Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy

University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, United States

Are you Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy?

Claim your profile

Publications (192)116.78 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malicious interference injection or jamming is one of the simplest ways to disrupt wireless communications. Prior approaches can alleviate jamming interference to a limited extent; they are especially vulnerable to a reactive jammer i.e., a jammer that injects noise upon sensing a legitimate transmission or wideband jamming. In this paper, we leverage the inherent features of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to cope with such attacks. Specifically, via extensive experiments, we observe that the jamming signal experiences differing levels of fading across the composite sub-carriers in its transmission bandwidth. Thus, if the legitimate transmitter were to somehow exploit the relatively unaffected sub-carriers to transmit data to the receiver, it could achieve reasonable throughputs, even in the presence of the active jammer. We design and implement JIMS, a Jamming Interference Mitigation Scheme that exploits the above characteristic by overcoming key practical challenges. Via extensive testbed experiments and simulations we show that JIMS achieves a throughput restoration of up to 75 percent in the presence of an active jammer.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Network coding has been shown to offer significant throughput benefits over certain wireless network topologies. However, the application of network coding may not always improve the network performance. In this paper, we first provide an analytical study, which helps in assessing when network coding is preferable to a traditional store-and-forward approach. Interestingly, our study reveals that in many topological scenarios, network coding can in fact hurt the throughput performance; in such scenarios, applying the store-and-forward approach leads to higher network throughput. We validate our analytical findings via extensive testbed experiments. Guided by our findings as our primary contribution, we design and implement PACE, a Policy-Aware Coding Enforcement logic that enables network coding only when it is expected to offer performance benefits. Specifically, PACE leverages a minimal set of periodic link quality measurements in order to make per-flow online decisions with regards to when network coding should be activated, and when store-and-forward is preferable. It can be easily embedded into network-coding-aware routers as a user-level or kernel-level software utility. We evaluate the efficacy of PACE via: 1) ns-3 simulations, and 2) experiments on a wireless testbed. We observe that our scheme wisely activates network coding only when appropriate, thereby improving the total network throughput by as much as 350% in some scenarios.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Next generation wireless networks (i.e., WiMAX, LTE) provide higher bandwidth and spectrum efficiency leveraging smaller (femto) cells with orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). The uncoordinated, dense deployments of femtocells however, pose several unique challenges relating to interference and resource management in OFDMA femtocell networks. Towards addressing these challenges, we propose RADION, a distributed resource management framework that effectively manages interference across femtocells. RADION’s core building blocks enable femtocells to opportunistically determine the available resources in a completely distributed and efficient manner. Further, RADION’s modular nature paves the way for different resource management solutions to be incorporated in the framework. We implement RADION on a real WiMAX femtocell testbed deployed in a typical indoor setting. Two distributed solutions are enabled through RADION and their performance is studied to highlight their quick self-organization into efficient resource allocations.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
  • Mustafa Y. Arslan · Karthikeyan Sundaresan · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Sampath Rangarajan

    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, there have been proposals to evade censors by using steganography to embed secret messages in images shared on public photo-sharing sites. However, establishing a covert channel in this manner is not straightforward. First, photo-sharing sites often process uploaded images, thus destroying any embedded message. Second, prior work assumes the existence of an out-of-band channel, using which the communicating users can exchange metadata or secret keys a priori; establishing such out-of-band channels, not monitored by censors, is difficult. In this paper, we address these issues to facilitate private communications on photo-sharing sites. In doing so, first, we conduct an in-depth measurement study of the feasibility of hiding data on four popular photo-sharing sites. Second, based on the understanding derived, we propose a novel approach for embedding secret messages in uploaded photos while preserving the integrity of such messages. We demonstrate that, despite the processing on photo-sharing sites, our approach ensures reliable covert communication, without increasing the likelihood of being detected via steganalysis. Lastly, we design and implement a scheme for bootstrapping private communications without an out-of-band channel, i.e., by exchanging keys via uploaded images.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2014
  • Zi Feng · George Papageorgiou · Qian Gao · Ahmed F. Atya · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Gang Chen
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Visible light communications (VLC) have gained popularity as an alternative to RF. Understanding the underlying communications is key to the design of MAC protocols for arbitrating access across lights in multiple rooms. We consider the interference across two rooms from VLC emitters. The emitters use Binary Pulse Position Modulation (BPPM); the pulse width is varied to provide different dimming levels. We use a modified ray-tracing algorithm to calculate the channel impulse response between the emitters and receivers that are located at different positions within a room. We analyze the performance observed at the receivers in the presence of (i) illumination and (ii) transmissions from an interfering VLC emitter. We find that in the former case, the VLC emissions from the interferer do not impact the reception at the target receiver. In the latter case, the performance is degraded and it depends on the position of the receiver.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2014
  • George Papageorgiou · Shailendra Singh · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Ramesh Govindan · Tom La Porta
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traditional routing metrics designed for wireless networks are application-agnostic. In this paper, we consider a wireless network where the application flows consist of video traffic. From a user perspective, reducing the level of video distortion is critical. We ask the question “Should the routing policies change if the end-to-end video distortion is to be minimized?” Popular link-quality-based routing metrics (such as ETX) do not account for dependence (in terms of congestion) across the links of a path; as a result, they can cause video flows to converge onto a few paths and, thus, cause high video distortion. To account for the evolution of the video frame loss process, we construct an analytical framework to, first, understand and, second, assess the impact of the wireless network on video distortion. The framework allows us to formulate a routing policy for minimizing distortion, based on which we design a protocol for routing video traffic. We find via simulations and testbed experiments that our protocol is efficient in reducing video distortion and minimizing the user experience degradation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Every night, many smartphones are plugged into a power source for recharging the battery. Given the increasing computing capabilities of smartphones, these idle phones constitute a sizeable computing infrastructure. Therefore, for an enterprise which supplies its employees with smartphones, we argue that a computing infrastructure that leverages idle smartphones being charged overnight is an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to running certain tasks on traditional servers. While parallel execution models and schedulers exist for servers, smartphones face a unique set of technical challenges due to the heterogeneity in CPU clock speed, variability in network bandwidth, and lower availability than servers. In this paper, we address many of these challenges to develop CWC—a distributed computing infrastructure using smartphones. We implement and evaluate a prototype of CWC that employs a novel scheduling algorithm to minimize the makespan of a set of computing tasks. Our evaluations using a testbed of $18$ Android phones show that CWC’s scheduler yields a makespan that is 1.6x faster than other simpler approaches.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
  • George Papageorgiou · John Gasparis · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Ramesh Govindan · Tom La Porta
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Video transfers using smartphones are becoming increasingly popular. To prevent the interception of content from eavesdroppers, video flows must be encrypted. However, encryption results in a cost in terms of processing delays and energy consumed on the user's device. We argue that encrypting only certain parts of the flow can create sufficiently high distortion at an eavesdropper preserving content confidentiality as a result. By selective encryption, one can reduce delay and the battery consumption on the mobile device. We develop a mathematical framework that captures the impact of the encryption process on the delay experienced by a flow, and the distortion seen by an eavesdropper. This provides a quick and efficient way of determining the right parts of a video flow that must be encrypted to preserve confidentiality, while limiting performance penalties. In practice, it can aid a user in choosing the right level of encryption. We validate our model via extensive experiments with different encryption policies using Android smartphones. We observe that by selectively encrypting parts of a video flow one can preserve the confidentiality while reducing delay by as much as 75% and the energy consumption by as much as 92%.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malicious interference injection or jamming is one of the simplest ways to disrupt wireless communications. Prior approaches can alleviate jamming interference to a limited extent; they are especially vulnerable to a reactive jammer i.e., a jammer that injects noise upon sensing a legitimate transmission or wideband jamming. In this paper, we leverage the inherent features of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) to cope with such attacks. Specifically, via extensive experiments, we observe that the jamming signal experiences differing levels of fading across the composite sub-carriers in its transmission bandwidth. Thus, if the legitimate transmitter were to somehow exploit the relatively unaffected sub-carriers to transmit data to the receiver, it could achieve reasonable throughputs, even in the presence of the active jammer. We design and implement JIMS, a Jamming Interference Mitigation Scheme that exploits the above characteristic by overcoming key practical challenges. Via extensive testbed experiments and simulations we show that JIMS achieves a throughput restoration of up to 75% in the presence of an active jammer.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To meet the capacity demands from ever-increasing mobile data usage, mobile network operators are moving toward smaller cell structures. These small cells, called femtocells, use sophisticated air interface technologies such as orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). While femtocells are expected to provide numerous benefits such as energy efficiency and better throughput, the interference resulting from their dense deployments prevents such benefits from being harnessed in practice. Thus, there is an evident need for a resource management solution to mitigate the interference that occurs between collocated femtocells. In this paper, we design and implement one of the first resource management systems, FERMI, for OFDMA-based femtocell networks. As part of its design, FERMI: 1) provides resource isolation in the frequency domain (as opposed to time) to leverage power pooling across cells to improve capacity; 2) uses measurement-driven triggers to intelligently distinguish clients that require just link adaptation from those that require resource isolation; 3) incorporates mechanisms that enable the joint scheduling of both types of clients in the same frame; and 4) employs efficient, scalable algorithms to determine a fair resource allocation across the entire network with high utilization and low overhead. We implement FERMI on a prototype four-cell WiMAX femtocell testbed and show that it yields significant gains over conventional approaches.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2013 · IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cloud-based radio access networks (C-RAN) have been proposed as a cost-efficient way of deploying small cells. Unlike conventional RANs, a C-RAN decouples the baseband processing unit (BBU) from the remote radio head (RRH), allowing for centralized operation of BBUs and scalable deployment of light-weight RRHs as small cells. In this work, we argue that the intelligent configuration of the front-haul network between the BBUs and RRHs, is essential in delivering the performance and energy benefits to the RAN and the BBU pool, respectively. We then propose FluidNet - a scalable, light-weight framework for realizing the full potential of C-RAN. FluidNet deploys a logically re-configurable front-haul to apply appropriate transmission strategies in different parts of the network and hence cater effectively to both heterogeneous user profiles and dynamic traffic load patterns. FluidNet's algorithms determine configurations that maximize the traffic demand satisfied on the RAN, while simultaneously optimizing the compute resource usage in the BBU pool. We prototype FluidNet on a 6 BBU, 6 RRH WiMAX C-RAN testbed. Prototype evaluations and large-scale simulations reveal that FluidNet's ability to re-configure its front-haul and tailor transmission strategies provides a 50% improvement in satisfying traffic demands, while reducing the compute resource usage in the BBU pool by 50% compared to baseline transmission schemes.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Sep 2013
  • Source
    Tae-Suk Kim · Gentian Jakllari · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Michalis Faloutsos
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we propose a new integrated framework for joint routing and rate adaptation in multi-rate multi-hop wireless networks. Unlike many previous efforts, our framework considers several factors that affect end-to-end performance. Among these factors, the framework takes into account the effect of the relative positions of the links on a path when choosing the rates of operation and the importance of avoiding congested areas. The key element of our framework is a new comprehensive path metric that we call ETM (for expected transmission cost in multi-rate wireless networks). We analytically derive the ETM metric. We show that the ETM metric can be used to determine the best end-to-end path with a greedy routing approach. We also show that the metric can be used to dynamically select the best transmission rate for each link on the path via a dynamic programming approach. We implement the ETM-framework on an indoor wireless mesh network and compare its performance with that of frameworks based on the popular ETT and the recently proposed ETOP metrics. Our experiments demonstrate that the ETM-framework can yield throughput improvements of up to 253 and 368 % as compared with the ETT and ETOP frameworks.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Wireless Networks
  • Jianxia Ning · Konstantinos Pelechrinis · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Ramesh Govindan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transmission Evidence (TE for short) refers to a historic trail of the packet transmissions in the network. TE is collected and maintained in a distributed manner by the nodes in the network and can be queried on demand by a network forensics system to trace past events. The latter can facilitate crucial applications such as identifying malicious or malfunctioning nodes. Recently, we developed an analytical framework towards computing the likelihood of TE availability in wireless networks. Our prior efforts [1] brought to light the impact of the network's operational parameters (such as transmission rate and packet length) on the availability of TE. However, provisioning for TE could impact the network performance in terms of throughput and/or delay. Our objective in this work is to capture and quantify the trade-offs between provisioning transmission evidence and achieving high performance in wireless networks. In particular, we investigate the network performance hit, under the constraint of TE availability guarantees. Our results indicate that the performance remains unaffected up to a certain TE requirement. Beyond this, the throughput could degrade and the delay could increase by as much as 30%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The wide channels feature combines two adjacent channels to form a new, wider channel to facilitate high-data-rate transmissions in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO)-based IEEE 802.11n networks. Using a wider channel can exacerbate interference effects. Furthermore, contrary to what has been reported by prior studies, we find that wide channels do not always provide benefits in isolation (i.e., one link without interference) and can even degrade performance. We conduct an in-depth, experimental study to understand the implications of wide channels on throughput performance. Based on our measurements, we design an auto-configuration framework called ACORN for enterprise 802.11n WLANs. ACORN integrates the functions of user association and channel allocation since our study reveals that they are tightly coupled when wide channels are used. We show that the channel allocation problem with the constraints of wide channels is NP-complete. Thus, ACORN uses an algorithm that provides a worst-case approximation ratio of O(1/Δ + 1), with Δ being the maximum node degree in the network. We implement ACORN on our 802.11n testbed. Our evaluations show that ACORN: 1) outperforms previous approaches that are agnostic to wide channels constraints; it provides per-AP throughput gains ranging from 1.5 × 6×; and 2) in practice, its channel allocation module achieves an approximation ratio much better than the theoretically predicted O(1/Δ + 1).
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking
  • Tae-Suk Kim · Yong Yang · J. C. Hou · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many next generation applications (such as video flows) are likely to have associated minimum data rate requirements in order to ensure satisfactory quality as perceived by end-users. In this paper, we develop a framework to address the problem of maximizing the aggregate utility of traffic flows in a multi-hop wireless network, with constraints imposed both due to self-interference and minimum rate requirements. The parameters that are tuned in order to maximize the utility are (i) transmission powers of individual nodes and (ii) the channels assigned to the different communication links. Our framework is based on using a cross-decomposition technique that takes both inter-flow interference and self-interference into account. The output of our framework is a schedule that dictates what links are to be activated in each slot and the parameters associated with each of those links. If the minimum rate constraint cannot be satisfied for all of the flows, the framework intelligently rejects a sub-set of the flows and recomputes a schedule for the remaining flows. We also design an admission control module that determines if new flows can be admitted without violating the rate requirements of the existing flows in the network. We provide numerical results to demonstrate the efficacy of our framework.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although today's online social networks provide some privacy controls to protect a user's shared content from other users, these controls aren't sufficiently expressive to provide fine-grained protection. Twitsper offers fine-grained control over who sees a Twitter user's messages, enabling private group communication while preserving Twitter's commercial interests.
    No preview · Article · May 2013 · IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine
  • Zi Feng · George Papageorgiou · Srikanth V. Krishnamurthy · Ramesh Govindan · Tom La Porta
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The end-user experience in viewing a video depends on the distortion; however, also of importance is the delay experienced by the packets of the video flow since it impacts the timeliness of the information contained and the playback rate at the receiver. Unfortunately, these performance metrics are in conflict with each other in a wireless network. Packet losses can be minimized by perfectly avoiding interference by separating transmissions in time or frequency; however, this decreases the rate at which transmissions occur, and this increases delay. Relaxing the requirement for interference avoidance can lead to packet losses and thus increase distortion, but can decrease the delay for those packets that are delivered. In this paper, we investigate this trade-off between distortion and delay for video. To understand the trade-off between video quality and packet delay, we develop an analytical framework that accounts for characteristics of the network (e.g. interference, channel variations) and the video content (motion level), assuming as a basis, a simple channel access policy that provides flexibility in managing the interference in the network. We validate our model via extensive simulations. Surprisingly, we find that the trade-off depends on the specific features of the video flow: it is better to trade-off high delay for low distortion with fast motion video, but not with slow motion video. Specifically, for an increase in PSNR (a metric that quantifies distortion) from 20 to 25 dB, the penalty in terms of the increase in mean delay with fast motion video is 91 times that with slow motion video. Our simulation results further quantify the trade-offs in various scenarios.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Apr 2013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Network coding has been shown to offer significant throughput benefits over store-and-forward routing in certain wireless network topologies. However, the application of network coding may not always improve the network performance. In this paper1, we provide a comprehensive analytical study, which helps in assessing when network coding is preferable to a traditional store-and-forward approach. Interestingly, our study reveals that in many topological scenarios, network coding can in fact hurt the throughput performance; in such scenarios, applying the store-and-forward approach leads to higher network throughput. We validate our analytical findings via extensive testbed experiments, and we extract guidelines on when network coding should be applied instead of store-and-forward.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Apr 2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Every night, a large number of idle smartphones are plugged into a power source for recharging the battery. Given the increasing computing capabilities of smartphones, these idle phones constitute a sizeable computing infrastructure. Therefore, for an enterprise which supplies its employees with smartphones, we argue that a computing infrastructure that leverages idle smartphones being charged overnight is an energy-efficient and cost-effective alternative to running tasks on traditional server infrastructure. While parallel execution and scheduling models exist for servers (e.g., MapReduce), smartphones present a unique set of technical challenges due to the heterogeneity in CPU clock speed, variability in network bandwidth, and lower availability compared to servers. In this paper, we address many of these challenges to develop CWC---a distributed computing infrastructure using smartphones. Specifically, our contributions are: (i) we profile the charging behaviors of real phone owners to show the viability of our approach, (ii) we enable programmers to execute parallelizable tasks on smartphones with little effort, (iii) we develop a simple task migration model to resume interrupted task executions, and (iv) we implement and evaluate a prototype of CWC (with 18 Android smartphones) that employs an underlying novel scheduling algorithm to minimize the makespan of a set of tasks. Our extensive evaluations demonstrate that the performance of our approach makes our vision viable. Further, we explicitly evaluate the performance of CWC's scheduling component to demonstrate its efficacy compared to other possible approaches.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Dec 2012

Publication Stats

4k Citations
116.78 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001-2015
    • University of California, Riverside
      • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      Riverside, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Thessaly
      Iolcus, Thessaly, Greece
  • 1997-2001
    • California State University
      • Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 1998-2000
    • HRL Laboratories, LLC
      Malibu, California, United States
    • Concordia University Montreal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada