Three metabolites were measured in the rat urine after hydrolysis: 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (3,4-DMBA), 2,4-dimethylbenzoic acid (2,4-DMBA) and 2,5-dimethylbenzoic acid (2,5-DMBA). A significant linear correlation was found between the level of exposure and the concentration of dimethylbenzoic acids. The enzyme kinetics of pseudocumene biotransformation was calculated by Lineweaver-Burk equation. Metabolic constants, Km (mg/l) and Vmax (mg/h/kg), the parameters for pseudocumene biotransformation by rats were estimated (3,4-DMBA - Km = 28, Vmax = 96; 2,4-DMBA - Km = 7, Vmax = 25; 2,5-DMBA - Km = 7, Vmax = 23).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2002 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: Styrene exerts ototoxic effect in animals, and the combined exposure to this solvent and noise produces a synergistic effect relative to the isolated exposure to noise. However, there is a lack of reliable evidence that chronic occupational exposure to styrene is ototoxic to humans. Neither has been documented its additive effect with noise. The present study was aimed to assess hearing impairment and the risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to both styrene and noise. The study group included 72 male workers occupationally exposed to styrene in the plastics industry. The results were compared with two control groups, matched by age, gender and personal traits: one group composed of 82 male workers employed in a printing house and exposed only to noise at the levels almost twice as high as those observed in the group exposed to styrene and noise, and the other consisted of 65 male workers exposed neither to solvents nor to noise at workplace. In the group exposed to styrene and noise, significantly increased average hearing loss, as compared to both control groups, was found at all frequencies (1-8 kHz). The risk of hearing loss in the group exposed to styrene and noise was seven times higher (RR: 6.6; 3.0-15.9) than in the non-exposed group, and four times higher (RR: 4.0; 1.8-9.1) than in when workers exposed only to noise. However, no relationship could be observed between the amount of styrene exposure and hearing impairment, taking account of the confounding effect of noise and age. The results of the study suggest that the exposure to solvent mixtures with styrene as a basic component may exert additional, to noise, adverse effect on the auditory organ.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · Medycyna pracy
  • K Sitarek · W Wesołowski · M Kucharska · G Celichowski
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases (halothane, forane and nitrous oxide) was assessed in hospitals located in Lódź and its satellite towns. Individual dosimetry and stationary sampling methods were employed. The samples of air from workplaces were analysed by gas chromatography with mass detection or flow ionisation (halothane, forane) and by infra-red spectroscopy method (nitrous oxide). The concentrations of halothane and accompanying substances (ethanol, isopropanol and diethyl ether) indicate that Polish OELs were met in the majority of the hospitals. As Polish hygiene standards for forane and nitrous oxide are no available, the concentration values were compared with Swedish and German OELs. The comparison revealed that forane concentrations did not exceed Swedish OEL but nitrous oxide did exceed German maximum allowable levels.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible harmful effect of chemicals, especially organic solvents, on the hearing system. In combined exposure to noise and solvents, very common in industry, it is most likely that a synergetic action of these factors enhances the traumatising effect of exposure to noise. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and the risk of hearing impairment in 117 paint and lacquer factory workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents. An analysis of organic solvent mixtures reveals that xylene and ethyl acetate are their major components whose concentrations depend on individual workposts. The control group consisted of 76 workers exposed to noise exceeding, Threshold Limit Value and 125 healthy subjects exposed neither to noise nor to solvents in their occupational setting. Pure tone audiometry revealed the highest hearing thresholds in workers exposed to solvents, lower thresholds in those exposed to noise, and the lowest ones in the non-exposed individuals. Hearing loss was found in 30% of workers exposed to organic solvents, in 20% of noise-exposed subjects, and in only 6% of non-exposed subjects. The comparison of relative risk values also indicated significantly enhanced probability of hearing impairment in workers of the paint and lacquer factory (9.6; 3.2-25.6), which is even more strongly pronounced than in the group of subjects exposed to noise (4.2; 1.2-13.2). An analysis of hearing impairment risk in particular frequencies suggests that organic solvents may damage the inner ear in much greater extent than noise. The results of the study show that exposure to organic solvents may create a significant risk of hearing impairment. Therefore, further steps should be taken to include the exposed population into effective preventive programmes.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2000 · Medycyna pracy
  • W Wesołowski · K Sitarek
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    ABSTRACT: Occupational exposure to ethylene oxide was assessed among the workers remaining in direct contact with ethylene oxide or with ethylene oxide-sterilized instruments in 13 hospitals located in the city of Lódź and its suburbs. Individual dosimetry and stationary sampling methods were employed. The samples collected from the occupational environment were analysed by gas chromatography with mass detection. The analytical method enabled determination of low ethylene oxide concentrations in the presence of the accompanying chemicals, such as ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, ethyl ether and isoflurene. In total, 227 determinations were made, and ethylene oxide at concentrations above 0.01 mg/m3 (which was the detection limit of the method) was found to be present in 164 samples. The ethylene oxide levels were found to vary widely, from lower than 0.01 TLV to several hundred times the TLV value.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1999 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
  • W Wesołowski · J P Gromiec
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation of occupational exposure to solvent vapours in the production of paints and lacquers is presented. The measurements were carried out in 5 paint and lacquer producing plants of the varied level of technical and technological advancement. Evaluation of exposure was based on determination of all substances identified in the work environment. Analysis was performed by gas chromatography with MSD and FID. Standard mixtures composed of 40 substances were used for calibration. The determined levels of exposure were directly dependent on technical conditions and modernisation status in factories investigated. Measurements were carried out in the uniform analytical system, which assures comparability of the data from all the factories under study.
    No preview · Article · Feb 1997 · International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
  • Wiktor Wesołowski · Jan P.Gromiec

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 1997
  • Radosław Świercz · Konrad Rydzyński · Wiktor Wesołowski

    No preview · Article · Oct 1996 · Toxicology Letters