R D Steadward

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (52)85.67 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of exercise training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) rowing machine on insulin resistance, plasma leptin levels, and body composition in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Experimental study. A fitness and research center for people with disabilities. Healthy male participants with paraplegia (N=6) participated in the study (mean age, 48.6±6y; mean weight, 70.06±3.28kg; injury levels between T4-5 and T10). Twelve weeks of FES-rowing exercise training 3 to 4 times a week (600-800kcal). Peak oxygen consumption, plasma leptin, insulin, and glucose levels, insulin sensitivity, body composition. Twelve weeks of FES-rowing training improved aerobic fitness significantly (P=.048). In addition, plasma glucose and leptin levels were significantly decreased after exercise training by 10% and 28% (P<.028), respectively. A trend toward fat mass reduction was seen in 4 of the 6 subjects; this change did not reach statistical significance (P=.08). A 12-week training program that included FES rowing improved aerobic fitness and fasting glucose and leptin levels in the absence of significant change to body composition, fasting insulin levels, or calculated insulin sensitivity in people with SCI.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Swimming competition for persons with a loco-motor disability is organised according to a functional classification system. However, until the Atlanta Paralympic Games, these swimmers had never been the subject of a more extensive race analysis. Information from this analysis, which could be of interest to coaches of able bodied as well as disabled swimmers, has been discussed. In general Paralympic swimmers do not start, turn, or finish their race much different from Olympic swimmers. The relation of stroke rate and length with free swimming speed is also similar. However, some exceptions within specific impairment groups have been found.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2008
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    ABSTRACT: A video race analysis was conducted on 100-m freestyle performances of 72 male and 62 female finalists at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games. Races were won or lost in the second half of each 50-m race lap and differences in speed between swimmers were more related to stroke length than stroke rate. Within-race speed changes were more related to changes in stroke rate. Stroke rate changes were also responsible for speed changes between qualifying heats and finals in the first part of races, while stroke length was responsible for better speed maintenance at the end of races. Results indicate that Paralympic finalists use race speed patterns similar to able-bodied elite swimmers.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2003 · Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ
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    Justin Y Jeon · Vicki J Harber · Robert D Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: We studied plasma leptin levels in six people with high-lesion spinal cord injury [SCI; body mass index (BMI) 25.9 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2), age 37 +/- 3.0 yr] and six able-bodied (AB) controls (BMI 29.1 +/- 1.9 kg/m(2), age 35 +/- 3.5 yr) before and after 12, 24, and 36 h of fasting. The plasma leptin levels significantly decreased during 36 h fasting by 48.8 +/- 4.5% (pre: 11.3 +/- 2.3, post: 6.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml) and 38.6 +/- 7.9% (pre: 7.6 +/- 5.0, post: 4.2 +/- 1.0 ng/ml) in SCI and AB, respectively. Plasma leptin started to decrease at 24 h of fasting in the SCI group, whereas plasma leptin started to decrease at 12 h of fasting in the AB group. The current study demonstrated that plasma leptin decreased with fasting in both SCI and AB groups, with the leptin decrease being delayed in the SCI group. The delayed leptin response to fasting in the SCI group may be because of increased fat mass (%body fat, SCI: 33.8 +/- 3.0, AB: 24.1 +/- 2.9) and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2003 · AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: A new basketball wheelchair has been designed, which permits a wide variety of adjustments, reducing the need for expensive customization. In the present study this new prototype basketball wheelchair was evaluated. Seventeen participants were administered in a test battery using their personal and the prototype wheelchair. Maximal aerobic power, metabolic economy, stability, maneuverability, and scores on field performance tests were assessed. Following all tests, a questionnaire was administered to all participants. No significant differences were found between the personal and prototype wheelchair on any of the tests. Questionnaire results revealed that the prototype chair was rated significantly superior concerning weight, maneuverability, rolling resistance and footrest stability but significantly inferior concerning height of the chair and backrest. It can be concluded that the new basketball wheelchair is a highly adaptable, and maneuverable wheelchair. It is remarkable that, given the focus on wheelchair design and perceived need for special fitting, the new wheelchair was so adaptable across a variety of users and that performance did not differ between the personal and prototype chair. This is particularly important for countries or beginning wheelchair basketball players who can not afford customized wheelchairs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2003
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    ABSTRACT: Compared with able-bodied (AB), people with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a 3- to 5-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may be associated with increased fat mass. Evidence suggests that leptin regulates body adiposity through the sympathetic nervous system, which is impaired in people with high lesion SCI. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among leptin levels, body composition, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in people with high lesion SCI and body mass index-, weight-, height-, and waist circumference-matched AB subjects. Fourteen subjects (seven SCI and seven AB) participated in the study. After an overnight fast, various hormones, glucose, and RMR were measured. There was no significant difference in plasma glucose, insulin, GH, cortisol, and glucagon levels between the two groups. The SCI group had 105% higher plasma leptin levels than the AB group (P < 0.05). Plasma leptin levels correlated with body mass index (SCI: r = 0.80; P = 0.028; AB: r = 0.79; P = 0.035) and fat mass (SCI: r = 0.95; P = 0.001; AB: r = 78; P = 0.038) in both groups. The plasma leptin level correlated with the absolute RMR (SCI: r = 0.15; P = 0.75; AB: r = 0.99; P < 0.006) and the RMR per unit fat-free mass (SCI: r = -0.70; P < 0.08; AB: r = 0.845; P < 0.017) in the AB group, but not in the SCI group. The absolute RMR was significantly reduced in the SCI group compared with the AB group, but there was no difference in the relative RMR between the groups. In conclusion, the SCI group has a significantly higher plasma leptin level than the AB group. The absolute and relative RMR correlated with leptin only in the AB group.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2003 · Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: To assess changes in peak functional aerobic power after a 36-session, progressive functional electric stimulation (FES) rowing hybrid training program for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to examine the safety and acceptability of the ROWSTIM II device as well as the integrity of technical modifications to it. Repeated-measures training study, quasi-experimental design, within-person data comparison. A university-based recreational physical activity facility for persons with physical disabilities. Six persons with level C7-T12 SCI (American Spinal Injury Association classes A-C). Progressive rowing training program, 30 minutes per session, 3 times a week for 12 weeks at 70% to 75% of pretest peak functional aerobic power during FES rowing on an open loop control, FES-assisted rowing machine. Total rowing distance, peak functional oxygen consumption, and peak oxygen pulse. Subjects completed between 22 to 36 sessions. After 3 months of training, rowing distance increased by 25% (P<.02), peak oxygen consumption by 11.2% (P<.001), and peak oxygen pulse by 11.4% (P<.01). Heart rate response to hybrid training did not change at the end of training, although peak heart rate with FES lower-extremity exercise increased significantly from pre- to posttraining (P<.01). Pre- and posttraining peak aerobic power values for ROWSTIM II training were comparable to previously reported values for hybrid cycle and upper-extremity exercise. We conclude that FES-assisted rowing is an effective, safe, and well-tolerated training system for persons with SCI.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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    JY Jeon · C B Weiss · R D Steadward · E Ryan · R S Burnham · G Bell · P Chilibeck · G D Wheeler
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    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal training. The purpose was to determine the effect of electrical stimulation (ES)-assisted cycling (30 min/day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks) on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Steadward Centre, Alberta, Canada. Seven participants with motor complete SCI (five males and two females aged 30 to 53 years, injured 3-40 years, C5-T10) underwent 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT, n=7) and hyperglycaemic clamp tests (n=3) before and after 8 weeks of training with ES-assisted cycling. Results indicated that subjects' glucose level were significantly lower at 2 h OGTT following 8 weeks of training (122.4+/-10 vs 139.9+/-16, P=0.014). Two-hour hyperglycaemic clamps tests showed improvement in all three people for glucose utilisation and in two of three people for insulin sensitivity. These results suggested that exercise with ES-assisted cycling is beneficial for the prevention and treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with SCI. Supported by Alberta Paraplegic Foundation, Therapeutic Alliance.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2002 · Spinal Cord
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship between degree of vision and stroking parameters in male and female Paralympic swimmers with visual impairment during the 50- and 100-m freestyle events. A video analysis was conducted at the 1996 Paralympic Games in which swimmers competed in three groups based on degree of impairment (S11, S12, and S13; S11 least amount of vision). A video camera placed 25 m from the start, perpendicular to the swimming direction, recorded the performance of each swimmer during the clean swim phase. Variables measured included total race time, clean swimming speed (CSS), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and stroke index (SI = CSS x SL). Comparisons of performance were made between the classes and between men and women. The men showed no significant differences between S12 and S13 on any of the variables or between all three classes on SL and SI. The S11 swimmers demonstrated a significantly slower total race time and CSS in both events. In the women, an increase in class was associated with a decrease in total race time, faster CSS, and increase in SI. In comparing men and women, men demonstrated a significantly faster CSS and total race time during both events, whereas no differences were observed in SR. Stroke parameters during the clean swim phase were affected by visual impairment in both men and women. The male classes, however, were not clearly distinct from each other based on the swimming variables measured, as no significant differences were found between S12 and S13 in either event. With the exception of stroke rate and length, performance of the women tended to increase with an increase in class.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
  • L.A. Malone · P.L. Gervais · R.D. Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: Utilising 3-D videography, segmental co-ordination of the shooting arm during the force phase of free throw (FT) shooting by wheelchair basketball players was examined. Comparisons were made between the four player classification groups. Variables related to the timing and sequencing of joint motion at the shoulder, elbow and wrist were measured and co-ordination was assessed using the concept of shared positive contribution (SPC; Hudson, 1986). Based on the degree of SPC between adjacent joints, FTs were classified as using one of four shooting styles, ranging from simultaneous to sequential. Together, the SEQ (sequential segment rotation) and SimSeq (a push by the shoulder and elbow followed by a flick of the wrist) patterns of co-ordination were observed in over 80% of the shots. Initiation of movement most often occurred in a proximal to distal fashion, however, there was always some overlap between one of the pairs of adjacent segments in timing and/or sequencing. Although differences were not statistically significant, certain trends in shooting style between the groups were detected and supported by the calculated effect sizes. Players with greater functional ability (Class 3 and Class 4) tended to generate sequencing of movements in a more sequential fashion, while players with a greater degree of impairment (Class 1 and Class 2) tended to use a technique that was more simultaneous.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2002 · Journal of Human Movement Studies
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    Laurie A Malone · Pierre L Gervais · Robert D Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: To determine what factors are associated with successful free throw (FT) shooting in wheelchair basketball and to examine the relationship between shooting mechanics and player classification, a biomechanical analysis of clean shots was undertaken. Significant differences were observed between the player classes in FT shooting mechanics employed for a clean shot. Players from Classes 1 and 2 tended to release the ball from a lower height, with greater velocity and release angle. They demonstrated a smaller shoulder flexion angle at release and a greater maximum velocity at the shoulder and elbow. The clean shots of Classes 1 and 2 demanded greater accuracy with respect to release velocity and angle, yet the resulting ball trajectory displayed a greater margin for error than the shots observed in the upper classes. However, based on overall shooting percentage, the upper classes did not appear to take advantage of the predicted benefits provided by a higher ball release height.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2001 · The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
  • L. A. Bloxham · G. J. Bell · Y. Bhambhani · R. D. Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time elite wheelchair basketball players spent performing various game activities during a World Cup game, measure the heart rate response during such activity, and describe the physiological profile of each player participating in the game. Six male members of the Canadian World Cup wheelchair basketball team were videotaped during an entire game to determine the time spent performing seven different categories of activity. Time motion analysis indicated that players spent 8.9% of the game time sprinting, 23.5% gliding, 18.2% contesting for ball possession, 0.6% sprinting with the ball, 0.3% shooting, and 48.3% resting on the bench and floor. Twenty percent (20%) of game time was played at an intensity above the ventilatory threshold. The group mean value for peak oxygen uptake during incremental wheelchair exercise on rollers was 2.60L/min and group mean peak 5 and 30 second anaerobic power development on an arm crank ergometer was 486.3 W and 336.8 W, respectively, suggest that training for and playing elite wheelchair basketball induces significant improvement in these tests of fitness.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001 · Sports Medicine Training and Rehabilitation
  • D.J. Daly · L.A. Malone · D.J. Smith · Y. Vanlandewijck · R.D. Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: A video race analysis was conducted at the Atlanta Paralympic Games swimming competition. The purpose was to describe the contribution of clean swimming speed, as well as start, turn, and finish speed, to the total race performance in the four strokes for the men's 100 m events. Start, turn, and finish times, as well as clean swimming speed during four race sections, were measured on videotapes during the preliminary heats (329 swims). Information on 1996 Olympic Games finalists (N = 16) was also available. In Paralympic swimmers, next to clean swimming speed, both turning and finishing were highly correlated with the end race result. Paralympic swimmers do start, turn, and finish slower than Olympic swimmers but in direct relation to their slower clean swimming speed. The race pattern of these components is not different between Paralympic and Olympic swimmers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2001
  • R D Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: It is important to reflect back on the enormous changes that have taken place in society over the past century that have affected the quality of life of disabled persons and societal attitudes towards disability. Although great progress has been made, these people remain marginalized and disadvantaged, and despite all the efforts of volunteers, professionals, and governments, we cannot categorically state that they are fully socially integrated. The term disability continues to carry an enormous stigma, and therefore it is important to examine the concept of social integration and the issues around it as they affect disabled persons and the role of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) movement in achieving this end.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2000 · Der Orthopäde
  • R. D. Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Nach Ablauf des letzten Jahrhunderts ist es wichtig auf die enormen gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen zurückzublicken und darauf, wie dieser Wandel die gesellschaftlichen Einstellungen gegenüber Behinderungen und die Lebensqualität von Behinderten verändert hat. Obwohl große Fortschritte gemacht wurden sind Behinderte immer noch eine benachteiligte Randgruppe; trotz aller Anstrengungen von Freiwilligen, Fachpersonal und Regierungen kann man noch nicht behaupten, dass sie voll gesellschaftlich integriert sind. Der Begriff “Behinderung” beinhaltet weiterhin ein großes Stigma. Deshalb ist es wichtig, das Konzept und die verschiedenen Aspekte der sozialen Intergration von Behinderten zu prüfen und die Rolle des Internationalen Paralympischen Kommittees (IPC) zur Verwirklichung dieser Ziele darzustellen.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2000 · Der Orthopäde
  • L.A. Malone · A.B. Nielsen · R.D. Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: Success in free throw (FT) shooting is typically less in wheelchair basketball than in stand-up competition, but little is known about the actual nature of the shots in either setting. The outcome of a FT is typically classified as a dichotomous outcome of hit (score) or miss. However, ball pattern at the basket actually occurs along a continuum ranging from perfect hit to clean miss. The purposes of this investigation were to provide a technique for describing the FT outcome beyond the traditional dichotomous outcome and to employ it to determine the characteristics of FT shooting during an elite wheelchair basketball competition for males. FT statistics and schematic diagrams for 116 participants were recorded at the Sixth Gold Cup World Wheelchair Basketball Championship. Results reflected typical success rates of FT shooting and revealed that short shots comprised the most prominent type of misses. The instrument developed for recording schematic diagrams was an effective way to determine and describe shot outcome profiles that reflect particular trends in FT shooting.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2000 · Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ
  • G.D. Wheeler · R.D. Steadward · D. Legg · Y. Hutzler · E. Campbell · A. Johnson
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the transferability of a personal investment process of disability sport to athletes from the USA, UK, Canada, and Israel. Initiation, competition, and retirement experiences of 40 athletes were examined. Results corroborate previous findings on athletes with and without disabilities and reveal no differences in major themes among athletes from different countries. A revised personal investment process model is proposed. Athletes with a disability should receive some form of preparatory counseling support before and after retirement. Difficulties during the transition to retirement are generally associated with overcommitment, ego identity in sport, and exclusion of other aspects of life (Baille, 1993; Blinde and Stratta, 1992; Hill and Lowe, 1974; Sinclair and Orlick, 1993). Factors associated with successful transition include sense of accomplishment, voluntary retirement, degree of ego involvement and commitment, anticipatory socialization, planning, social support structures, adequate financial support, and maintenance of outside interests (Baille, 1993; Sinclair and Orlick, 1993; Werthner and Orlick, 1986).
    No preview · Article · Jul 1999 · Adapted physical activity quarterly: APAQ

    No preview · Article · May 1999 · Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether glove and/or splint use could effectively reduce hyperextension at the wrist during wheelchair propulsion, thus potentially reducing the conditions predisposing to median nerve dysfunction, and to evaluate the overall effects of these interventions on wheeling mechanics. DESIGN: This investigation used a randomized experimental design. BACKGROUND: The upper extremities are used for weight bearing and propulsion by individuals who are wheelchair dependent. High intracarpal pressures created by hyper-extension of the wrist and repetitive high force stresses of the hands against the wheel are suggested causes of median nerve dysfunction. METHODS: The wheeling performances of 13 subjects were recorded using two SVHS video-cameras under four different glove/splint conditions. Each subject was analysed on two wheeling cycles under all four conditions. Wrist and elbow angles, joint range of motions and wheeling speed were determined. Data were analysed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Scheffé post-hoc comparisons at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: The splint and the glove/splint combination significantly reduced wrist extension during wheeling, but did not alter elbow motion or maximal wheeling speed. CONCLUSIONS: Hand and wrist protection in the form of a splint or glove/splint combination can reduce hyperextension of the wrist, and therefore may be of functional value for wheelchair users. This form of protection may therefore be useful in various orthopedic conditions of the wrist or hand commonly seen in wheelchair-dependent individuals without seriously interfering with wheeling quality.
    No preview · Article · May 1998 · Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon)
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    J M Matthews · G D Wheeler · R S Burnham · LA Malone · R D Steadward
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, increases in blood pressure (BP) and concomitant bradycardia, suggestive of autonomic dysreflexia (AD), have been documented during functional electrical stimulation (FES) in individuals with a high spinal cord injury (SCI). If uncontrolled, this response could preclude the safe use of FES among such individuals. FES induced pain is partly related to stimulation of skin nociceptors. Therefore, measures to reduce skin sensitivity may reduce the risk of AD during FES. The purpose of this study was to determine if topical anaesthetic applied over the site of electrical stimulation could minimize the AD cardiovascular and hormonal responses to FES in individuals with SCI above the T6 level. Seven subjects with a SCI above T6 received FES to the quadriceps muscle of each leg under two conditions on two different testing days. The two treatment conditions, topical anaesthetic and placebo creams, were double blinded and randomized. The cream was administered to an area the size of the electrode (10 x 10 cm) 1 h prior to stimulation. Stimulation began at 0 mAmps and increased by 16 mAmps every 2 min until an intensity of 160 mAmps was achieved. HR and BP were measured at each stimulation intensity level. Catecholamines were analyzed three times during the stimulation protocol (pre, mid and post stimulation intensities). At the end of the stimulation protocol, FES induced isometric quadriceps contraction force at 160 mAmps intensity was measured using a hand held dynamometer. As FES stimulation intensity increased, significant rises in systolic and diastolic BP were seen, with a concomitant progressive drop in HR. The AD response to stimulation was not significantly different between the topical anaesthetic and placebo conditions. Serum catecholamine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) levels tended to rise with increasing FES intensity levels but did not reach statistical significance. The two treatment conditions did not significantly affect serum catecholamine levels or FES-induced quadriceps contraction force. In summary, FES application to the quadriceps muscle in high level SCI subjects resulted in significant increases in BP, decreases in HR (AD-like response), a trend towards elevations in catecholamine levels, and no difference in quadriceps muscular strength. However, these responses were unaffected by the use of topical anaesthetic cream on the skin at the stimulation site. This suggests that other mechanisms than skin nociception are operative in FES-induced AD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 1997 · Spinal Cord

Publication Stats

1k Citations
85.67 Total Impact Points


  • 1979-2010
    • University of Alberta
      • • Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
      • • Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 1994
    • Rick Hansen Institute
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 1993
    • University of Glasgow
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada