[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this work was to know the dental caries prevalence and treatment need, besides the distribution of the dental caries in a population of 12 year-old teenagers with high incidence of dental caries. 309 adolescents of public schools of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, in 2004, were examined. They were selected by process systematic random and the exams followed the World Health Organization criteria. The percentile of school caries free was of 38.8%. Among the adolescents examined, 36.6% (n=113) presented dental caries. DMFT was of 2.50 (IC95%=2.07-2.93). The decayed component was the highest (61.0%). The coefficient of Gini was 0.602 and SiC value was of 5.97 (IC95%=5.32-6.62); in this group especially, 74.7% (n=74) presented dental caries activity in the moment of the exam. Thus, it can be concluded that the adolescents of this city presented low dental caries experience; however, their needs were not assisted, once most of DMFT was formed of the decayed component at 12 years old. In the group SiC, it was verified that this came quite high, being recommended actions addressed to this specific group of adolescents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares sujeitos a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto na água de abastecimento público das suas cidades. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta de 386 escolares de sete anos de idade, moradores de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo que realizaram heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de 1998 a 2002, um deles apresentando concentração homogênea de fluoreto e o outro oscilante. Fluorose dental foi determinada examinando os incisivos superiores permanentes (secos) pelo índice de Dean, o grau de fluorose classificado como questionável foi considerado como fluorose. Variáveis sociodemográficas e questões sobre saúde bucal foram avaliadas com questionário estruturado enviado aos pais/responsáveis. Associações foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística múltipla (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Ambos os municípios apresentaram grau leve de fluorose. A prevalência de fluorose no município com teores oscilantes de flúor na água foi de 31,4% e no município com teores homogêneos foi de 79,9%. A prevalência de fluorose foi associada com o município com teores de flúor homogêneos na água (OR=8,33, IC 95%: 5,15;13,45) e não possuir automóvel (OR=2,10, IC 95%: 1,27;3,49) CONCLUSÕES: Embora a prevalência de fluorose tenha sido maior nas crianças do município que possuía melhor controle da concentração ótima de fluoreto na água, esta não afetou a estética dental dos comprometidos.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among schoolchildren subjected to different fluoride concentrations in the public water supply of their cities.
The sample comprised 386 seven-year-old schoolchildren living in two municipalities in the State of São Paulo that practiced external control over the fluoridation of the water from 1998 to 2002: one with homogenous fluoride concentration and the other with oscillating concentration. Dental fluorosis was determined by dry examination of the upper permanent incisors using Dean's index. Scores classified as questionable were considered to represent fluorosis. Sociodemographic variables and questions regarding oral health were assessed using a structured questionnaire sent to the children's parents or the adults responsible for these children. Correlates of fluorosis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05).
Both municipalities presented a mild degree of fluorosis. The prevalence of fluorosis in the municipality with oscillating fluoride content in the water was 31.4%, and it was 79.9% in the municipality with homogenous fluoride content. The prevalence of fluorosis was associated with the municipality with homogeneous fluoride levels in the water (OR=8.33, 95% CI: 5.15;13.45) and with not owning a car (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27;3.49).
The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in the city with better control of fluoride levels in the water supply, however, this higher prevalence was not related with children's satisfaction with the appearance of their teeth.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2007 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the role of socioeconomic variables and self-perceived oral health in the polarization of caries among adolescents in Santa Bárbara D'Oeste, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study. Sampling was randomized and sample size was defined according to WHO criteria. Two hundred and seventy seven adolescents (15 to 18 year-old) were examined by five trained examiners that assessed DMFT index according to WHO criteria. Self-perceived oral health, access to dental services and socio-demographic variables were self-reported. Student's t tests, chi-square tests, and multivariate logistic regression (with significant caries index (SiC) as the outcome), were performed.
Mean DMFT was 5.48 (+/-4.22) and the proportion of "caries free" subjects was 15.5%. Mean DMFT (9.71+/-2.85) and mean D (1.67+/-2.18) of SiC positive subjects were significantly higher than mean DMFT (2.88+/-2.17) and mean D (0.45+/-0.87) of SiC negative subjects (p<0.0001). Mean D of white (0.76+/-1.51) was significantly smaller than mean D of non-white subjects (1.32+/-2.01). The only variable independently associated with the "SiC positive" outcome was "report of toothache within six months prior to the study" [OR=1.83 (95%CI 1.08 to 3.12)], p<0.001.
SiC was associated with "report of toothache" but not with socio-demographic variables in the studied population.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2007 · Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify caries activity and analyze caries experience, treatment needs, and enamel defects in 5-year-old preschool children in Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil. 624 children were selected by systematic random sampling in 2004. WHO criteria were used to measure caries experience and treatment needs. Nyvad et al. diagnostic criteria were used to analyze caries activity. Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests were used to analyze the results, with 5% significance. 40.5% of schoolchildren displayed caries activity. The dfmt was 1.62 (95%CI: 1.35-1.89). Among children with dfmt > 0, the index was 3.81 (95%CI: 3.36-4.26), and 91.4% of these children presented caries activity. Care Index was 12.3%. These results suggest that treatment measures and health promotion should continue to be prioritized, since the control measures and caries interruption during the initial stages are well known. Dental care should especially target schoolchildren with more significant caries experience.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypoplasia, demarcated opacity and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren with deciduous and permanent dentition. The association between enamel defects and dental caries was also verified. The sample consisted of 624 schoolchildren aged 5 and 309 aged 12. The dmft and DMFT indexes were used to assess dental caries prevalence, DDE to assess enamel defects, and Dean to assess fluorosis. Chi-squared test was used to test significance (p < 0.05) and odds ratio to analyze prevalence of dental caries and enamel defects. A positive association between dental caries and enamel defects (hypoplasia, demarcated opacity and dental fluorosis) was observed for schoolchildren aged 5. However, only hypoplasia and demarcated opacity were associated with caries experience in permanent dentition. The results of this study indicated that children had increased odds of dental caries when enamel defect was present, both in deciduous and permanent dentition; further studies are needed to give evidence to this association.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar a prevalência de hipoplasia, opacidade demarcada e fluorose dentária em escolares nas dentições decídua e permanente e verificar a associação entre a presença desses defeitos de esmalte e a cárie dentária. A amostra foi de 624 pré-escolares de 5 anos e 309 escolares de 12 anos. A prevalência de cárie dentária foi avaliada por meio dos índices ceod e CPOD, e a prevalência dos defeitos de esmalte, com o índice DDE. A fluorose dentária foi medida pelos critérios do índice de Dean. O teste do qui-quadrado foi usado para verificar a associação e a razão de chances, analisando a força e a direção da associação. Aos cinco anos de idade, em crianças com experiência de cárie, houve associação positiva entre cárie dentária e defeitos de esmalte. Entretanto, na dentição permanente, apenas a hipoplasia e a opacidade demarcada foram associadas à cárie. Os resultados deste estudo indicaram maior chance de crianças virem a ter cárie, tanto na dentição decídua como na permanente, na presença de defeitos de esmalte, porém mais estudos são necessários para a comprovação dessa associação.
Preview · Article · Feb 2007 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze whether two simplified indices, "DMF in 6 Teeth"(DMF6T) and "DMF in two quadrants" (DMF2Q), could be indicated for epidemiological surveys of oral health according to dental caries distribution.
The sample came from epidemiological data in 29 municipalities. A total of 2,378 examinations were done on 12-year-old schoolchildren. The mean DMFT from each locality was utilized to obtain three DMFT prevalence groups (low, moderate and high), for which the simplified indices were calculated. Statistical analysis was done using intraclass correlation and the Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests, with a significance level of 5%.
Intraclass correlation between the DMFT index and the simplified indices ranged from 0.82 to 0.95 (p<0.05). No significant differences in the prevalence of the studied parameters were observed between the means of the DMFT and DMF2Q indices (p>0.05), although DMF6T showed differences. The proportions of decayed, missed and filled teeth were similar between the DMFT and DMF2Q indices (p>0.05).
The simplified DMF2Q index can be used in epidemiological surveys in areas with low, moderate and high prevalence of dental caries. However, better evaluation of the DMF6T index needs to be made.
No preview · Article · May 2005 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Analisar a utilização de dois índices simplificados "CPO em 6 Dentes" e "CPO em 2 Hemiarcos" em levantamentos epidemiológicos em saúde bucal, segundo a distribuição da cárie dental. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi proveniente de dados epidemiológicos de 29 municípios, totalizando 2.378 exames em escolares de 12 anos de idade. Considerando a média CPOD em cada localidade, obtiveram-se três grupos de prevalência (baixa, moderada e alta), para os quais foram estimados os índices simplificados. A análise estatística foi realizada utilizando o Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse, o Teste de Wilcoxon e o qui-quadrado, com significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: A correlação entre o índice CPOD e os índices simplificados variou de 0,82 a 0,95 (p<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças significantes (p>0,05) entre as médias do índice CPOD com o índice simplificado "CPO em 2 Hemiarcos" nas prevalências estudadas, o que não ocorreu com o "CPO em 6 dentes". A proporção de dentes cariados, perdidos e obturados também foi semelhante entre o "CPO em 2 hemiarcos" e o CPOD (p>0,05). CONCLUSÕES: O índice simplificado "CPO em 2 Hemiarcos" pode ser utilizado em levantamentos epidemiológicos em baixa, moderada e alta prevalência de cárie dentária. Porém, o "CPO em 6 Dentes" deve ser melhor avaliado.
Preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Revista de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify whether two simplified Viegas indices, "Method One" and "Method Two", could be recommended for epidemiological surveys. The sample was obtained from secondary data for 29 cities, totaling 2,378 epidemiological tests in 12-year-old schoolchildren. Considering mean DMFT in each city, three prevalence groups were obtained (low, moderate, and high), calculating the estimated value of simplified indices in each group. Moderate correlation in the three prevalence groups and similarity among the mean DMFT was found in "Method One", which describes first molar caries experience (p < 0.05). "Method Two", which in addition to first molar caries experience included upper central incisor caries experience, showed similarity in mean DMFT only in low caries prevalence. The results allow one to conclude that the "Method One" simplified index can be used with low, moderate, and high dental caries prevalence, showing the first molar as an important indicator of caries level in populations.
No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the caries experience of schoolchildren aged 7-12 years from the Southeast area of São Paulo State, Brazil, in 1998, according to town size and fluoridation status. Data for this cross-sectional study were based on the data bank from the Epidemiological Survey of São Paulo State provided by the State Health Department. After stratification by fluoridation status and town size, 29 towns were randomly selected to represent the Southeast area of São Paulo State, Brazil, and a total of 13,480 schoolchildren were randomly selected for this study. Calibrated dentists performed dinical examinations according to the WHO criteria. Caries experience and prevalence were significantly lower in fluoridated areas (1.9 DMFT, 2.1 dmft, 20% caries free) than in non-fluoridated areas (2.4 DMFT, 2.4 dmft, 13% caries free). According to town size, DMFT and caries prevalence were significantly higher in small towns (2.3 DMFT, 13% caries free), followed by medium-sized (2.1 DMFT, 17% caries free) and large cities (1.6 DMFT, 27% caries free). Among 12-year-old children, caries prevalence was predominantly moderate or high in small and medium-sized municipalities, whereas in large cities it was moderate or low. The results suggest that water fluoridation is an essential public health measure and that town size may affect caries distribution in the Southeast area of São Paulo State.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No ano de 2000, realizou-se um levantamento epidemiológico em Paulínia, São Paulo, Brasil, com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência dos principais problemas de saúde bucal, utilizando o índice CPOD e os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A amostra foi probabilística e totalizou 1.151 indivíduos nas diferentes faixas etárias. Em crianças de cinco anos de idade, o índice ceod foi de 1,90, com 54,2% de crianças sem experiência de cárie. Aos 12 anos o CPOD foi de 1,0, com 46,4% de crianças livres de cárie. A prevalência de fluorose nos escolares foi de 30,5%, e a maioria dessas crianças apresentou fluorose muito leve (22,9%). A prevalência de opacidades e hipoplasias foi de 9,1%. Entre os adultos examinados, o índice de cuidados foi de 55,4 e em média 21,3 dentes apresentaram experiência de cárie. Nos idosos o CPOD foi ainda mais elevado (29,50), sendo composto predominantemente por dentes extraídos (93,0 %).
Preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An epidemiological survey was conducted in Paulínia, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2000, aimed at verifying the prevalence of principal oral health problems, using the DMFT index and WHO diagnostic criteria. The sample (1,151) was randomly selected. The dmft was 1.90 in 5-year-olds, with 54.2% caries-free. DMFT was 1.00 in 12-year-olds, with 46.4% caries-free in the permanent dentition. Fluorosis prevalence in 7 to 12-year-olds was 30.5%, mostly the very mild form (22.9%). Prevalence of opacities and hypoplasias was 9.1%. In adults, the dental care index was 55.4% and an average of 21.30 teeth presented caries experience. In the elderly, DMFT was 29.50, consisting predominantly of extracted teeth (93.0%).
Preview · Article · May 2004 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a relação entre tipo de escola, como medida de condição sócio-econômica e a prevalência de cárie em pré-escolares e escolares de Rio Claro, São Paulo, com água fluoretada. Os dados obtidos são secundários e a amostra foi de 888 escolares de 5 a 12 anos dos ensinos público e particular. A experiência de cárie foi medida por meio dos índices ceod e CPOD ¹, além do Índice de Cuidados. Empregou-se os testes qui-quadrado e Mann-Whitney com significância de 5%. Aos cinco anos, o ceod foi de 2,50 e 42,20% não apresentaram experiência de cárie. Aos 12 anos, o CPOD foi de 2,70 e 28,90% estavam livres de cárie. A prevalência de cárie nas crianças de escolas públicas foi maior do que nas particulares, sendo respectivamente de 74,50 e 61,20% (p < 0,0001), assim como os índices ceod e CPOD (p < 0,05). O Índice de Cuidados foi maior nas crianças do ensino particular (71,20%) do que nas do ensino público (52,80%). Encontrou-se uma maior experiência de cárie nos escolares do ensino público e assim a variável tipo de escola foi sensível para discriminar diferentes condições de saúde bucal, sugerindo-se que outras variáveis também sejam avaliadas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between type of school as a measure of socioeconomic conditions and caries prevalence among preschoolers and schoolchildren in Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil, a city with fluoridated water supply. The data were secondary, from a sample of 888 children 5 to 12 years old enrolled in private and public schools. Caries was measured by the dmft and DMFT indices as well as the Care index. Qui-square and Mann-Whitney tests were utilized with 5% significance. In 5-year-old children, mean dmft was 2.50, and 42.20% were caries-free. At age 12, mean DMFT was 2.70 and 28.90% were caries-free. Caries prevalence rates in public schoolchildren as compared to private were 74.50% and 61.20%, respectively (p < 0.0001), and the dmft and DMFT scores were the highest in public schoolchildren (p < 0.05). The Care Index was higher in private schoolchildren (71.20%) as compared to public (52.80%). Highest caries rates were found among public schoolchildren, so the variable type of school proved sensitive for discriminating different oral health conditions; however limitations need to be recognized, suggesting that other variables should be assessed.
No preview · Article · Mar 2004 · Cadernos de Saúde Pública