G. Fiquet

UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (146)561.56 Total impact

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    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the melting properties of natural mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) up to core-mantle boundary (CMB) pressures using laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Textural and chemical characterizations of quenched samples were performed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. We used in situ X-ray diffraction primarily for phase identification whereas our melting criterion based on laser power versus temperature plateau combined with textural analysis of recovered solidus and subsolidus samples is accurate and unambiguous. At CMB pressure (135 GPa), the MORB solidus temperature is 3970 (± 150) K. Quenched melt textures observed in recovered samples indicate that CaSiO3 perovskite (CaPv) is the liquidus phase in the entire pressure range up to CMB. The partial melt composition derived from the central melt pool is enriched in FeO, which suggests that such melt pockets may be gravitationally stable at the core mantle boundary.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Earth and Planetary Science Letters
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    ABSTRACT: It is now recognized that the transition zone (TZ) is a significant repository for water. This means that other volatile species may also be stored in this region such as halogen elements. We have measured the solubility of fluorine in wadsleyite (Wd) and ringwoodite (Rw) under hydrous and anhydrous conditions at different pressures and temperatures, relevant for the transition zone. F contents are similar in Wd (665 to 1045 ppm F, up to 956 ppm H2O) and in Rw (186 to 1235 ppm F, up to 1404 ppm H2O). This suggests that F may be incorporated in the same manner as water in the major nominally anhydrous minerals of the TZ: ringwoodite and wadsleyite and that the transition zone could be a major reservoir for fluorine. In the framework of the "water filter model" proposed by Bercovici and Karato (2003), the contrast of volatile element contents between a depleted upper mantle and an enriched transition zone could be maintained over geological time scales. Previous estimates of the fluorine content of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE), such as 25 ppm by mass (McDonough and Sun, 1995), have assumed a homogeneous mantle. Although we do not know whether the TZ is F saturated or not, we used our new experimental data and estimates of the lower mantle F content from ocean island basalts to estimate a maximum BSE fluorine content of 59 ppm by mass for a hydrous, F-saturated TZ. This upper bound on the range of possible BSE F content emphasizes the challenges when explaining the origin of volatile elements in the Earth from a carbonaceous chondrite late veneer.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Earth and Planetary Science Letters
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    ABSTRACT: We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experimentshave been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partitioncoefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1–1.8 GPa and 500–900 C, range from 41 to 1.92,values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing withwater is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicatemelt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subductionrelated volcanism of 0.16–2.4 kt yr1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, havingpossible consequences on the Earth’s ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a processthat may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depletedbeing iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early waterdegassing process from the magma ocean.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
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    ABSTRACT: The physical properties of iron (Fe) at high pressure and high temperature are crucial for understanding the chemical composition, evolution, and dynamics of planetary interiors. Indeed, the inner structures of the telluric planets all share a similar layered nature: a central metallic core composed mostly of iron, surrounded by a silicate mantle, and a thin, chemically differentiated crust. To date, most studies of iron have focused on the hexagonal closed packed (hcp, or ε) phase, as ε-Fe is likely stable across the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's core. However, at the more moderate pressures characteristic of the cores of smaller planetary bodies, such as the Moon, Mercury, or Mars, iron takes on a face-centered cubic (fcc, or γ) structure. Here we present compressional and shear wave sound velocity and density measurements of γ-Fe at high pressures and high temperatures, which are needed to develop accurate seismic models of planetary interiors. Our results indicate that the seismic velocities proposed for the Moon's inner core by a recent reanalysis of Apollo seismic data are well below those of γ-Fe. Our dataset thus provides strong constraints to seismic models of the lunar core and cores of small telluric planets. This allows us to propose a direct compositional and velocity model for the Moon's core.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

  • No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Physics of The Earth and Planetary Interiors
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    ABSTRACT: The structure and the polarized infrared absorption spectrum of OH-defects in wadsleyite (beta-Mg2SiO4) are studied, at 0 and 15 GPa, by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Four types of OH-defects are considered: fully protonated magnesium vacancies, fully protonated silicon vacancies, silicon vacancies compensated by a magnesium cation and two protons, and OH-defects associated with the migration of a silicon cation to a normally vacant site, as reported by Kudoh and Inoue (1999). The results suggest that the main absorption band constituted by a doublet (3326 and 3360 cm(-1)) corresponds to at least two types of OH-defects involving M3 vacancies with protonation of the O1-type O atoms along the O1 center dot center dot center dot O-4 edges. The main contribution of the less intense band at 3581 cm(-1) is likely related to the partial protonation of a silicon vacancy (protonation of the O3-type oxygen) associated with the migration of the silicon cation to the Si2 site. This assignment is consistent with several experimental constraints: wavenumber and pleochroism of infrared OH-stretching bands, pressure-dependence of the band wavenumber, evidence from X-ray diffraction of magnesium vacancies in M3 site, and increase of the b/a axial ratio with water content. The integrated absorption coefficients of the corresponding OH-defects are also calculated and thus complement the set of data obtained previously for forsterite and ringwoodite. Absorption coefficients of wadsleyite computed at 0 and 15 GPa indicate that for a precise quantification of the hydrogen content in in situ experiments, one must consider higher absorption coefficients than those determined at 0 GPa after quench. It is also shown that a single theoretical relation can account for the three Mg2SiO4 polymorphs at 0 GPa: K-int = 278.7 +/- 18.1 (3810 +/- 465 - x), where K-int is the integrated molar absorption coefficient of the OH stretching modes and x is the average wavenumber in cm(-1). Absorption coefficients are significantly lower than the general calibrations, the use of which would lead to an underestimation of the water concentrations.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · American Mineralogist
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    ABSTRACT: [1] Sintered polycrystalline “rocks” of two-phase aggregate CaGeO3 perovskite (GePv) + MgO and single-phase GePv were deformed at pressure, temperature, and strain rates of 4–10 GPa, 600–1200 K, and ∼1–3 × 10−5 s−1, respectively, with maximum bulk strains up to ∼20%. The as-synthesized two-phase aggregate, produced from the reaction CaMgGeO4 (olivine) → GePv+MgO (MgO occupying ∼28% in volume), possessed a load-bearing framework (LBF) texture indistinguishable from that of (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 → (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite + (Mg,Fe)O reported in previous studies. Stress states of the two phases in the deforming aggregate were evaluated based on systematic distortion of lattice spacings over the entire 360° diffraction azimuth angle. Compared with the single-phase GePv sample, stresses of GePv in the two-phase composite were about 10–20% higher at similar strain and strain rates. Stresses of MgO are about a factor of ∼2 lower than GePv in the same two-phased rock. Volumetrically averaged bulk stresses in the two samples were therefore virtually identical. Texture analyses showed that both samples deformed by dislocation glide, with the dominant slip systems {1 0 0}<1 1 0> (in cubic setting) for both GePv and MgO. These results show that, at low bulk strains up to ∼20%, the two-phase aggregate remains a LBF fabric, with rheological properties of GePv controlling those of the bulk. These experimental findings are in quantitative agreement with previous numerical simulations. Implications of the results to the silicate counterparts and dynamics of the lower mantle are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems
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    ABSTRACT: We performed sound velocity and density measurements on polycrystalline hexagonal close-packed (hcp) iron at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature, up to 93 GPa and 1100 K, by inelastic x-ray scattering and x-ray diffraction. Our experimental results indicate that high-temperature anharmonic corrections are negligible at least up to 1100 K and that the aggregate compressional velocity VP scales linearly with density over the pressure and temperature range of the investigation (Birch's law). The new results are compared with literature studies and we discuss the extrapolation schemes commonly used in experimental mineral physics, with specific regard to extrapolations to the Earth's core conditions.
    No preview · Article · May 2012 · Earth and Planetary Science Letters
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    E Boulard · F Guyot · G Fiquet
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    ABSTRACT: Characterization of a set of iron-magnesium carbonate mineral samples was done by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe. The evolution of unit cell parameters and of the Raman peak positions of the three vibrations modes T, L and 2 nu(2) are reported as a function of the Fe content. Fourteen samples spanning the compositional range from FeCO3 siderite to MgCO3 magnesite were used for this calibration. Such a calibration provides a non-destructive and rapid method for extracting mineral chemistry, suitable for samples that cannot be moved and need immediate analysis or for samples that cannot be destructed or that are in small quantities.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Physics and Chemistry of Minerals
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    ABSTRACT: The fate of carbonates in the Earth's mantle plays a key role in the geodynamical carbon cycle. Although iron is a major component of the Earth's lower mantle, the stability of Fe-bearing carbonates has rarely been studied. Here we present experimental results on the stability of Fe-rich carbonates at pressures ranging from 40 to 105 GPa and temperatures of 1450–3600 K, corresponding to depths within the Earth's lower mantle of about 1000–2400 km. Samples of iron oxides and iron-magnesium oxides were loaded into CO 2 gas and laser heated in a diamond-anvil cell. The nature of crystalline run products was determined in situ by X-ray diffraction, and the recovered samples were studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. We show that Fe (II) is systematically involved in redox reactions with CO 2 yielding to Fe (III) -bearing phases and diamonds. We also report a new Fe (III) -bearing high-pressure phase resulting from the transformation of FeCO 3 at pressures exceeding 40 GPa. The presence of both diamonds and an oxidized C-bearing phase suggests that oxidized and reduced forms of carbon might coexist in the deep mantle. Finally, the observed reactions potentially provide a new mechanism for diamond formation at great depth.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
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    ABSTRACT: Among the volatile elements present in our solar system, iodine is involved in mechanisms of primary importance during planet's evolution. The different isotopic signatures of 129Xe/132Xe for mantle and atmosphere between the Earth and Mars may reflect an early fractionation of xenon with respect to iodine. The role of fluids and more especially water is seriously envisaged to generate such a fractionation because whereas iodine is hydrophilic, xenon is not. Therefore iodine's early degassing with a water-rich fluid from a magma ocean is a good hypothesis to explain iodine, but also chlorine and bromine losses during early differentiation stages of the Earth. It was also shown that iodine is involved in natural ozone destruction in the Earth's atmosphere. Today we are able to detect iodine in volcanic emissions. The intensive subduction-zones volcanic degassing may explain the presence of iodine in the atmosphere if degassed together with water. The combination of synchrotron X-Ray characterization with diamond anvil cells, applied as magmatic and mantelic reactors to simulate pressure and temperature conditions of the planet interiors allows: (1) the characterization of fluids (aqueous, melt, supercritic) existing in the Earth; (2) element transfers via such fluids from depths to planets surfaces. Here, we have experimentally monitored iodine degassing from high pressure hydrous melts in situ in diamond anvil cells DAC by measuring iodine partitioning between aqueous fluids and hydrous melts during decompression. DAC experiments have been combined with high energy Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence at the beam lines Id27 and FAME from ESRF. Partition coefficients (D(I)fluid/melt = (I)fluid/(I)melt ) have been measured in situ from 500 to 900 °C and from 0.1 to 1.8 GPa. First results show that they are ranging from 1.9 (1.4 GPa) to 60 (0.1 GPa) and seem to tend to unity close to total miscibility between melts and aqueous fluids. At low pressure conditions (lower than 0.5 GPa) iodine partition coefficients are higher than those of bromine [Bureau et al., 2010, CGA 74, 3839-3850] confirming the higher affinity of iodine for water. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis of iodine early magmatic degassing process to generate I fractionation from Xe. They may also be useful to explain the bulk Earth's halogen elements abundances.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: The physical properties of iron at high pressure and high temperature have unique relevance for geophysics and are crucial in the attempt to refine the chemical composition and dynamics of the Earth's core. In this respect, compressional-wave (VP) and shear-wave (VS) sound velocities play a fundamental role, as two of the few parameters that can be directly compared with the seismic observations. Experiments probing sound velocities, in particular those of opaque metallic samples are at the cutting edge of modern techniques. These experiments are very challenging even when only involving high pressure, and presently very few results exist at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature. None of these experiments however was capable to reach P-T conditions relevant for the Earth's core, and thus the results need to be extrapolated. Currently, velocities extrapolation is made according to the Birch's law, which assumes a linear dependence of the longitudinal acoustic sound velocity on density, or, in more general terms, that the elastic properties of a compressed material are well described within a quasi-harmonic approximation. The validity of this semi-empirical relationship is argument of debate, with theoretical models suggesting anharmonic high-temperature corrections to become eventually significant at very high temperature. Here we present sound velocity and density measurements on polycrystalline hcp-Fe at simultaneous high pressure and high temperature conditions, up to 93 GPa and 1100 K. We directly determined the compressional sound velocity VP from the initial slope of the aggregate longitudinal acoustic phonon dispersion probed by momentum resolved, high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering. In parallel, densities were measured by x-ray diffraction. Our results indicate that high-temperature anharmonic correction are negligible at least up to 1100 K and that VP scales linearly with density irrespectively of specific pressure and temperature conditions over the investigated pressure and temperature range. These new results will be compared with literature studies, and limitations of extrapolation schemes commonly used in experimental mineral physics will be discussed in order to further constrain geophysical models of the Earth's inner core.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: We examine flow properties and deformation-induced fabric evolution in two-phase composites using the deformation DIA (D-DIA) and the high-pressure x-ray tomography microscope (HPXTM) with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Stress-strain curves were determined on an analog lower mantle material CaGeO3 perovskite (GePv) plus MgO. The sintered polycrystalline rock was synthesized from the disproportionation reaction of CaMgGeO4 (olivine) - GePv+MgO at 12 GPa and 1573 K for 4 h. The sample contains 28 vol% MgO, and is an excellent analog material for the lower mantle. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the average grain size was about 1 micron. The sample was deformed in the D-DIA at pressures from 4 to 12 GPa, temperatures 600 to 1200 K, and strain rates from 1x to 3x10-5 s-1. The maximum axial strain was 16 %. Elastic constants for GePv were calculated using first-principles with the generalized gradient corrections (GGC) technique. In order to examine effects of the second phase on flow properties, a pure GePv sample was deformed under identical conditions. Flow properties of MgO are available from our previous studies [1]. The relative stress levels in GePv and MgO in the composite sample are in general agreement with numerical simulations [2]. Another analog, a mixture of San Carlos olivine and Fe-S, was examined in the HPXTM. The strength contrast of two phases is similar to that of perovskite and ferropericlase. The initial texture was of the load-bearing framework (LBF) type, with isolated "weak" Fe-S grains sounded by "strong" silicate framework. During shear deformation, a strong shape preferred orientation began to develop in the sample at shear strains above 300%, forming an interconnected weak layer (IWL) texture. The development of deformation fabric was continuously monitored by tomographic imaging under high pressure to a maximum shear strain of 1300%. Applications of these results to dynamics of the lower mantle are discussed. [1] Uchida, T. et al. (2004) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 226, 117-126. [2] Madi, K., et al. (2005) Earth and Planetary Sci. Lett., 237, 223-238.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed knowledge of the high pressure melting relations is essential for constructing and validating models of materials behavior under extreme conditions for fields ranging from geophysics and planetary sciences to fundamental and applied physics. In the present work, melting and solid-solid phase transitions of several materials have been precisely followed using an original in-situ synchrotron time-resolved x-ray diffraction method. The real-time detection of the x-ray signal scattered by the liquid is used as an objective criterion for melting. The principle and potential of this method will be illustrated in three important cases, i.e. lead, and tantalum melting curves (physics) and the melting of peridotite (geophysics).
    No preview · Article · Dec 2011
  • Marta Marocchi · Hélène Bureau · Guillaume Fiquet · François Guyot
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    ABSTRACT: Experiments of dissolution of siderite (FeCO3) in pure water and in saline aqueous solution (“seawater” composition) have been performed at temperatures of up to 400 °C in a maximum pressure range of 720–1150 MPa, using an hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC). The reaction products were characterized in situ by Raman spectroscopy. At 250 °C, in pure water system, we document formation of formaldehyde (HCOH) near the surface of siderite. At 250 °C and above, formic acid (HCOOH) and carbon monoxide (CO) were detected in the bulk fluid. The reduction of oxidized carbon to HCOH and HCOOH is coupled to conversion of ferrous iron (FeII) from siderite to ferric iron (FeIII). We thus provide experimental evidence of FeII–CO2 oxido-reductive coupling using a single mineral, siderite, in pure water and in saline solution. The presence of NaCl in the fluid enhances the kinetics of oxido-reductive dissolution of siderite, with formation of organic chlorinated molecules. The results suggest that in geological situations, especially in accretion prisms or active hydrothermal systems developing on ultrabasic rocks in which fluids may be transferred with relatively short residence times, formic acid and formaldehyde might be important metastable storage forms of hydrogen. Moreover, thermal dissolution of siderite may account for at least some of the reduced carbon observed in chondrites bearing traces of hydrothermal activity and in metasedimentary rocks from the early Earth.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2011 · Chemical Geology
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    ABSTRACT: The global geochemical carbon cycle involves exchanges between the Earth's interior and the surface. Carbon is recycled into the mantle via subduction mainly as carbonates and is released to the atmosphere via volcanism mostly as CO(2). The stability of carbonates versus decarbonation and melting is therefore of great interest for understanding the global carbon cycle. For all these reasons, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of these minerals are needed up to core mantle boundary conditions. However, the nature of C-bearing minerals at these conditions remains unclear. Here we show the existence of a new Mg-Fe carbon-bearing compound at depths greater than 1,800 km. Its structure, based on three-membered rings of corner-sharing (CO(4))(4-) tetrahedra, is in close agreement with predictions by first principles quantum calculations [Oganov AR, et al. (2008) Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO(3), CaCO(3) and CO(2) and their role in Earth's lower mantle. Earth Planet Sci Lett 273:38-47]. This high-pressure polymorph of carbonates concentrates a large amount of Fe((III)) as a result of intracrystalline reaction between Fe((II)) and (CO(3))(2-) groups schematically written as 4FeO + CO(2) → 2Fe(2)O(3) + C. This results in an assemblage of the new high-pressure phase, magnetite and nanodiamonds.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We report the preparation of the starting material reflecting the complex composition of the Earth's mantle. With this aim, we synthesized two types of material: sol–gel and glass obtained by aerodynamic levitation. Thanks to their high homogeneity and reactivity, these materials are suitable for experimental petrology under extreme conditions, conducted in laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We then used this mantle analog to investigate the iron partitioning between high pressure phases under lower mantle conditions during solid-state reaction and partial melting of the material. Iron preferentially partitions into the (Mg,Fe)O, but the presence of aluminum slightly enriches iron in the silicate phase (Kpv−fp=0.41±0.04) compared to similar experiments in an Al-free system.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · High Pressure Research
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    ABSTRACT: We have examined the microstructural evolution of a two-phase composite (olivine + Fe-Ni-S) during large shear deformation, using a newly developed high-pressure X-ray tomography microscope. Two samples were examined: a load-bearing framework-type texture, where the alloy phase (Fe-Ni-S) was present as isolated spherical inclusions, and an interconnected network-type texture, where the alloy phase was concentrated along the silicate grain boundaries and tended to form an interconnected network. The samples, both containing [~]10 vol% alloy inclusions, were compressed to 6 GPa, followed by shear deformation at temperatures up to 800 K. Shear strains were introduced by twisting the samples at high pressure and high temperature. At each imposed shear strain, samples were cooled to ambient temperature and tomographic images collected. The three-dimensional tomographic images were analyzed for textural evolution. We found that in both samples, Fe-Ni-S, which is the weaker phase in the composite, underwent significant deformation. The resulting lens-shaped alloy phase is subparallel to the shear plane and has a laminated, highly anisotropic interconnected weak layer texture. Scanning electron microscopy showed that many alloy inclusions became film-like, with thicknesses <1 {micro}m, suggesting that Fe-Ni-S was highly mobile under nonhydrostatic stress, migrated into silicate grain boundaries, and propagated in a manner similar to melt inclusions in a deforming solid matrix. The grain size of the silicate matrix was significantly reduced under large strain deformation. The strong shape-preferred orientation thus developed can profoundly influence a composite's bulk elastic and rheological properties. High-pressure-high temperature tomography not only provides quantitative observations on textural evolution, but also can be compared with simulation results to derive more rigorous models of the mechanical properties of composite materials relevant to Earth's deep mantle.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Geosphere
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    ABSTRACT: Seismic discontinuities in Earth typically arise from structural, chemical, or temperature variations with increasing depth. The pressure-induced iron spin state transition in the lower mantle may influence seismic wave velocities by changing the elasticity of iron-bearing minerals, but no seismological evidence of an anomaly exists. Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on (Mg0.83Fe0.17)O-ferropericlase at pressures across the spin transition show effects limited to the only shear moduli of the elastic tensor. This explains the absence of deviation in the aggregate seismic velocities and, thus, the lack of a one-dimensional seismic signature of the spin crossover. The spin state transition does, however, influence shear anisotropy of ferropericlase and should contribute to the seismic shear wave anisotropy of the lower mantle.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Science

Publication Stats

4k Citations
561.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • UPMC
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000-2015
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés (IMPMC)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1991-2013
    • Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2010-2012
    • Paris Diderot University
      • Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés (IMPMC) UMR 7590
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
      • Division of Experiments
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2004-2012
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      • Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés (IMPMC)
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
    • Université de Vincennes - Paris 8
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004-2008
    • University of Paris-Est
      La Haye-Descartes, Centre, France
  • 2007
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
      Livermore, California, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2002
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Geophysical Laboratory
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1993-2000
    • Ecole normale supérieure de Lyon
      Lyons, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1999
    • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
      Villeurbanne, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 1992
    • Université de Rennes 2
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • Université de Rennes 1
      Roazhon, Brittany, France