Sandra Donnelly

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (7)48.33 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity associated with adjuvant high-dose interferon-alfa-2b therapy (HDI) for high-risk melanoma can lead to premature discontinuation. It is important to understand the expected adverse events and their underlying mechanisms and to anticipate and aggressively manage toxicity during treatment in order to ensure that patients receive the maximum therapeutic benefit. The toxicity profile of HDI was reviewed by examining data from the United States cooperative group trials. Available published data related to the potential mechanisms responsible for the observed adverse events are discussed, and comprehensive recommendations for managing side effects are presented. The HDI regimen is associated with acute constitutional symptoms, chronic fatigue, myelosuppression, elevated liver enzyme levels, and neurologic symptoms. The majority of patients tolerate 1 year of therapy with an understanding of the anticipated toxicities in conjunction with appropriate dose modifications and supportive care. Ongoing monitoring for liver dysfunction and hematologic toxicity is critical to ensure safety. Many of the toxicities associated with interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) seem to be the result of endogenous cytokines and their effects on the neuroendocrine system. Recent data have also demonstrated that IFN-alpha suppresses the activity of specific CYP450 isoenzymes and that this correlates with discrete toxicities. Pharmacologic interventions are under study for fatigue and depression. An increased understanding of the mechanisms of IFN-alpha-associated toxicity will lead to more rational and effective supportive care and improved quality of life. Continued research in this area should lead to improvements in the safety and tolerability of adjuvant therapy for melanoma.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2002 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: High-dose IFNalpha-2b therapy (HDI) is the standard of adjuvant therapy for patients with high-risk melanoma, but toxicities of this regimen have limited its application. IFNs affect cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which metabolize many endogenous (e.g., steroids, fatty acids) and exogenous (e.g., drugs) substrates. No systematic studies have been performed to evaluate the effect of HDI on CYP enzymes. A significant inhibitory effect of HDI on CYP enzymes would increase the potential for adverse drug reactions and altered homeostasis through effects on hormone metabolism. To evaluate the potential effect of HDI on CYP enzymes, 17 patients with high-risk melanoma were treated with HDI, and CYP enzyme activity was measured by administration of selectively metabolized probe drugs over time (days -6, +1, +26, and +52 of HDI). Probe drugs and/or metabolites were quantified and used to derive indexes of enzyme activity. The results indicate that HDI differentially impairs CYP-mediated metabolism, having no effect on some enzymes (CYP2E1) and substantial effects on others (CYP1A2; median 60% decrease). A significant association was found between the magnitude of CYP inhibition and the occurrence of side effects including fever and neurological toxicity, which may form a novel basis of the underlying pathophysiology of some IFNalpha-2b-induced toxicity. These data suggest that strategies to minimize the impairment of CYP enzymes could alter the toxicity profile of HDI and augment its therapeutic utility, and that recognition of these potential interactions is important in the therapeutic application of IFNs.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Clinical Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the setting of familial melanoma, the presence of atypical nevi, which are the precursors of melanoma, is associated with a nearly 100 % risk of developing primary melanoma by age 70. In patients with sporadic melanoma, it is estimated that 40-60 % of melanomas develop in contiguous association with atypical nevi. Currently, the only way to prevent atypical nevi from progressing to melanoma is to monitor and excise them as soon as they exhibit changes in their clinical features. Activation of the transcription factor, Stat3, has been linked to abnormal cell growth and transformation as well as to interferon a (IFN-a)-mediated growth suppression in vitro. Materials and Methods: To determine whether IFN-a
    Full-text · Article · Feb 1999 · Molecular Medicine
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    ABSTRACT:  The microbial immunostimulant OK-432 has been studied intensively in preclinical systems and has shown promise as an anticancer agent in trials that have been conducted over the past 20 years in Japan. To date, no systematic dose response evaluation of this agent has defined its dose-limiting toxicity or immunobiological activity. A phase IA study has been conducted in 25 patients with metastatic cancer at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Melanoma Center, establishing 30 KE as the maximal tolerable dosage, on the basis of cutaneous reactions. Subsequently, 48 patients with resected high-risk melanoma participated in a phase IB study of OK-432. This study has evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of OK-432 at five dosages ranging from 1 KE to 20 KE, administered ID twice weekly for 3 months. A formal analysis of the treated population in comparison to the randomized control group has been conducted, and profound immunological effects have been defined in the group of patients treated with OK-432. Patients who participated in this trial had a significant depression of OK-432- inducible cytokine production (interleukin-1β, interferon γ, and tumor necrosis factor α) at baseline. Treatment with OK-432 reversed this deficit for interferon γ (IFNγ) production in a dose-dependent manner, and mitigated the inhibition for interleukin-1 (IL-1) across all dosage groups. The impact of OK-432 upon other immunological functions of the treated cohorts is more variable, with durable suppression of mononuclear cell superoxide production, and in vitro cytotoxicity to tumor. Immunological characteristics of the entire cohort demonstrate a strong and significant correlation of elevated blood CD16+ cell counts and natural killer activity with early tumor progression and death due to melanoma. Favorable prognosis is associated with monocyte capacity to produce tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and polymorphonuclear leukocyte formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine-inducible superoxide release. This study reveals several new immunological correlates of tumor progression and lethal outcome in resected high-risk melanoma. It demonstrates that the depressed IL-1, TNF, and IFNγ release associated with melanoma may be mitigated by treatment with OK-432. This study has defined treatment and dose response patterns of immunomodulation associated with one of the most complex immunological agents yet evaluated in phase IB trials, in a well-defined population of high-risk patients with resected melanoma.
    No preview · Article · May 1997 · Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy
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    ABSTRACT: Atypical (dysplastic) nevi are melanocytic lesions, which are precursors of melanoma as well as markers of increased melanoma risk. Although these lesions exhibit distinct clinical and histological features, their molecular features are largely unknown. To determine whether atypical, compared to benign nevi, from patients with a clinical history of malignant melanoma reveal molecular changes, we analyzed these lesions for the expression of two growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha), their receptors (fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 and epidermal growth factor receptor), and two cell adhesion molecules (MUC18 and alpha v beta 3 integrin), all of which are expressed in primary and metastatic melanomas. The results demonstrated a statistically significant correlation (P = 0.02) between increasing degrees of histological atypia and expression of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermal keratinocytes of atypical melanocytic lesions. Furthermore, both atypical and benign nevi revealed considerably high levels of overall gene activity in their dermal melanocytic and epidermal keratinocytic compartments. In contrast, the epidermal-dermal junction wherein melanoma evolves showed little gene activity, suggesting that molecular events occurring adjacent to this junction may be important for melanocytic transformation.
    No preview · Article · Jan 1997 · Cell growth & differentiation: the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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    D C Smith · S L Gerson · L Liu · S Donnelly · R Day · D L Trump · J M Kirkwood
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    ABSTRACT: The activity of the enzyme O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkytransferase (AGAT) protects cells from the cytotoxic effects of alkylating agents. This Phase II trial was designed to assess the efficacy of a strategy designed to modulate the resistance to carmustine (BCNU) mediated by AGAT using streptozocin (STZ) in patients with advanced refractory melanoma. Seventeen patients who had failed prior chemotherapy were treated with STZ at 500 mg/m2 daily for 4 days with BCNU at 150 mg/m2 on day 3. Peripheral blood lymphocytes for assay of AGAT activity levels were collected prior to therapy and following the third dose of STZ. There were two partial responses in the 15 patients evaluable for response (13%). Most patients received only a single cycle of therapy due to rapidly progressive disease. Two patients developed fatal pulmonary toxicity, and one developed myelodysplasia. Other toxicities included transient rises in liver function tests. AGAT levels decreased by a mean of 53% in 9 patients but actually increased over baseline in 3 patients while on therapy. Based on these data, BCNU and STZ are not an effective combination for the therapy of advanced refractory melanoma, and pulmonary toxicity due to this combination appears to be increased compared with BCNU alone. STZ is not an effective modulator of AGAT activity when given on this schedule. New strategies designed to deplete AGAT activity using O6-benzylguanine or temozolomide should be explored with careful attention to the possibility that this approach may potentiate both the toxicity and efficacy of BCNU.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 1996 · Clinical Cancer Research

  • No preview · Article · Aug 1995 · Journla of Immunotherapy