Hiroki Yamaguchi

Okayama University, Okayama, Okayama, Japan

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Publications (13)28.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the frequency distribution of the left ventricular (LV) mechanical efficiency of individual arrhythmic beats during electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in normal canine hearts. This efficiency is the fraction of the external mechanical work (EW) in the total mechanical energy measured by the systolic pressure-volume area (PVA). The mean, median, and mode of this efficiency (EW/PVA) were as high as 78%, 80%, and 81%, respectively, on average in six hearts. These high efficiencies were comparable to that of the regular beats in these hearts. The frequency distribution of the EW/PVA during AF tended to skew to the higher side in all the hearts. Since the EW/PVA is directly related to both the ventriculo-arterial (or afterload) coupling ratio (E(a)/E(max); E(a) = effective arterial elastance, E(max) = end-systolic ventricular elastance) and the ejection fraction on a per-beat basis, we also analyzed their frequency distributions. We found them to skew enough to account for the rightward skewed frequency distribution of the EW/PVA during AF with the unexpectedly high mean EW/PVA. These results indicate that the LV arrhythmia during AF per se does not directly suppress the mean level of LV mechanical efficiency in normal canine hearts.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · The Journal of Physiological Sciences
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that the contractility index (E(max)) and the total mechanical energy (PVA) of arrhythmic beats of the left ventricle (LV) distribute normally in canine hearts under electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, E(max) is the ventricular elastance as the slope of the end-systolic (ES) pressure-volume (P-V) relation (ESPVR), and PVA is the systolic P-V area as the sum of the external mechanical work within the P-V loop and the elastic potential energy under the ESPVR. To obtain E(max) and PVA, we had to assume the systolic unstressed volume (V(o)) as the V-axis intercept of the ESPVR to be constant despite the varying E(max), since there was no method to obtain V(o) directly in each arrhythmic beat. However, we know that in regular stable beats V(o) decreases by approximately 7 ml/100 g LV with approximately 100 times the increases in E(max) from ~0.2 mmHg/(ml/100 g LV) of almost arresting weak beats to approximately 20 mmHg/(ml/100 g LV) of strong beats with a highly enhanced contractility. In the present study, we investigated whether E(max) and PVA under AF could still distribute normally, despite such E(max)-dependent V(o) changes. The present analyses showed that the E(max) changes were only approximately 3 times at most from the weakest to the strongest arrhythmic beat under AF. These changes were not large enough to affect V(o) enough to distort the frequency distributions of E(max) and PVA from normality. We conclude that one could practically ignore the slight E(max) and PVA changes with the Emax-dependent V(o) changes under AF.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2005 · The Japanese Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: We previously found the frequency distribution of the left ventricular (LV) effective afterload elastance (E(a)) of arrhythmic beats to be nonnormal or non-Gaussian in contrast to the normal distribution of the LV end-systolic elastance (E(max)) in canine in situ LVs during electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These two mechanical variables determine the total mechanical energy [systolic pressure-volume area (PVA)] generated by LV contraction when the LV end-diastolic volume is given on a per-beat basis. PVA and E(max) are the two key determinants of the LV O(2) consumption per beat. In the present study, we analyzed the frequency distribution of PVA during AF by its chi(2), significance level, skewness, and kurtosis and compared them with those of other major cardiodynamic variables including E(a) and E(max). We assumed the volume intercept (V(0)) of the end-systolic pressure-volume relation needed for E(max) determination to be stable during arrhythmia. We found that PVA distributed much more normally than E(a) and slightly more so than E(max) during AF. We compared the chi(2), significance level, skewness, and kurtosis of all the complex terms of the PVA formula. We found that the complexity of the PVA formula attenuated the effect of the considerably nonnormal distribution of E(a) on the distribution of PVA along the central limit theorem. We conclude that mean (SD) of PVA can reliably characterize the distribution of PVA of arrhythmic beats during AF, at least in canine hearts.
    No preview · Article · May 2005 · AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) O2 consumption (V(O2)) per minute is measurable for both regular and arrhythmic beats. LV V(O2) per beat can then be obtained as V(O2) per minute minute divided by heart rate per minute minute for regular beats, but not for arrhythmic beats. We have established that V(O2) of a regular stable beat is predictable by V(O2) = a PVA + b E(max) + c, where PVA is the systolic pressure-volume area as a measure of the total mechanical energy of an individual contraction and E(max) is the end-systolic maximum elastance as an index of ventricular contractility of the contraction. Furthermore, a is the O2 cost of PVA, b is the O2 cost of E(max), and c is the basal metabolic V(O2) per beat. We considered it theoretically reasonable to expect that the same formula could also predict LV V(O2) of individual arrhythmic beats from their respective PVA and E(max) with the same a, b, and c. We therefore applied this formula to the PVA - Emax data of individual arrhythmic beats under electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in six canine in situ hearts. We found that the predicted V(O2) of individual arrhythmic beats highly correlated linearly with either their V(O2) (r = 0.96 +/- 0.01) or E(max) (0.97 +/- 0.03) while both also highly correlated linearly with each other (0.88 +/- 0.04). This suggests that the above formula may be used to predict LV Vo2 of absolute arrhythmic beats from their Emax and PVA under AF.
    No preview · Article · May 2005 · The Japanese Journal of Physiology
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    ABSTRACT: Warm ischemia is a major cause of cardiac allograft dysfunction in non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs). We evaluated the cardioprotective effects of nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, on the early posttransplant left ventricular (LV) function of hearts harvested from asphyxiated canine NHBDs. Hypoxic cardiac arrest was induced in 12 donor dogs. In 6, nicorandil was administered intravenously at 100 micrograms/kg + 25 micrograms/kg/min after respiratory arrest and hearts were preserved with nicorandil-supplemented cardioplegic solution (nicorandil group). The remaining 6 did not receive nicorandil at any time during the experiment (control group). Hearts were orthotopically transplanted after a mean myocardial ischemic time of 4 hours. All 12 recipients were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass without inotropic support. In the control group, posttransplant cardiac indices and left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) decreased significantly, while LV max-dP/dt and Tau increased over pretransplant values. No differences were seen in parameters between pretransplant and posttransplant values in the nicorandil group. Posttransplant cardiac indices, LVESP, and LV max + dP/dt were higher in the nicorandil group than in controls, while posttransplant LV max-dP/dt in the nicorandil group was lower. Our results indicate that pretreatment with nicorandil during hypoxic perfusion before cardiac arrest and subsequent preservation with nicorandil-supplemented cardioplegia ameliorates early posttransplant LV dysfunction of hearts harvested from asphyxiated NHBDs.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2002 · The Japanese Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: We attempted to predict the posttransplant cardiac function of nonbeating donor hearts. A total of 13 dogs were studied. Hearts were left in situ for 45 minutes after cardiac arrest caused by exsanguination. Hearts were then excised and reperfused in an ex vivo perfusion apparatus after 60 minutes of warm ischemia to test whether they could eject against an 80 mm Hg afterload from a preload of 10 mm Hg. Thereafter, all hearts were transplanted orthotopically. Four of 13 hearts were able to eject in the apparatus (group A). However, the other nine hearts could not eject under the defined conditions (group B). All four hearts in group A showed good posttransplant hemodynamics (systolic arterial pressure > 80 mm Hg with mean left atrial pressure < 10 mm Hg) without dopamine. However, none of nine hearts in group B could support the circulation without dopamine. Nonbeating donor heart function evaluated in the perfusion apparatus predicts posttransplant heart function. This method may be applicable for selection of transplantable hearts from nonbeating heart donors.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2001 · The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Effective arterial elastance (E(a)) was originally defined as the end-systolic pressure (ESP)/stroke volume (SV) ratio of the left ventricle (LV). E(a) combined with LV contractility (E(max)), E(a)/E(max), proved to be powerful in analyzing the ventriculo-arterial coupling of normal and failing hearts in regular beats. However, E(a) sensitively changes with LV E(max), preload, and afterload widely changing among irregular beats. This has discouraged the use of E(a) during arrhythmia. However, we hypothesized that E(a) could serve as the effective afterload (not always arterial) elastance against ventricular ejection under arrhythmia. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing beat-to-beat changes in E(a) of irregular beats during electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF) in normal canine in situ hearts. We newly found that during AF in each heart: 1) E(a) changed widely among irregular beats and became markedly high in weak beats with small SVs; 2) E(a) and E(a)/E(max) distributed non-normally with large skewness but 1/E(a) distributed more normally; 3) 1/E(a) correlated closely with end-diastolic volume, E(max) and preceding beat intervals; and 4) the reciprocal of mean 1/E(a) closely correlated with mean ESP/mean SV. These results support our hypothesis that E(a) can serve as the effective afterload elastance against ventricular ejection on a per-beat basis during AF. E(a)/E(max) can also quantify the ventriculo-afterload (not arterial) coupling on a per-beat basis. This study, however, warns that mean E(a) and mean E(a)/E(max) of irregular beats cannot necessarily represent their averages during AF.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2000 · The Japanese Journal of Physiology
  • Terumasa Morita · Hiroki Yamaguchi · Shunji Sano · Hiroyuki Suga

    No preview · Article · Sep 1999 · Journal of Cardiac Failure
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    ABSTRACT: We recently found that contractility (Emax) of an individual irregularly arrhythmic beat in electrically induced atrial fibrillation (AF) is reasonably predictable from the ratio of the preceding beat interval (RR1) to the beat interval immediately preceding RR1 (RR2) in the canine left ventricle. Moreover, the monotonically increasing relation between Emax and the RR1-to-RR2 ratio (RR1/RR2) passed through or by the mean arrhythmic beat Emax as well as the regular beat Emax at RR1/RR2 = 1. We hypothesized that this Emax-RR1/RR2 relation during irregular arrhythmia could be attributed to the basic characteristics of the mechanical restitution and potentiation. To test this, we adopted a known comprehensive equation describing the force restitution and potentiation as a function of two preceding beat intervals and simulated contractilities of irregular arrhythmic beats with randomized beat intervals on a computer. The simulated Emax-RR1/RR2 relation reasonably resembled the one that we recently observed experimentally, supporting our hypothesis. We therefore conclude that the primary mechanism underlying the varying contractilities of irregular beats in AF is mechanical restitution and potentiation.
    Preview · Article · Dec 1998 · The American journal of physiology

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Journal of Cardiac Failure

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1998 · Journal of Cardiac Failure
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    ABSTRACT: We briefly review that ventricular systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) can predict changes in myocardial O2 consumption (VO2) associated with cardiac work production (positive work) and absorption (negative work). PVA represents the total mechanical energy of cardiac contraction as it is an integral of mechanical energy generated during systole in the cardiac chamber. We have shown that PVA linearly correlates with VO2 under varied pre- and afterload conditions in the left ventricle of the excised cross-circulated canine heart preparation as well as other heart preparations of different species. PVA is the sum of external mechanical work (EW) and mechanical potential energy (PE) which is almost fully convertible to mechanical work without affecting VO2. To compare the energetic effects of cardiac work production and absorption, we varied the timing of the servo pump motion relative to left ventricular (LV) contraction. When the pump fills the LV during diastole and sucks (allows ejection) during systole, cardiac work is produced by the heart, and hence EW > 0. When the pump fills the LV during systole and sucks during diastole, work is absorbed by the heart, and hence EW < 0. The pressure-volume loop rotates counterclockwise when EW > 0. It rotates clockwise when EW < 0. As the result, PVA (= PE + EW) > PE when EW > 0; PVA < PE when EW < 0. We found that VO2 always linearly correlated with PVA regardless of the polarity of EW. Therefore, PVA is the unique determinant of VO2 in a cardiac chamber in a stable contractility.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1998 · Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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    ABSTRACT: How left ventricular (LV) contractility relates to irregular RR intervals during atrial fibrillation (AF) is still unclear. We investigated the relationship between the LV contractility (Emax) of individual beats and their preceding RR intervals during AF in isovolumic contractions is excised cross-circulated canine hearts, and additionally in ejecting contractions in in situ canine hearts. Atrial high-frequency electrical stimulation induced AF. We recorded a LV electrocardiogram, volume and pressure, and calculated the Emax of every arrhythmic beat. Multiple linear regression analysis between Emax and the six preceding RR intervals of all arrhythmic beats during 1 min AF showed the preceding RR interval (RR1) and the pre-preceding interval (RR2) to be the predominant predictors of Emax. The Emax-RR1/RR2 scattergram was closely fitted by a linear regression line. We found Emax at RR1/RR2 = 1 on the regression line to be virtually identical with both mean Emax during AF and stable Emax obtained during irregular atrial pacing at the same intervals as the mean RR interval during AF. These results newly indicate that the pressure-interval relationship predominantly characterizes LV irregular beat contractilities and their mean level during AF.
    No preview · Article · Mar 1997 · The Japanese Journal of Physiology