[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles that often proliferate in response to compounds that they metabolize. Peroxisomes can proliferate
by two apparent mechanisms, division of preexisting peroxisomes and de novo synthesis of peroxisomes. Evidence for de novo peroxisome synthesis comes from studies of cells lacking the peroxisomal integral membrane peroxin Pex3p. These cells lack
peroxisomes, but peroxisomes can assemble upon reintroduction of Pex3p. The source of these peroxisomes has been the subject
of debate. Here, we show that the amino-terminal 46 amino acids of Pex3p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae target to a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum and initiate the formation of a preperoxisomal compartment for de novo peroxisome synthesis. In vivo video microscopy showed that this preperoxisomal compartment can import both peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins leading
to the formation of bona fide peroxisomes through the continued activity of full-length Pex3p. Peroxisome formation from the preperoxisomal compartment
depends on the activity of the genes PEX14 and PEX19, which are required for the targeting of peroxisomal matrix and membrane proteins, respectively. Our findings support a direct
role for the endoplasmic reticulum in de novo peroxisome formation.
Preview · Article · Nov 2005 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cells have evolved molecular mechanisms for the efficient transmission of organelles during cell division. Little is known about how peroxisomes are inherited. Inp1p is a peripheral membrane protein of peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects both the morphology of peroxisomes and their partitioning during cell division. In vivo 4-dimensional video microscopy showed an inability of mother cells to retain a subset of peroxisomes in dividing cells lacking the INP1 gene, whereas cells overexpressing INP1 exhibited immobilized peroxisomes that failed to be partitioned to the bud. Overproduced Inp1p localized to both peroxisomes and the cell cortex, supporting an interaction of Inp1p with specific structures lining the cell periphery. The levels of Inp1p vary with the cell cycle. Inp1p binds Pex25p, Pex30p, and Vps1p, which have been implicated in controlling peroxisome division. Our findings are consistent with Inp1p acting as a factor that retains peroxisomes in cells and controls peroxisome division. Inp1p is the first peroxisomal protein directly implicated in peroxisome inheritance.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2005 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have combined classical subcellular fractionation with large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry to identify proteins that enrich specifically with peroxisomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In two complementary experiments, isotope-coded affinity tags and tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify the relative enrichment of proteins during the purification of peroxisomes. Mathematical modeling of the data from 306 quantified proteins led to a prioritized list of 70 candidates whose enrichment scores indicated a high likelihood of them being peroxisomal. Among these proteins, eight novel peroxisome-associated proteins were identified. The top novel peroxisomal candidate was the small GTPase Rho1p. Although Rho1p has been shown to be tethered to membranes of the secretory pathway, we show that it is specifically recruited to peroxisomes upon their induction in a process dependent on its interaction with the peroxisome membrane protein Pex25p. Rho1p regulates the assembly state of actin on the peroxisome membrane, thereby controlling peroxisome membrane dynamics and biogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2005 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcriptome profiling identified the gene PEX25 encoding Pex25p, a peroxisomal membrane peroxin required for the regulation of peroxisome size and maintenance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pex25p is related to a protein of unknown function encoded by the open reading frame, YOR193w, of the S. cerevisiae genome. Yor193p is a peripheral peroxisomal membrane protein that exhibits high sequence similarity not only to Pex25p but also to the peroxisomal membrane peroxin Pex11p. Unlike Pex25p and Pex11p, Yor193p is constitutively expressed in wild-type cells grown in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. Cells deleted for the YOR193w gene show a few enlarged peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are greatly enlarged in cells harboring double deletions of the YOR193w and PEX25 genes, the YOR193w and PEX11 genes, and the PEX25 and PEX11 genes. Yeast two-hybrid analyses showed that Yor193p interacts with Pex25p and itself, Pex25p interacts with Yor193p and itself, and Pex11p interacts only with itself. Overexpression of YOR193w, PEX25, or PEX11 led to peroxisome proliferation and the formation of small peroxisomes. Our data suggest a role for Yor193p, renamed Pex27p, in controlling peroxisome size and number in S. cerevisiae.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2003 · Molecular Biology of the Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The peroxin Pex24p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica exhibits high sequence similarity to two hypothetical proteins, Yhr150p and Ydr479p, encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Like YlPex24p, both Yhr150p and Ydr479p have been shown to be integral to the peroxisomal membrane, but unlike YlPex24p, their levels of synthesis are not increased upon a shift of cells from glucose- to oleic acid-containing medium. Peroxisomes of cells deleted for either or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes are increased in number, exhibit extensive clustering, are smaller in area than peroxisomes of wild-type cells, and often exhibit membrane thickening between adjacent peroxisomes in a cluster. Peroxisomes isolated from cells deleted for both genes have a decreased buoyant density compared with peroxisomes isolated from wild-type cells and still exhibit clustering and peroxisomal membrane thickening. Overexpression of the genes PEX25 or VPS1, but not the gene PEX11, restored the wild-type phenotype to cells deleted for one or both of the YHR150w and YDR479c genes. Together, our data suggest a role for Yhr150p and Ydr479p, together with Pex25p and Vps1p, in regulating peroxisome number, size, and distribution in S. cerevisiae. Because of their role in peroxisome dynamics, YHR150w and YDR479c have been designated as PEX28 and PEX29, respectively, and their encoded peroxins as Pex28p and Pex29p.
Full-text · Article · May 2003 · The Journal of Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peroxins are proteins required for peroxisome assembly and are encoded by the PEX genes. Functional complementation of the oleic acid-nonutilizing strain mut1-1 of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has identified the novel gene, PEX24. PEX24 encodes Pex24p, a protein of 550 amino acids (61,100 Da). Pex24p is an integral membrane protein of peroxisomes that exhibits high sequence homology to two hypothetical proteins encoded by the open reading frames YHR150W and YDR479C of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Pex24p is detectable in wild-type cells grown in glucose-containing medium, and its levels are significantly increased by incubation of cells in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. pex24 mutants are compromised in the targeting of both matrix and membrane proteins to peroxisomes. Although pex24 mutants fail to assemble functional peroxisomes, they do harbor membrane structures that contain subsets of peroxisomal proteins.
Preview · Article · Sep 2002 · Molecular Biology of the Cell