[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo evaluate the probability of subsequent testicular cancer (STC) in patients with intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU) treated for first-time invasive germ cell cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Sixty-one patients with germ cell testicular cancer or extragonadal germ cell cancer received follow-up from diagnosis of IGCNU to development of STC, initiation of IGCNU-definitive treatment (orchiectomy/radiotherapy), emigration, death, or end of follow-up. The probability of STC was assessed in subgroups according to chemotherapy burden.ResultsThe probability of STC in the nonexposed patients was significantly increased compared with those exposed to chemotherapy (P = .05; 5-year probability of 54% [95% CI, 33% to 78%] and 23% [95% CI, 11% to 45%], respectively). In the group of patients treated with one to three cycles or no chemotherapy, the probability of STC was significantly increased compared with those exposed to four or more cycles (P = .03; 5-year probability of 42% [95% CI, 27% to 62%] and 22% [95% CI, 8% to 54%], respectively). Twenty-two of 22 patients were tumor-free and alive at a median of 56 months (range, 2 to 184 months) after diagnosis of STC. CONCLUSION
Platinum-based chemotherapy may reduce the probability of STC in patients with IGCNU, particularly in those treated with four or more cycles of chemotherapy. A watch-and-wait strategy for patients with IGCNU may be justified in selected patients with future plans for paternity.
Preview · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allo-SCT is a potentially curative treatment approach for patients with relapsed Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the present study, 37 patients underwent RIC allo-SCT after induction treatment with EPOCH-F(R) using a novel form of dual-agent immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis with CsA and sirolimus. With a median follow-up of 28 months among survivors, the probability for OS at 3 and 5 years was 56%. Treatment-related mortality was 16% at day +100 and 30% after 1 year of transplant. Acute GVHD grades II-IV developed in 38% of patients, suggesting that the regimen consisting of CsA and an ultra-short course of sirolimus is effective in the prevention of acute GVHD.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 23 April 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.63.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Bone marrow transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a concern about negative cognitive effects of systemic chemotherapy. We prospectively explored self-reported cognitive problems in testicular cancer patients (TCPs) treated with and without chemotherapy.
One hundred and twenty-two TCPs were interviewed about concentration and memory problems shortly after orchidectomy but before any additional treatment (baseline), and then at a median of 1 year after end of treatment (follow-up). Symptoms of psychological distress, fatigue, and peripheral neurotoxicity were assessed by questionnaires, and patients also underwent neuropsychological testing. Self-reported cognitive problems were compared between three treatments groups: no chemotherapy, one cycle of chemotherapy, and multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Variables associated with an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to follow-up were explored.
Significantly larger proportions of TCPs in the two chemotherapy groups had an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to follow-up compared to the no-chemotherapy group. Increase of self-reported cognitive problems was significantly associated with psychological distress, fatigue, lower level of education, and Raynaud-like symptoms, but not with a decline in neuropsychological test performance.
In this explorative study of TCPs, an increase of self-reported cognitive problems from baseline to 1-year follow-up was associated with chemotherapy and with symptoms of fatigue and psychological distress at follow-up, while no significant association was found with a decline in neuropsychological test performance.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Journal of psychosomatic research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • To explore the efficacy and safety of testosterone undecanoate (TU) (Nebido®; Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) in patients with bilateral germ cell testicular cancer (GCTC) who have switched androgen substitution from testosterone enanthate (Primoteston Depot®, Bayer Schering Pharma AG).
• In total, 47 bilaterally orchidectomized GCTC patients were included in a prospective study to monitor serum gonadal hormones, biochemical safety and symptoms of hypogonadism based on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale during TU treatment for a 28-week period.
• During treatment, serum levels of total (TT) and calculated free testosterone (CFT) increased with simultaneously decreasing levels of FSH and LH. However, considerable variations in median levels of TT and CFT were observed during the study. The highest levels of TT and CFT were observed 1-2 weeks after each injection and the lowest immediately before the second injection. • Insufficient levels of TT (< 8 nmol/L) were observed in 10 patients, with nine of these during the second half of the first treatment cycle. Supernormal levels of TT (> 35 nmol/L) were measured in 28 patients of which 26 occurred at least once during the first 3 weeks of each treatment cycle. • A follow-up review at median 39 months after study start showed a median steady-state injection interval of 10 weeks, with an individual variability of 6-14 weeks. Symptoms according to the Aging Males' Symptoms scale remained unchanged. No severe toxicity was encountered. Only one patient experienced transient elevation of serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase with maximal Common Toxicity Criteria, grade 2.
• TU is safe and highly efficient for the treatment of anorchid GCTC survivors. • Androgen substitution with TU in bilateral GCTC survivors requires individually-adjusted injection intervals. In most cases, 10-week intervals appear to be sufficient.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · BJU International
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the level of cancer-related distress (CRD) and variables associated with CRD in recently diagnosed testicular cancer patients (TCPs), and to explore associations between distress levels and neuropsychological test performance at the same time-point.
As part of a prospective study of their psychological and cognitive functioning, 135 TCPs completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES) as a measure of CRD at a median of 37 days after diagnosis. They also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Among 135 TCPs, 131 were interviewed and 129 were also tested with a neuropsychological battery. All investigations were done after orchidectomy but before any additional treatment. The associations between neuropsychological test-scores and IES, HADS and PANAS were examined.
Twenty-four percent (95%CI 17%-31%) of the TCPs reported clinically significant CRD (IES-total score>26). No demographic or cancer-related variables were associated with the CRD-level. In univariate analyses, previous mental problems, sleeping problems, a higher level of neuroticism, daily smoking and hazardous alcohol-use were significantly associated with the CRD-level. In multivariate analysis neuroticism, smoking and alcohol-use remained significantly associated with CRD. Four out of 18 neuropsychological test-scores were significantly associated with at least one distress-measure. Increasing distress-levels were associated with decreasing test performance on some measures of attention, working memory and executive functions.
In newly diagnosed TCPs, the scores on neuropsychological tests should be considered in relation to co-existing mental distress. Future studies should consider adjustment for this on relevant tests.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whether systemic chemotherapy has a negative effect on cognitive function in patients, concern oncologists. In testicular cancer patients (TCPs) treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, only few cross-sectional studies have addressed this concern. We prospectively studied neuropsychological functioning in TCPs.
In a consecutive sampling, 122 TCPs were examined at baseline (after orchidectomy, before any additional treatment) and then at follow-up at a median of 12 months after end of treatment. The examinations included a neuropsychological test battery, interview on background variables and questionnaires on mental distress, fatigue and neurotoxic symptoms. Changes in neuropsychological functioning from baseline to follow-up were compared between three treatments groups: no chemotherapy (N = 31), one cycle of chemotherapy (N = 38) and two or more cycles of chemotherapy (N = 53). Variables associated with a decline in neuropsychological test performance from baseline to follow-up were explored.
No statistically significant differences in proportions of TCPs with a decline in neuropsychological test performance were observed between the three treatment groups. Decline in neuropsychological test performance was not associated with demographic variables, distress, fatigue or with chemotherapy.
No negative effect of systemic chemotherapy on neuropsychological test performance in TCPs at 1-year follow-up was found in this study.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Annals of Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmembrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by ABCB1, is one major cause for multidrug resistance (MDR). We compared the genomic profile and gene expression pattern of the P-gp positive K562VCR cells with parental P-gp negative K562wt cells. In K562VCR array CGH revealed amplification of ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCB5 and SEMA3D, whereas expression microarrays demonstrated upregulation of stem cell genes (e.g. KIT and HOXB4), anti-apoptotic genes (e.g. IGF1R and CCNG1), and downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes (e.g. CASP4, 6 and 7). Thus, K562VCR cells disclose stem cell characteristics including a range of drug resistance mechanisms possibly attained as a stem cell program switched on en bloc.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Leukemia research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer among Norwegian 15 to 40-year-old men. The incidence has doubled in Norway and Denmark during the last 50 years and is currently the highest in the world.
The review article is based on relevant publications, own research and clinical experience.
Post-orchiectomy treatment is only offered at university hospitals. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy (introduced in Norway in the early 1980s) has resulted in a remarkably improved survival for patients with advanced testicular cancer. Most patients are cured (> 80%), also those with metastases. Cancer-related survival approaches 95%. Treatment-induced side effects and efforts to reduce these have been an issue of increasing importance during recent years.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapeutic treatment regimes are established for most cancer forms. In general, these substances have extremely narrow therapeutic windows, which render cancer patients vulnerable to over- and underdosing. Individual drug dosing is currently based on the patients' body surface area. This practice is an extrapolation from animal studies. Recent advances in molecular medicine raise the question of whether the present dosing strategy should be adjusted to individual functional DNA variants affecting the metabolism, transport and efficacy of anticancer drugs.
This review is based on selected references retrieved from PubMed and the authors' experience in drug treatment of cancer patients.
Several single nucleotide polymorphisms and other DNA variants that contribute to varying clinical response to chemotherapeutic agents were identified. For some drugs it has been shown that unfavourable DNA variants can lead to life-threatening side effects and/or suboptimal treatment.
There is a compelling need for prospective, randomized studies to establish the prognostic values of pharmacogenomic markers. With few exceptions the current knowledge is insufficient to include genotype analyses in routine planning of anticancer drug treatment. In most clinical situations, individual drug dosing according to body surface area in addition to therapeutic drug monitoring and close clinical surveillance is still the preferred approach to treat cancer patients.
No preview · Article · May 2007 · Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The soluble branched yeast beta-1,3-D-glucan (SBG) belongs to a group of carbohydrate polymers known to exert potent immunomodulatory effects when administered to animals and humans. A new oral solution of SBG has been developed for local application to the oropharyngeal and oesophageal mucosa in order to strengthen the defence mechanisms against microbial and toxic influences. In the present study oral administration of SBG has been investigated primarily for assessment of safety and tolerability in an early phase human pharmacological study (phase I). Eighteen healthy volunteers were included among non-smoking individuals. The study was an open 1:1:1 dose-escalation safety study consisting of a screening visit, an administration period of 4 days and a follow-up period. Groups of six individuals received SBG 100 mg/day, 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day, respectively, for 4 consecutive days. The dose increase was allowed after a careful review of the safety data of the lower dose group. No drug-related adverse event, including abnormalities in vital signs, was observed. By inspection of the oral cavity only minor mucosal lesions not related to the study medication were seen in seven subjects. Repeated measurements of beta-glucan in serum revealed no systemic absorption of the agent following the oral doses of SBG. In saliva, the immunoglobulin A concentration increased significantly for the highest SBG dose employed. SBG was thus safe and well tolerated by healthy volunteers, when given orally once daily for 4 consecutive days at doses up to 400 mg.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circumvention of chemoresistance in cancer may involve several modulator drugs with high affinity for the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is expressed in a number of multi-resistant malignancies. Pgp acts as a membrane efflux pump with broad substrate specificity including antineoplastic drugs and endogenous substances such as certain cytokines and sphingolipids. Therefore, the consequence of Pgp blockade could be far more complex than intracellular drug retention. In the present study exposure of the Pgp inhibitor, PSC 833 (1200 ng/ml), to Pgp expressing KG1a/200 human leukemia cells provoked cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. This finding was put to test in vivo using a xenotransplant model of KG1a/200 human cells intravenously inoculated into non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. The animals were randomly allocated to receive treatment with PSC 833 (n = 32) or placebo (n = 24). PSC 833 (30 mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected six or 12 times separated by 48-96 h. The overall mean whole blood concentration of PSC 833 was 1191 +/- 60 ng/ml (s.e.m.) at 20 h after administration. Tumor engraftment was significantly reduced in the treatment group (P = 0.037), which also had prolonged survival compared to control animals (P = 0.0016). This is the first study that demonstrates antileukemic effects of a Pgp inhibitor as single agent therapy in vivo, and the present data raise the possibility of alternative exploitation of modulators in cancer chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it was shown in vitro that the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 mediates O-demethylation of diltiazem. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of diltiazem and its major metabolites in healthy human volunteers representing different CYP2D6 genotypes.
Norwegians of Caucasian origin were screened for their CYP2D6 genotype on the LightCycler (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) by melting-curve analysis of allele-specific fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes hybridized to polymerase chain reaction-amplified deoxyribonucleic acid. The first 5 individuals identified with genotypes corresponding to a homozygous extensive, heterozygous extensive, or homozygous poor CYP2D6-metabolizing phenotype, respectively, were voluntarily enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study. The participants received diltiazem, 120 mg, as a single oral dose, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 hours after administration. Plasma samples were purified by solid phase extraction. Diltiazem and 7 phase I metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
The pharmacokinetics of diltiazem was not significantly different between the subgroups. However, the systemic exposure of the pharmacologically active metabolites desacetyl diltiazem and N-demethyldesacetyl diltiazem was > or = 5 times higher in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers than in extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers (P <.01).
CYP2D6 activity does not have a major impact on the disposition of diltiazem. In contrast, desacetyl diltiazem and N-demethyldesacetyl diltiazem are markedly accumulated in individuals expressing a deficient CYP2D6 phenotype. Because these metabolites exhibit pharmacologic properties of possible importance, individual CYP2D6 activity might be an aspect to consider in the clinical use of diltiazem.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have emphasized the role of glucosylceramide (Glu-Cer) synthase in multidrug resistance (MDR) regulation. However, the mechanism by which the inhibition of this enzyme results in increased drug retention and cytotoxicity remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the respective role of ceramide (Cer) accumulation and Glu-Cer derivatives depletion in MDR reversal effect of 1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanolol (PDMP), a Glu-Cer synthase inhibitor. We show here that treatment with PDMP resulted in increased rhodamine 123 (Rh123) retention and potent chemosensitization of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-expressing cells, including KG1a cells, KG1a/200 cells, K562/138 cells, and K562/mdr-1 cells. Metabolic studies revealed that PDMP induced not only time-dependent Cer accumulation but also reduction of all glycosylated forms of Cer, including Glu-Cer, lactosylceramide (Lac-Cer), monosialo ganglioside (GM3) and disialo ganglioside (GD3). The influence of these metabolites on P-gp function was investigated by measuring Rh123 retention in PDMP-treated cells. P-gp function was found to be stimulated only by the addition of gangliosides in all resistant cell lines, whereas Glu-Cer, Lac-Cer, and Cer had no effect. Moreover, in KG1a/200 cells, GD3 and, to a lesser extent, GM3 were found to phosphorylate P-gp on serine residues. Altogether, these results suggest that, at least in leukemic cells, gangliosides depletion accounts for PDMP-mediated MDR reversal effect, and that gangliosides are important P-gp regulators perhaps through their capacity to modulate P-gp phosphorylation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Molecular Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux pump, has been recently shown to play an important role in the physiology of Langherans cells, a subtype of dendritic cells (DC) found in the skin. The present study was designed to investigate expression and activity of P-gp and of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), another ABC efflux pump sharing numerous substrates with P-gp, in human monocyte-derived DC. Immunolabeling experiments and dye efflux assays indicated that such cells displayed elevated levels of MRP activity and expression when compared to those present in parental monocytes. Generation of DC from monocytes in the presence of the MRP inhibitor indomethacin did not, however, alter the capacity of DC to stimulate allogeneic T cells proliferation in mixed lymphocyte reaction. In addition, indomethacin did not inhibit the up-regulation of the CD1a, a marker occurring during the differentiation of monocytes into DC. In contrast to that of MRP, functional expression of P-gp was not detected in monocyte-derived DC. Such antigen presenting cells that constitute a promising tool for antitumor vaccinal therapy therefore display differential expression of the efflux pumps P-gp and MRP.
No preview · Article · Nov 2001 · Human Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of doxorubicin when given in combination with cisplatin and the multidrug-resistance (MDR) modulator valspodar and the remission rate induced by this combination in patients with platinum- and anthracycline-resistant ovarian cancer.
Fifty-nine patients who had failed prior platinum- and anthracycline-based chemotherapy were enrolled. During the dose-finding phase, patients received a loading dose of valspodar (1.5 or 2 mg/kg) via 2-hour intravenous (IV) infusion on day 1 and continuous IV infusion (CIVI) of valspodar (2, 4, or 10 mg/kg/d) over 3 days. Doxorubicin (starting from 20 up to 50 mg/m(2)) and cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) were administered via 15- to 20-minute IV infusions on day 3. During the efficacy phase, patients received at least two treatment cycles unless toxicity was unacceptable, and responding patients and those with stable disease received four to six cycles.
All patients completed at least one cycle of combined treatment. The MTD of doxorubicin was determined to be 35 mg/m(2) when administered with valspodar at 2 mg/kg loading dose and 10 mg/kg/d CIVI plus 50 mg/m(2) cisplatin. At these doses, valspodar blood concentrations known to reverse MDR in vitro were reached in all patients. Valspodar was well tolerated at all dose levels. Dose-limiting toxicities of the combination were primarily hematologic and included febrile neutropenia and prolonged leucopenia. The addition of valspodar to the treatment did not worsen cisplatin-related toxicity. Among 33 patients treated at the MTD for doxorubicin, one (3%) had a complete response, and four (12%) had a partial response. An additional seven patients experienced a stabilization of their previously progressive disease. The survival rates at 6 and 12 months were 59% and 19%, respectively.
Valspodar can be safely coadministered with doxorubicin and cisplatin. Although the regimen used in this trial produced renewed responses in patients with heavily pretreated, refractory ovarian cancer, the value of valspodar in reversing resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein remains to be determined.
No preview · Article · Jul 2001 · Journal of Clinical Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) such as MRP1, MRP2 and MRP3 are membrane efflux pumps involved in multidrug resistance and handling organic anions. In the present study, MRP activity was investigated in normal mature leucocytes and CD34-positive hematopoietic cells from peripheral blood using the flow cytometric carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CF) efflux assay. Basal and similar cellular exports of CF, an anionic fluorescent dye substrate for MRP1 and MRP2 transporters, were evidenced in lymphocytes whatever their subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD56 cells), in CD14 monocytes and in CD15 granulocytes whereas higher CF efflux was found in CD34 cells. Such outwardly-directed transports of CF were inhibited by known blockers of MRP function such as probenecid whereas the P-glycoprotein modulator verapamil did not alter the retention of the dye in the blood leukocytes. Peripheral mature blood leukocytes were moreover found to express MRP1 mRNAs and MRP1 protein as assessed by Northern-blot and Western-blot analyses, whereas MRP2 and MRP3 transcripts were not present or only at very low levels. Mature leukocytes therefore display basal constitutive MRP-related transport activity regardless of cell lineage and likely related to MRP1 expression whereas higher MRP-related efflux can be detected in peripheral CD34 hematopoietic cells.