[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic transplant in 30 patients with poor-prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and/or high-risk molecular/cytogenetic characteristics.
Eighty-three percent of patients had active disease at the moment of transplant. That is, 14 of the 23 patients analyzed (60%) had unmutated immunoglobulin variable heavy-chain gene (IgV(H)) status; 8 of 25 patients (32%) had 11q-, with four of them also displaying unmutated IgV(H); and six (24%) had 17p- (five were also unmutated).
After a median follow-up of 47.3 months, all 22 patients alive are disease free; overall survival and event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years were 70% and 72%, respectively. According to molecular/cytogenetic characteristics, overall survival and EFS for unmutated CLL and/or with 11q- aberration (n = 13) were 90% and 92%, respectively, not significantly different to those with normal in situ hybridization, 13q- and +12, or mutated CLL (n = 7). All six patients with 17p deletion were transplanted with active disease, including three with refractory disease; all except one reached complete remission after the transplant and two are alive and disease free. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 20%; more than two lines before transplant is an independent prognostic factor for NRM (P = 0,02), EFS (P = 0.02), and overall survival (P = 0.01). Patients older than 55 years have a higher risk of NRM (hazard ratio, 12.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-111). Minimal residual disease was monitored by multiparametric flow cytometry in 21 patients. Clearance of CD79/CD5/CD19/CD23 cells in bone marrow was achieved in 68% and 94% of the patients at days 100 and 360, respectively.
According to these results, RIC allogeneic transplant could overcome the adverse prognosis of patients with unmutated CLL as well as those with 11q- or 17p-.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2005 · Clinical Cancer Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over a 3-year period, 145 patients ineligible for myeloablative conditioning underwent reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) from an HLA-identical sibling in a prospective study. The median age was 54 years, 88 patients were male and 61 patients were beyond the early-intermediate phase of their disease. The 100-day probability of developing grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 34%, and the 1-year probability of developing chronic extensive GVHD was 41%. The 1-year probabilities of transplant-related mortality (TRM), overall (OS) and progression-free survival were 20, 60 and 52%, respectively. Multivariate analyses found a better OS in: (i) patients <60 years; and (ii) recipients of a first SCT; and a higher TRM in: (i) age >60 years, (ii) recipients of a prior autologous SCT, and (iii) an ECOG performance status >1. The 1-year TRM in patients with 0 or 1 and >2 of the above-mentioned adverse prognostic factors were 17 vs 53%, respectively (P<0.001). In summary, our study shows that elderly patients have a higher TRM following an RIC protocol. However, age by itself should not preclude these RIC transplants, since TRM appears to be unacceptably high only in the presence of additional adverse factors.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2004 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is a possible complication of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, known as Richter's syndrome (RS). Treatment for RS includes systemic chemotherapy and, recently, allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We describe a patient with B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia who developed RS 4 months after allogeneic SCT from an HLA-identical sibling. The RS presented with systemic symptoms, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia and serum lactate dehydrogenase elevation. The patient was treated with immunosuppressive drug withdrawal and a donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) of 1 x 10(7) CD3/kg, leading to the disappearance of all symptoms and the attainment of complete donor chimerism. After 18 months of the therapeutic DLI, the patient continues in complete remission.
Preview · Article · Mar 2003 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T cell depletion of the graft increases graft failure and relapse rate in allogeneic PBSC transplantation. Delayed lymphocyte add-back after T cell-depleted transplants might prevent these complications. We present 22 consecutive allogeneic PBSC transplants from related histocompatible donors with positive selection of CD34+ cells. Recipients received prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) depending on their risk of relapse and of developing GVHD. Patients were considered at high risk of relapse with AML > first CR, ALL > second CR, and CML in accelerated or blastic phase. Patients were considered at high risk of developing GVHD if older than 35 years, or with a donor sensitized through previous pregnancy or blood transfusion. Patients at high risk of relapse and low risk of GVHD were scheduled to receive three DLI. Patients at low risk of relapse and high risk of GVHD did not receive DLI. The remaining patients were scheduled to receive two DLI. The DLI were administered on days +28 (2 x 10(5)/kg), +60 (2 x 10(5)/kg) and +90 (2 x 10(6)/kg) after transplant. G-CSF mobilized peripheral stem cells from healthy donors were positively selected by an immunomagnetic method. The mean CD34+ cells and CD3+ cells infused were 4.4 x 10(6)(range 1.9-10.6) and 0.085 x 10(5) (range 0.01-0.67). Cyclosporin A was given to prevent GVHD. All the patients engrafted. Twenty-two prophylactic DLI were performed in 12 patients: seven developed acute GVHD (one case grade III-IV) and none presented pancytopenia. At a mean follow-up of 585 days (range 89-1103), 14 patients were alive in CR, one patient was alive in relapse, four patients had died of relapse and three had died of transplant-related complication. Individually adjusted prophylactic DLI at the doses we used with an escalating schedule allowed an acceptable GVHD rate and a good engraftment of donor hematopoiesis.
Preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We compared the occurrence of severe infections following 71 reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplants (PBSCT) and 123 standard myeloablative PBSCT (MINI and STAND groups, respectively) from HLA-identical siblings. The probability of 1-year infection-related mortality (IRM) was 19% in the STAND group and 10% in the MINI group (log-rank, P = 0.3). On multivariate analysis the only significant variable associated with a higher risk of IRM was the development of moderate-to-severe GVHD (P = 0.005). The probability of developing CMV infection was 39% in the STAND group and 21% in the MINI group (P = 0.03) (43% and 21%, respectively, in seropositive donor/recipient pairs, P = 0.01), and the probability of developing CMV disease was 9.5% and 1%, respectively (P = 0.05) (11% and 1%, respectively, in seropositive donor/recipient pairs, P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of CMV infection identified four variables associated with a higher risk: CMV positive serostatus (P = 0.05), STAND transplant group (P = 0.02), the development of moderate-to-severe GVHD (P < 0.001) and a dose of CD34(+) cells infused below 6 x 10(6)/kg (P = 0.01). Invasive fungal infections and pneumonias of unknown origin did not differ between groups, and neither did other severe non-CMV viral infections and bacterial infections. Our results suggest that RIC allogeneic PBSCT may decrease the risk of dying from an opportunistic infection and reduces the occurrence of CMV infection and disease. Overall, the development of GVHD (acute or chronic) is an important risk factor for these complications. Other infections continue to pose a significant threat to recipients of RIC allografts, stressing that prophylactic and supportive measures are an important aspect in their care.
No preview · Article · Aug 2001 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to assess the feasibility, toxicity and antileukemic activity of sequential chemotherapy including mitoxantrone, etoposide, carboplatin and intermediate-dose cytarabine in adult patients with refractory and relapsed acute myelogenous (AML) or lymphoid (ALL) leukemia. Fifty-one patients with poor-risk AML and ALL received 64 courses of MECA therapy. The overall response in the entire group was 51% (43% complete remission). The stage of the disease (relapsed or primarily refractory) and the age of the patients did not strongly affect the response rate. MECA therapy was more effective in ALL than in AML, and in those patients who presented at salvage treatment with a bone marrow infiltration lower than 25% blasts. Hematological and extra-hematological toxicities were tolerable and there were 6 deaths related to the treatment (11%). The incidence of documented infectious episodes was 71%. MECA therapy is a safe treatment and has a high antileukemic activity in relapsed and primarily refractory AML or ALL.
No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients have an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders that are often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. We report the case of a patient who developed multiple myeloma after renal transplantation. EBV-RNA was demonstrated in the neoplastic cells suggesting the implication of this virus genome in the pathogenesis of this post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose was study the feasibility of ESHAP + G-CSF for peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cell (PBPC) mobilisation in resistant/relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twenty-two consecutive patients with HD (8) and N-HL (14) received ESHAP chemotherapy and G-CSF (5 microg/Kg/d). When a minimum number of 10,000 peripheral blood CD34+ cells/mL was observed patients underwent leukapheresis until a CD34+ cell dose > or = 2.5x10(6)/Kg was collected or the PBPC peak was lost. Blood cells kinetics and toxicity were analysed. Data concerning the day of first apheresis, number of procedures per patient, and cellular yield of the aphereses were recorded. Correlation between the CD34+ cell content in the apheresis product and the two diagnosis groups was attempted. Twelve patients (54%) developed short-lived severe neutropenia (<0.5x10(9)/L). Thrombocytopenia (<25x10(9)/L) had a median duration of 1 day. Fever appeared in 4 patients and CN Staph bacteriemia in 2 cases. Bleeding events did not supervene and no deaths occurred. Aphereses started at day +15 (median) and the median number of apheresis/patient was 2. Seventeen patients underwent 1 or 2 leukaphereses. Thirteen patients (59%) achieved the CD34+ cell target in the first apheresis. NHL patients obtained statistically significant better CD34+ cell collections than HD. Only 2 HD patients failed to mobilise, 1 previously treated with high-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation. ESHAP + G-CSF has been shown to be feasible for PBPC mobilisation in resistant/relapsed lymphoma. Toxicity was low and CD34+ cell yield high, especially in N-HL. This mobilisation regimen should be further explored in a larger patient population.
No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Leukemia and Lymphoma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine patients with onco-hematological malignancies with a poor prognosis due to high risk of relapse received immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon (IFN(alpha 2b)) s.c. as maintenance therapy after receiving autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ABMT/PBSCT). All the patients were considered at very high risk of relapse. We attempted to assess the efficiency, toxicity and clinical effects of these cytokines in these patients. Five patients were treated with high-dose of IL-2 and the other four patients with escalating doses every month. Side-effects in the first group of patients consisted of fever, chills, weakness, nausea, anorexia, loss of weight and local dermatitis in the injection site. Toxicity on the WHO scale was grade II in three patients and grade IV in the other two patients. In the second group of patients, the same clinical signs of toxicity appeared, but these were grade I on the WHO scale in all patients. None of the patients had infections or died in relation to administration of IL-2. Four patients died of relapse or progression of their hematological malignancies. The other five patients are alive, one in chronic phase of CML and the other four patients are in complete remission of their malignancies.
Preview · Article · Feb 1999 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 40-year-old male weighing 90 kilograms was diagnosed with acute myeloblastic leukaemia M5a which was resistant to chemotherapy. Neither a related nor an unrelated HLA-compatible bone marrow donor could be found. A unit of cord blood was found with an HLA compatibility of four out of six loci, and was infused after conditioning with cyclophosphamide, total body irradiation and antilymphocyte globulin. The infused cord blood had 0.98 x 10(7) nucleated cells per kilogram. On day 35 after infusion the patient was considered to have graft failure. A second unit of cord blood was found, and after 3 days of antilymphocyte globulin, it was infused (day 41). The course was complicated by severe hypoxia and bilateral interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and the patient was treated with high doses of methylprednisolone. On day 58 the leukocyte count increased to 3 x 10(9)/l, and there was total chimerism of the first cord blood unit infused. Two weeks later leukocyte counts decreased progressively and the patient died of a disseminated fungal infection. We discuss the importance of the number of nucleated cells per kilogram of body weight infused, and the role of intensive immunosuppression in engraftment of cord blood transplantations in adults.
Preview · Article · Sep 1997 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seventeen patients with Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were treated with the ICE regimen plus G-CSF with the aim of mobilizing and collecting Ph-negative peripheral stem cells (PSC) in the setting of an autotransplant program. Fifteen patients had CML in first chronic phase (CP), and two in accelerated phase (AP). Three patients had been previously treated with interferon alpha 2a (IFN). Twelve patients underwent leukaphereses and a mean of 4.7 x 10(8)/kg mononuclear cells were obtained. Four CP patients did not show a significant mobilization peak of CD34+ cells and leukapheresis was not performed; finally, one patient died before apheresis could be performed. Six of the 12 who underwent leukaphereses obtained more than 1.0 x 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells. Eight of the 12 mobilized patients (67%) obtained a major cytogenetic response, including two complete and six partial; in the remaining four patients minimal or absent cytogenetic responses were observed. A higher rate of Ph purging was obtained in patients mobilized early or showing residual Ph-negative cells before mobilization, even if they were in AP. Infectious complications were frequent with a 38% rate of bacteremia recorded and one case of pulmonary aspergillosis resulting in a toxicity similar to that occurring in acute myeloid leukemia-induction chemotherapy. The ICE regimen can promote 'in vivo' purging of the Ph+ cells in 67% of CML mobilized patients (8/12). Failure of mobilization occurs in 65% of patients (11/17), mainly because of poor CD34+ cell yield.
No preview · Article · Dec 1996 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient who underwent autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT) for multiple myeloma. Four months after ABMT he presented with numerous asymptomatic, dark blue and purplish macules and nodules on the trunk and lower extremities. Biopsy revealed the typical histologic pattern of Kaposi's sarcoma. The patient died due to disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma while in complete remission of his hematologic malignancy.
No preview · Article · May 1996 · Bone Marrow Transplantation