Dianne C. Berry

University of Reading, Reading, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (83)192.17 Total impact

  • Dianne C. Berry · Donald E. Broadbent
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments explore the relationship between implicit and explicit processes in the acquisition of complex knowledge. Their purpose is twofold. Firstly, to specify some of the variables that control whether or not performance and explicit knowledge will be associated when people interact with computer-implemented control tasks. Secondly, to clarify the relationships between implicit and explicit modes of learning on the one hand and implicit and explicit types of knowledge on the other. The experiments show that salience of the relationship between decision and action is a crucial factor in relation to both the distinction between implicit and explicit learning and the distinction between implict and explicit knowledge.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011
  • Knapp PR · D. C. Berry · D. K. Raynor
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    ABSTRACT: Information about side effects is a priority for patients, but current leaflets do not include data about frequency of side effects □ The EU recommends the use of verbal descriptors such as “very common” and “rare” linked to specific incidence rates □ This study shows that people taking medicine who are given verbal descriptors grossly over-estimate side effect incidence □ Verbal descriptors also led to patients perceiving a higher personal risk of getting the side effect, compared with those given the numerical description □ If patients are to be partners in medicine taking they need to understand the level of risk of side effects. Further research is ***eeded to determine how this can be achieved
    No preview · Article · Feb 2011
  • Dianne Berry · Anthony Bradlow · Molly Courtenay
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the level of confidence that rheumatology patients would have in nurse prescribing, the effects on likely adherence and particular concerns that these patients have. In addition, given that information provision has been cited as a potential benefit of nurse prescribing, the present study assessed the extent to which these patients would want an explanation for the selected medicine, as well as which types of information should be included in such an explanation. Nurse prescribing has been successfully implemented in the UK in several healthcare settings. Existing research has not addressed the effects on patients' confidence and likely adherence, nor have patients' information needs been established. However, we know that inadequate medicines information provision by health professionals is one of the largest causes of patient dissatisfaction. Fifty-four patients taking disease-modifying drugs for inflammatory joint disease attending a specialist rheumatology clinic self-completed a written questionnaire. Patients indicated a relatively high level of confidence in nurse prescribing and stated that they would be very likely to take the selected medication. The level of concern was relatively low and the majority of concerns raised did not relate to the nurse's status. Strong support was expressed for the nurse providing an explanation for medicine choice. This research provides support for the prescription of medicines by nurses working in the area of rheumatology, the importance of nurses providing a full explanation about the selected medicines they prescribe for these patients and some indication as to which categories of information should be included. Rheumatology patients who have not yet experienced nurse prescribing are, in general, positive about nurses adopting this role. It is important that nurses provide appropriate information about the prescribed medicines, in a form that can be understood.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Journal of Clinical Nursing
  • Dianne Claire Berry · Irene C. Michas · Tony Gillie · Melanie Forster
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    ABSTRACT: A two phase study is reported. In the first phase, we asked a number of doctors to rate a list of information categories (identified by Berry, Gillie and Banbury 1995) in terms of how important they felt it was for the items to be included in an explanation to a patient about a drug prescription. In the second phase, we presented a large sample of people with a scenario about visiting their doctor and being prescribed medication, together with an explanation about the prescription which was said to be provided by the doctor. Four different explanations were compared, which were either based on what people in our earlier study wanted to know about drug prescriptions or on what the doctors thought it was important lo tell them. We also manipulated whether or not the explanations conveyed negative information (e.g. about the possible side effects of the medication). The results showed that people 'preferred' the explanations based on what the participants in the earlier study wanted to know about their medicines, rather than those based on what the doctors thought they should be told. They also 'preferred' the explanations that did not convey negative information, rather than those that did convey some negative information. In addition, the inclusion of negative information affected ratings of likely compliance with the prescribed medication.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2007 · Psychology and Health
  • Natalie Lynch · Dianne Berry
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate people's views about the efficacy and specific risks of herbal, over-the-counter (OTC) conventional, and prescribed conventional medicines, and their likelihood of taking a second (herbal or OTC conventional) product in addition to a prescribed medicine. Experiment 1 (1 factor within-participant design); Experiment 2 (1 factor between-participant design). Convenience samples of general population were given a hypothetical scenario and required to make a number of judgements. People believed herbal remedies to be less effective, but less risky than OTC and prescribed conventional medicines. Herbal medicines were not seen as being safer simply because of their easier availability. Participants indicated that they would be more likely to take a herbal medicine than a conventional OTC medicine in addition to a prescribed medicine, and less likely to consult their doctor in advance. People believe that herbal medicines are natural and relatively safe and can be used with less caution. People need to be given clear information about the risks and benefits of herbal medicines if they are to use such products safely and effectively.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Complementary Therapies in Medicine
  • Molly Courtenay · Dianne Berry

    No preview · Article · Jun 2007
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    ABSTRACT: Recognising the existence of different forms of knowledge is a first step towards effective knowledge elicitation. This article takes a brief look at some of the different types of knowledge which human experts possess and then focusses on the problem of implicit knowledge.The fact that much of an expert's knowledge is implicit or tacit in nature is a major problem for those working in the area of knowledge elicitation. Despite this, the topic has attracted little discussion or research. The present article reviews some of the limited literature on the topic and attempts to settle some of the confusion over what implicit knowledge is, or might be. Relevant experiments from the psychological literature are discussed. The paper also looks at possible ways of assessing implicit knowledge and makes recommendations for future research in this area.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Expert Systems
  • Dianne C. Berry · Anna E. Hart
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    ABSTRACT: Evaluation is crucial for improving expert system design and performance. This paper stresses the need for considering system evaluation throughout the development process. It highlights the importance of evaluating system usability and discusses key usability issues. A number of basic evaluation methods are described, including interviews, questionnaires, observation, system logging, user diaries, laboratory experiments and field trials. Finally, the paper looks at evaluating systems within organisations, and assessing other long term effects of expert systems.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Expert Systems
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract This is the second part of a report which looks at expert systems and the man-machine interface (mmi). The term ‘mmi’ is interpreted in a fairly broad sense to include knowledge acquisition and cognitive aspects of the user interface. Part One of the report (published in the previous issue of Expert Systems) examines what is currently happening in the area of knowledge acquisition in Britain and asks whether it really is the major bottleneck in the production of expert systems. Part Two of the report looks at cognitive aspects of the user interface, including dialogue control, explanation facilities, user models, natural language processing and the effects of new technology. It also considers the very important question of evaluation. Again the report is concerned with what is actually happening in these areas in Britain today.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Expert Systems
  • Elisabetta Bersellini · Dianne Berry
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    ABSTRACT: Three experiments examined the effects of adding information about medication benefits to a short written explanation about a medicine. Participants were presented with a fictitious scenario about visiting the doctor, being prescribed an antibiotic and being given information about the medicine. They were asked to make various judgements relating to the information, the medicine and their intention to take it. Experiment 1 found that information about benefits enhanced the judgements, but did not influence the intention to comply. Experiment 2 compared the relative effectiveness of two different forms of the benefit statement, and found that both were effective in improving judgements, but had no effect on intention to comply. Experiment 3 compared the effectiveness of the two forms of benefit information but participants were told that the medicine was associated with four named side effects. Both types of statement improved ratings of the intention to comply, as well as ratings on the other measures. The experiments provide fairly consistent support for the inclusion of benefit information in medicine information leaflets, particularly to balance concerns about side effects.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Psychology and Health
  • Source
    Sarah L. Coates · Laurie T. Butler · Dianne C. Berry
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments investigated the influence of implicit memory on consumer choice for brands with varying levels of familiarity. Priming was measured using a consideration-choice task, developed by Coates, Butler and Berry (2004). Experiment 1 employed a coupon-rating task at encoding that required participants to meaningfully process individual brand names, to assess whether priming could affect participants' final (preferred) choices for familiar brands. Experiment 2 used this same method to assess the impact of implicit memory on consideration and choice for unknown and leader brands, presented in conjunction with familiar competitors. Significant priming was obtained in both experiments, and was shown to directly influence final choice in the case of familiar and highly familiar leader brands. Moreover, it was shown that a single prior exposure could lead participants to consider buying an unknown, and indeed fictitious, brand. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2006 · Applied Cognitive Psychology
  • Dianne C Berry · Peter Knapp · Theo Raynor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of absolute risk, relative risk, and number needed to harm formats for medicine side effects, with and without the provision of baseline risk information. A two factor, risk increase format (relative, absolute and NNH)xbaseline (present/absent) between participants design was used. A sample of 268 women was given a scenario about increase in side effect risk with third generation oral contraceptives, and were required to answer written questions to assess their understanding, satisfaction, and likelihood of continuing to take the drug. Provision of baseline information significantly improved risk estimates and increased satisfaction, although the estimates were still considerably higher than the actual risk. No differences between presentation formats were observed when baseline information was presented. Without baseline information, absolute risk led to the most accurate performance. The findings support the importance of informing people about baseline level of risk when describing risk increases. In contrast, they offer no support for using number needed to harm. Health professionals should provide baseline risk information when presenting information about risk increases or decreases. More research is needed before numbers needed to harm (or treat) should be given to members of the general populations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2006 · Patient Education and Counseling
  • Dianne C. Berry · Mark Hochhauser
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of verbal descriptors, such as “common” and “rare” affects peoples perceptions of the risks involved in clinical trials as well as their likelihood of entering into the trial. Participants were required to imagine that they had a serious skin condition and being asked if they would take part in a clinical trial for a new drug. They were provided with some information about the trial and drug, in which the probability of side effects occurring was described using either verbal labels alone or verbal labels with associated numerical values. The results showed that those given just the verbal descriptors were significantly less satisfied with the information, perceived risk to be higher (by a factor of three) and benefit to health to be lower, and indicated that they would be significantly less likely to enter the trial. We recommend that patients are informed about the likelihood of potential risks using verbal terms linked with indicative frequency ranges
    No preview · Article · Jul 2006 · Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science
  • Source
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    ABSTRACT: The main aim of the study is to assess the views of people, who have not yet experienced nurse prescribing, to determine their level of confidence in nurse as opposed to doctor prescribing, effects on likely adherence and concerns that they might have. Additionally, the extent to which people would want nurses to provide an explanation for medicine choice and the type of information wanted was examined. Nurse prescribing has been successfully implemented in the UK in a number of healthcare settings. Existing research has not addressed effects on people's confidence and likely adherence, nor have people's information needs been established. However, we know that inadequate medicines information provision by health professionals is one of the largest causes of patient dissatisfaction. A convenience sample of 74 members of the general population self-completed a written questionnaire. In general, people would have confidence in the nurse having prescribed the best medicine and say that they would be very likely to take the medicine. Concerns identified did not specifically relate to the nurses' status. Support is provided for the importance of nurses providing a full explanation about medicines, and some indication about which categories of information should be included. Information about medication side effects was most wanted by participants. Independent and Supplementary Prescribing are pivotal to modernizing the NHS. The current study establishes people's initial views and concerns about nurse prescribing and assesses information needs. Support for initiating follow-on studies with particular patient groups is also provided. People who have not yet experienced nurse prescribing are, in general, positive about nurses adopting this role. It is important that nurses provide appropriate information about the prescribed medicines, in a form that can be understood. This should include information about medication side effects.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Clinical Nursing
  • Source
    Dianne C Berry
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    ABSTRACT: Providing effective information about drug risks and benefits has become a major challenge for health professionals, as many people are ill equipped to understand, retain and use the information effectively. This paper reviews the growing evidence that people's understanding (and health behaviour) is not only affected by the content of medicines information, but also by the particular way in which it is presented. Such presentational factors include whether information is presented verbally or numerically, framed positively or negatively, whether risk reductions are described in relative or absolute terms (and baseline information included), and whether information is personalized or tailored in any way. It also looks at how understanding is affected by the order in which information is presented, and the way in which it is processed. The paper concludes by making a number of recommendations for providers of medicines information, about both the content and presentation of such information, that should enhance safe and effective medicines usage.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Current Drug Safety
  • DK Raynor · P Knapp · DC Berry

    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2006
  • Hedwig M Natter · Dianne C Berry
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    ABSTRACT: This study compares relative and absolute forms of presenting risk information about influenza and the need for vaccination. It investigates whether differences in people's risk estimates and their evaluations of risk information, as a result of the different presentation formats, are still apparent when they are provided with information about the baseline level of risk. The results showed that, in the absence of baseline information, the relative risk format resulted in higher ratings of satisfaction, perceived effectiveness of vaccination, and likelihood of being vaccinated. However, these differences were not apparent when baseline information was presented. Overall, provision of baseline information resulted in more accurate risk estimates and more positive evaluations of the risk messages. It is recommended that, in order to facilitate shared and fully informed decision making, information about baseline level of risk should be included in all health communications specifying risk reductions, irrespective of the particular format adopted.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Psychology Health and Medicine
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    Dianne C. Berry · Laurie T. Butler · Fiorella de Rosis
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to empirically evaluate an embodied conversational agent called GRETA in an effort to answer two main questions: (1) What are the benefits (and costs) of presenting information via an animated agent, with certain characteristics, in a ‘persuasion’ task, compared to other forms of display? (2) How important is it that emotional expressions are added in a way that is consistent with the content of the message, in animated agents? To address these questions, a positively framed healthy eating message was created which was variously presented via GRETA, a matched human actor, GRETA's voice only (no face) or as text only. Furthermore, versions of GRETA were created which displayed additional emotional facial expressions in a way that was either consistent or inconsistent with the content of the message. Overall, it was found that although GRETA received significantly higher ratings for helpfulness and likability, presenting the message via GRETA led to the poorest memory performance among users. Importantly, however, when GRETA's additional emotional expressions were consistent with the content of the verbal message, the negative effect on memory performance disappeared. Overall, the findings point to the importance of achieving consistency in animated agents.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2005 · International Journal of Human-Computer Studies
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    D R Poulter · R C Jackson · J P Wann · D C Berry
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    ABSTRACT: The efficacy of explicit and implicit learning paradigms was examined during the very early stages of learning the perceptual-motor anticipation task of predicting ball direction from temporally occluded footage of soccer penalty kicks. In addition, the effect of instructional condition on point-of-gaze during learning was examined. A significant improvement in horizontal prediction accuracy was observed in the explicit learning group; however, similar improvement was evident in a placebo group who watched footage of soccer matches. Only the explicit learning intervention resulted in changes in eye movement behaviour and increased awareness of relevant postural cues. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical issues regarding the employment of implicit perceptual training interventions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · Human Movement Science
  • S P Banbury · D C Berry
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    ABSTRACT: A field study assessed subjective reports of distraction from various office sounds among 88 employees at two sites. In addition, the study examined the amount of exposure the workers had to the noise in order to determine any evidence for habituation. Finally, respondents were asked how they would improve their environment (with respect to noise), and to rate examples of improvements with regards to their job satisfaction and performance. Out of the sample, 99% reported that their concentration was impaired by various components of office noise, especially telephones left ringing at vacant desks and people talking in the background. No evidence for habituation to these sounds was found. These results are interpreted in the light of previous research regarding the effects of noise in offices and the 'irrelevant sound effect'.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Ergonomics

Publication Stats

3k Citations
192.17 Total Impact Points


  • 1991-2011
    • University of Reading
      • Department of Psychology
      Reading, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1984-2011
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Experimental Psychology
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • Universität Trier
      • Department of Psychology
      Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany