[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is widely used to perform mediastinal lymph node sampling. However, little information is available on polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB-PCR) using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with intrathoracic granulomatous lymphadenopathy (IGL). Methods A retrospective study using a prospectively collected database was performed from January 2010 to December 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the TB-PCR test using EBUS-TBNA samples in patients with IGL. During the study period, 87 consecutive patients with isolated intrathoracic lymphadenopathy who received EBUS-TBNA were registered and 46 patients with IGL were included. Results Of the 46 patients with IGL, tuberculous lymphadenitis and sarcoidosis were diagnosed in 16 and 30 patients, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of TB-PCR for tuberculous lymphadenitis were 56, 100, 100, and 81 %, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy of TB-PCR for tuberculous lymphadenitis was 85 %. In addition, seven (17 %) patients had non-diagnostic results from a histological examination and all of them had non-diagnostic microbiological results of an acid-fast bacilli smear and culture. Four (57 %) of the seven patients with non-diagnostic results had positive TB-PCR results, and anti-tuberculosis treatment led to clinical and radiological improvement in all of the patients. Conclusions TB-PCR using EBUS-TBNA samples is a useful laboratory test for diagnosing IGL. Moreover, this technique can prevent further invasive evaluation in patients whose histological and microbiological tests are non-diagnostic.
Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Pulmonary Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and objective:
We evaluated the clinical utility of rapid identification of microorganisms in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in terms of the clinical outcomes of ventilated patients with pneumonia.
Patients for whom microorganisms were identified via MALDI-TOF MS (from March 2013 to February 2014; post-intervention group) were compared with patients for whom microorganisms were identified using conventional methods (from March 2012 to February 2013; pre-intervention group). All pneumonia types (community-acquired, hospital-acquired, healthcare-associated and ventilator-associated pneumonia) were included in the analysis.
In total, 77 patients (50 men, mean age 67.2 ± 12.5 years) were included (40 patients in the pre-intervention group and 37 in the post-intervention group). The time from BAL fluid collection to microorganism identification and the availability of antimicrobial susceptibility results was shorter in the post- compared with the pre-intervention group (51.9 ± 11.3 vs 67.3 ± 17.4 h, P < 0.001). Also, the time from BAL fluid collection to adjustment of antibiotic therapy was shorter in the post-intervention group (56.5 ± 10.9 vs 73.2 ± 18.5 h, P < 0.001). Microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF MS was independently associated with a shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay after BAL fluid was drawn (hazard ratio = 2.324, P = 0.007).
Rapid identification of microorganisms in BAL fluid via MALDI-TOF MS was associated with adjustment of antibiotic therapy and a shorter ICU stay after BAL fluid was collected from ventilated patients with pneumonia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
There have been various results from studies concerning the predictors of recurrence in early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, an accurate assessment is needed to guide effective adjuvant therapy. We investigated the predictors of a recurrence in patients with resected, early-stage NSCLC and the risk factors associated with locoregional or distant recurrence.
This retrospective study was conducted on patients at the Pusan National University Hospital from January 2006 to December 2011. Patients with pathological stages I or II were included in this study, as based on the seventh edition TNM staging system. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with recurrence.
Two hundred and forty-nine patients were included. Among them, 180 patients were stage I, and 69 were stage II. Overall, by multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with a 5-year total recurrence were the presence of visceral pleural invasion (VPI) (p=0.018) and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVs) of tumors on positron emission tomography (PET) >4.5 (p=0.037). The VPI was the only independent risk factor associated with both locoregional and distant recurrence, in the analysis of the patterns of tumor recurrence and their risk factors. In the subgroup analysis of stage I patients, three variables (male, VPI and resection margin positive) were significantly associated with a 5-year recurrence.
The independent factors associated with postoperative recurrence in early-stage NSCLC were as follows: PET SUV >4.5 and the presence of VPI. For patients with those factors adjuvant therapy should be recommended as a more efficacious treatment.
Preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Asthma in the elderly (aged ≥65 years old) is a significant concern with high morbidity, but the pathophysiology remains unclear particularly in late-onset asthma. Recent studies suggest staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (SE-IgE) sensitization to be a risk factor for asthma in general populations; however, the associations have not been examined in late-onset elderly asthma.
We aimed to examine the associations of SE-IgE sensitization with late-onset asthma in the elderly, using a database of elderly asthma cohort study.
A total of 249 elderly asthma patients and 98 controls were analyzed. At baseline, patients were assessed for demographics, atopy, induced sputum profiles, and comorbidities including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Serum total IgE and SE-IgE levels were measured. Asthma severity was assessed on the basis of asthma outcomes during a 12-month follow-up period.
At baseline, serum SE-IgE concentrations were significantly higher in asthma patients than controls (median 0.16 [IQR 0.04-0.53] vs. 0.10 [0.01-0.19], p<0.001). Elderly asthma patients with high SE-IgE levels had specific characteristics of having more severe asthma, sputum eosinophilia and CRS, compared to those with lower SE-IgE levels. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the associations between serum SE-IgE concentrations and severe asthma were significant, independently of co-variables (SE-IgE-high [≥0.35 kU/L] vs. negative [<0.10 kU/L] group: OR 7.47, 95% CI 1.86-30.03, p=0.005). Multiple correspondence analyses also showed that high serum SE-IgE level had close relationships with severe asthma, CRS and sputum eosinophilia together.
Conclusion and clinical relevance:
This is the first report on the significant associations of SE-IgE sensitization with late-onset asthma in the elderly, particularly severe eosinophilic asthma with CRS comorbidity. Our findings indicate a potential implication of SE in the high morbidity burden of elderly asthma, and suggest clues to the pathogenesis of severe late-onset eosinophilic asthma in the elderly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Clinical & Experimental Allergy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:
The role of soluble factors in the suppression of allergic airway inflammation by adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) remains to be elucidated. Moreover, the major soluble factors responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of ASCs in allergic airway diseases have not been well documented. We evaluated the effects of ASCs on allergic inflammation in asthmatic mice treated with a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibitor or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) neutralizing antibodies.
METHODS AND FINDINGS:
Asthmatic mice were injected intraperitoneally with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies at approximately the same time as ASCs injection and were compared with non-treated controls. In asthmatic mice, ASCs significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, the number of total inflammatory cells and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), eosinophilic inflammation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and serum total and allergen-specific IgE and IgG1. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and enhanced the Th1 cytokine (Interferon-γ) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the BALF and lung draining lymph nodes (LLNs). ASCs engraftment caused significant increases in the regulatory T cell (Treg) and IL-10+ T cell populations in LLNs. However, blocking PGE2 or TGF-β eliminated the immunosuppressive effect of ASCs in allergic airway inflammation.
ASCs are capable of secreting PGE2 and TGF-β, which may play a role in inducing Treg expansion. Furthermore, treatment with a PGE2 inhibitor or TGF-β neutralizing antibodies eliminated the beneficial effect of ASCs treatment in asthmatic mice, suggesting that PGE2 and TGF-β are the major soluble factors responsible for suppressing allergic airway inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standardized questionnaire is one of key instruments for general population surveys.
The present study aimed to develop and validate the Korean version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) screening questionnaire for adult asthma surveys.
The ECRHS screening questionnaire was translated into Korean language according to the international criteria. Study participants were prospectively recruited from six referral hospitals and one health check-up center. Comprehensibility of the translation was tested in a pilot study of 10 patients. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency and test-retest repeatability. Validity was assess with regard to physician-diagnosed asthma.
A total of 100 adult asthma patients and 134 volunteers were recruited. Reliability was examined for 10 items in 100 asthmatics; Cronbach α coefficients were 0.84, and test-retest repeatability was good (Cohen κ coefficient, 0.71-1.00). Validity was assessed for 8 items in 234 participants; in particular, 'recent wheeze' showed a high sensitivity (0.89) for physician-diagnosed asthma. 'Recent asthma attack' and 'current asthma medication' showed high specificity (0.96-0.98).
The present study demonstrated that the Korean version of the ECRHS screening questionnaire was comprehensible, reliable and valid. We suggest the questionnaire to be utilized in further epidemiological studies for asthma in Korean adult populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Differences in definitions of the condition, relevant triggers, and the geographical locations of study centers, cause estimates of the prevalence of anaphylaxis to vary. Recent epidemiological data indicate that the incidence of anaphylaxis is rising.
To investigate the causes and clinical features of anaphylaxis in Korean adults, factors associated with the severity of the condition, and serious outcomes, a retrospective medical record review was performed on adult patients diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2007 and 2011 in 15 University Hospitals of South Korea.
A total of 1,806 cases (52% male, age 16-86 years) were reported. Cutaneous symptoms (84.0%), combined with respiratory (53.9%) and/or cardiovascular (55.4%) symptoms, were the most frequent presentations. Using a recognized grading system, 1,776 cases could be classified as either mild, 340; moderate, 690; or severe, 746. Although eliciting factors varied significantly by age, gender, and regional and seasonal factors, drugs (46.5%; including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and radiocontrast media) were the most common cause of anaphylaxis, followed by foods (24.2%), insect stings (16.4%), exercise (5.9%), and unknown etiology (7.0%). All of age, multi-organ involvement, a history of allergic disease, and drug-induced anaphylaxis, were significant predictors of serious outcomes requiring hospital admission or prolongation of hospital stay. Epinephrine auto-injectors were prescribed for 7.4% of reported cases.
The principal causes of anaphylaxis in Korean adults were drugs, food, and insect stings. Drug-associated anaphylaxis, a history of allergic disease, multi-organ involvement, and older age, were identified as predictors of serious outcomes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Allergy, asthma & immunology research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although several studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue (ASCs) can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation, the immunomodulatory mechanism of ASCs remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether regulatory T cells (Tregs) induction is a potential mechanism in immunomodulatory effects of ASCs on allergic airway disease and how these induced Tregs orchestrate allergic inflammation. Intravenous administration of ASCs significantly reduced allergic symptoms and inhibited eosinophilic inflammation. Airway hyperresponsiveness, total immune cell and eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 were significantly reduced after ASCs administration. ASCs significantly inhibited Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and enhanced Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, levels of IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 were significantly increased after ASCs administration. Interestingly, this upregulation was accompanied by increased Treg populations. In conclusion, ASCs ameliorated allergic airway inflammation and improved lung function through the induction of Treg expansion. The induction of Treg by ASCs involves the secretion of soluble factors such as IDO, TGF-β, and PGE2 and Treg might be involved in the downregulation of Th2 cytokines and upregulation of Th1 cytokines production.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Evidence regarding the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in predicting the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer is increasing. However, data on small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic parameters measured using 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with SCLC.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective review of 114 patients with pathologically proven SCLC (26 cases of limited disease and 88 cases of extensive disease) who underwent pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT. The maximal SUV (SUVmax) was used quantitatively for determination of FDG PET activity. The SUVmax of the primary tumor (primary SUVmax), the sum of SUVmax values of malignant lesions (SUVsum), and the mean SUVmax of malignant lesions were calculated.
The patient population was subdivided using a median SUVsum value of 24.6. High SUVsum showed a significant association with known factors for poor prognosis, including higher neuron-specific enolase (p=0.010), CYFRA 21-1 (p=0.014), and extensive disease status (p=0.007). Patients with high SUVsum had significantly shorter median overall survival (6.6 months vs. 13.0 months, p<0.001) and progression-free survival (5.2 months vs. 8.0 months, p<0.001) than patients with low SUVsum. Results of multivariate analysis showed that SUVsum, chemotherapy cycles, and the response to first-line treatment were significant prognostic factors of survival. In contrast, mean SUVmax and primary SUVmax were not significant predictors of survival.
In this study, metabolic burden represented by SUVsum from pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with SCLC.
Preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Cancer Research and Treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES) proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25) in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease.