T. D. Carozzi

Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden

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Publications (81)102.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The angular momentum propagated by a beam of radiation has two contributions: spin angular momentum (SAM) and orbital angular momentum (OAM). SAM corresponds to wave polarisation, while OAM-carrying beams are characterized by a phase which is a function of azimuth. We demonstrate experimentally that radio beams propagating OAM can be generated and coherently detected using ordinary electric dipole antennas. The results presented here could pave the way for novel radio OAM applications in technology and science, including radio communication, passive remote sensing, and new types of active (continuous or pulsed transmission) electromagnetic measurements.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We present significant improvements to the circular Eleven feed technology for a dual-reflector system operating over 0.35-1.05 GHz as a backup for the square kilometer array (SKA) project Band 1. In this work, the number of the feed ports is reduced to 4 from the previous 8 for dual polarization using a novel geometry at the center. The design is carried out by optimizing with a social civilization algorithm. The resulting improvements include a reflection coefficient below $-12;text{dB}$, an aperture efficiency above 70% at the upper end of the band, a maximum cross-polar level under -15 dB, and an ohmic loss about 0.05 dB. A prototype based on this design has been manufactured and the design simulations have been verified against measurements. A simulated sensitivity of the dual-reflector receiver system for the SKA project based on the measured data is also presented in this communication.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
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    ABSTRACT: Radio telescopes are used to accurately measure the time of arrival (ToA) of radio pulses in pulsar timing experiments that target mostly millisecond pulsars (MSPs) due to their high rotational stability. This allows for detailed study of MSPs and forms the basis of experiments to detect gravitational waves. Apart from intrinsic and propagation effects, such as pulse-to-pulse jitter and dispersion variations in the interstellar medium, timing precision is limited in part by the following: polarization purity of the telescope's orthogonally polarized receptors, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pulsar profile, and the polarization fidelity of the system. Using simulations, we present how fundamental limitations in recovering the true polarization reduce the precision of ToA measurements. Any real system will respond differently to each source observed depending on the unique pulsar polarization profile. Using the profiles of known MSPs, we quantify the limits of observing system specifications that yield satisfactory ToA measurements, and we place a practical design limit beyond which improvement of the system results in diminishing returns. Our aim is to justify limits for the front-end polarization characteristics of next-generation radio telescopes, leading to the Square Kilometre Array.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
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    ABSTRACT: Current and future interferometric imaging arrays in radio astronomy may be limited by the accuracy with which various direction-dependent effects, such as the antenna gain patterns, can be corrected. Doing this in an efficient manner during the calibration and imaging process is especially difficult due to these effects often being also baseline-dependent. A newly proposed method, called A-stacking, offers a solution through the use of a parametrized model in which basis functions account for the direction-dependence and the expansion coefficients account for the baseline-dependence. This approach provides a simple trade-off between computational complexity and calculation accuracy. Herein the use of the A-stacking method to model direction-dependent effects over a very wide frequency band is investigated.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jul 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A general framework is presented for modeling direction-dependent effects that are also baseline-dependent, as part of the calibration and imaging process. Within this framework such effects are represented as a parametric linear model in which basis functions account for direction dependence, whereas expansion coefficients account for the baseline dependence. This separation enables the use ofa multiple fast Fourier transform-based implementation of the forward calculation (sky to visibility) in a manner similar to the W-stacking solution for non-coplanar baselines, and offers a potential improvement in computational efficiency in scenarios where the gridding operation in a convolution-based approach to direction-dependent effects may be too costly. Two novel imaging approaches that are possible within this framework are also presented.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • T. D. Carozzi
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    ABSTRACT: I present an exact and explicit solution to the scalar (Stokes flux intensity) radio interferometer imaging equation on a spherical surface which is valid also for non-coplanar interferometer configurations. This imaging equation is comparable to $w$-term imaging algorithms, but by using a spherical rather than a Cartesian formulation this term has no special significance. The solution presented also allows direct identification of the scalar (spin 0 weighted) spherical harmonics on the sky. The method should be of interest for future multi-spacecraft interferometers, wide-field imaging with non-coplanar arrays, and CMB spherical harmonic measurements using interferometers.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters
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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear starburst in the nearby galaxy M82 provides an excellent laboratory for understanding the physics of star formation. This galaxy has been extensively observed in the past, revealing tens of radio-bright compact objects embedded in a diffuse free-free absorbing medium. Our understanding of the structure and physics of this medium in M82 can be greatly improved by high-resolution images at low frequencies where the effects of free-free absorption are most prominent. The aims of this study are, firstly, to demonstrate imaging using international baselines of the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), and secondly, to constrain low-frequency spectra of compact and diffuse emission in the central starburst region of M82 via high-resolution radio imaging at low frequencies. The international LOFAR telescope was used to observe M82 at 110-126MHz and 146-162MHz. Images were obtained using standard techniques from very long baseline interferometry. images were obtained at each frequency range: one only using international baselines, and one only using the longest Dutch (remote) baselines. The 154MHz image obtained using international baselines is a new imaging record in terms of combined image resolution (0.3$"$) and sensitivity ($\sigma$=0.15mJy/beam) at low frequencies ($<327$MHz). We detected 16 objects at 154MHz, six of these also at 118MHz. Four weaker but resolved features are also found: a linear (50pc) filament and three other resolved objects, of which two show a clear shell structure. We do not detect any emission from either supernova 2008iz or from the radio transient source 43.78+59.3. The images obtained using remote baselines show diffuse emission, associated with the outflow in M82, with reduced brightness in the region of the edge-on star-forming disk.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    T.D. Carozzi
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    ABSTRACT: The dual-polarized primary beams of imaging radio telescopes are generally not perfectly orthogonal nor have the same gain, the resulting polarimetric images are distorted, in other words, they exhibit instrumental polarization. This is often modeled in radio astronomy using a Jones matrix formalism, and the standard practice is to calibrate (i.e. determine the Jones matrices) using known point source, polarized calibrators. Using point source calibrators on the other hand can be difficult and is ineffective for wide fields-of-view (FoV). Often however, a large portion of the FoV of imaging radio telescopes consists of unpolarized background. In this paper I estimate Jones matrices over the FoV by assuming that most of the background image is unpolarized and then taking the square-root of the brightness matrices. Results from LOFAR LBA data are shown and are consistent with expectation. The usefulness of this particular method, compared to using polarized point source calibrators, is its simplicity and the fact that it can cover most of the FoV.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Computing
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. An efficient means of locating calibrator sources for International LOFAR is developed and used to determine the average density of usable calibrator sources on the sky for subarcsecond observations at 140 MHz. Methods. We used the multi-beaming capability of LOFAR to conduct a fast and computationally inexpensive survey with the full International LOFAR array. Sources were pre-selected on the basis of 325 MHz arcminute-scale flux density using existing catalogues. By observing 30 different sources in each of the 12 sets of pointings per hour, we were able to inspect 630 sources in two hours to determine if they possess a sufficiently bright compact component to be usable as LOFAR delay calibrators. Results. Over 40% of the observed sources are detected on multiple baselines between international stations and 86 are classified as satisfactory calibrators. We show that a flat low-frequency spectrum (from 74 to 325 MHz) is the best predictor of compactness at 140 MHz. We extrapolate from our sample to show that the density of calibrators on the sky that are sufficiently bright to calibrate dispersive and non-dispersive delays for the International LOFAR using existing methods is 1.0 per square degree. Conclusions. The observed density of satisfactory delay calibrator sources means that observations with International LOFAR should be possible at virtually any point in the sky, provided that a fast and efficient search using the methodology described here is conducted prior to the observation to identify the best calibrator.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the application of the Characteristic Basis Function Pattern (CBFP) method to calibrate for direction-dependent gain effects of the LOFAR Low Band Antenna (LBA) array. The use of array-based calibration models, as opposed to element-based calibration models, is proposed in order to reduce the number of solvable beam model parameters.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Aug 2014

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2013
  • TD Carozzi · MV Ivashina
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss how to evaluate SKA technology options with regard to science output quality. In this work we will focus on polarimetry. We review the SKA specification for polarimetry and assess these requirements. In particular we will use as a illustrative case study a comparison of two dish types combined with two different feeds. The dish types we consider are optimized axi-symmetric prime-focus and offset Gregorian reflector systems; and the two feeds are the Eleven-feed (wideband) and a choked horn (octave band). To evaluate the imaging performance we employ end-to-end simulations in which given sky models are, in software, passed through a model of the telescope design according to its corresponding radio interferometrical measurement equation to produce simulated visibilities. The simulated visibilities are then used to generate simulated sky images. These simulated sky images are then compared to the input sky models and various figures-of-merit for the imaging performance are computed. A difficulty is the vast parameter space for observing modes and configurations that exists even when the technology is fixed. However one can fixed certain standard benchmark observation modes that can be applied across the board to the various technology options. The importance of standardized, end-to-end simulations, such as the one presented here, is that they address the high-level science output from SKA as a whole rather than low-level specifications of its individual parts.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Jan 2012
  • T.D. Carozzi · G. Woan
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    ABSTRACT: Many modern radio applications, such as astronomy and remote sensing, require high-precision polarimetry. These applications put exacting demands on radio polarimeters (antenna systems that can measure the state of polarization of radio sources), and in order to assess their polarimetric performance, a figure of merit (FoM) would be desirable. Unfortunately, we find that the parameter commonly used for this purpose, the cross-polarization ratio, is not suitable as a polarimetry FoM unless it is given in an appropriate coordinate system. This is because although the cross-polarization ratio is relevant for raw, uncalibrated polarimetry, in general it is not relevant to the quality of the polarimetry after polarimetric calibration. However, a cross-polarization ratio can be constructed from invariants of the Jones matrix (the matrix that describes the polarimetric response of a polarimeter) that quantifies polarimetric performance even after calibration. We call this cross-polarization ratio the intrinsic cross-polarization ratio (IXR) and conclude that it is a fundamental FoM for polarimeters. We then extend the IXR concept from the Jones calculus to the Mueller calculus and also to interferometers, and we give numerical examples of these parameters applied to the Parkes radio telescope, the Westerbork synthesis radio telescope, and the Effelsberg telescope.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a serial implementation of the one-bit auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF respectively) in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) has been developed, based on asynchronous delay elements and counters, known as the counterbased correlation. This paper proposes a method of parallelizing this otherwise serial process, offering significant improvements in the applicability of this approach to more types of ACF. Furthermore, the possibility of obtaining lag results from a parallel data sequence without first shifting the entire sequence has been realized, hence decreasing the number of clock cycles necessary for the calculation of the ACF. A synchronous design was preferred here for reasons of stability and portability, the technology of choice again being an FPGA. The advantages offered by the counterbased implementation in terms of device area usage and speed still apply. A practical implementation in the instrumentation of an upcoming space mission is also discussed.
    No preview · Article · May 2011 · Microprocessors and Microsystems
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    ABSTRACT: We used bottomside ground observations and topside sounding data from the Intercosmos-19 satellite to study a Travelling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) that occurred in response to Large-Scale Internal Gravity Wave (LSIGW) propagation during a substorm on November 30, 1979. We built a global scheme for the wavelike ionospheric variations during this medium substorm (AE(max) similar to 800 nT). The area where the TID was observed looks like a wedge since it covers the nighttime hours at subauroral latitudes but contracts to a similar to 02 h local sector at low latitudes. The ionospheric response is strongly asymmetric because the wedge area and the TID amplitude are larger in the winter hemisphere than in the summer hemisphere. Clear evidence was obtained indicating that the more powerful TID from the Northern (winter) hemisphere propagated across the equator into the low latitude Southern (summer) hemisphere. Intercosmos-19 observations show that the disturbance covers the entire thickness of the topside ionosphere, from h(m)F2 up to at least the 1000 km satellite altitude at post-midnight local times. F-layer lifting reached similar to 200 km, N-e increases in the topside ionosphere by up to a factor of similar to 1.9 and variations in N(m)F2 of both signs were observed. Assumptions are made concerning the reason for the IGW effect at high altitudes in the topside ionosphere. The relationship between TID parameters and source characteristics determined from a global network of magnetometers are studied. The role of the dayside cusp in the generation of the TID in the daytime ionosphere is discussed. The magnetospheric electric field effects are distinguished from IGW effects.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
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    ABSTRACT: Singular value decomposition (SVD) allows the factorization of real or complex matrices providing quantitative information with fewer dimensions along which data points exhibit more variation. These days SVD computation is being used in numerous applications, and because of its importance, different approaches for SVD hardware computation have been proposed, however, their application is limited by the inherent SVD calculation complexity making it possible to analyze up to 8 x 8 matrices until now, complying certain constrains like symmetry. This paper presents a generic and novel FPGA-based hardware architecture for SVD computation on large m × n matrices utilizing Hestenes approach and one-side Jacobi rotations. Four different study cases (2 x 2, 8 x 7, 16 x 32, and 32 x 127 matrices) validate the performance of the FPGA-based computation unit reaching a maximum estimation error of 3.3718 % in the SVD estimation of a large matrix.
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2011
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    ABSTRACT: Novel measurement and approximation methodologies for studying orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in radio beams, i.e., electromagnetic beam modes having helical phase fronts, are presented. We show that OAM modes can be unambiguously determined by measuring two electric field components at one point, or one electric field component at two points.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Radio Science
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    ABSTRACT: Variations in the dayside ionosphere parameters as a result of a large-scale acoustic gravity wave (LS AGW) were studied for the 17 February 1998 substorm using the super dual auroral radar network (SuperDARN) measurements. This event was characterised by a sharp rise in the AE index with a maximum of ∼900 nT. The source of the disturbance responsible for the LS AGW appears to have been located within the plasma convection throat and in the dayside cusp region. The location of the source was obtained from studies of a number of datasets including high-latitude convection maps, data from 4 DMSP satellites and networks of ground-based magnetometers. The propagation of the LS AGWs caused quasi-periodic variations in the skip distance (with an amplitude up to 220–260 km) of the ground backscatter measured by up to 6 SuperDARN radars, including Goose Bay and Kapuskasing, resulting in two large-scale travelling ionospheric disturbances (LS TIDs). The LS TIDs had wave periods of 1.5 and 2 h, a velocity of ∼400 m/s for both, and wavelengths of 2200 and 2900 km, respectively. These quasi-periodic variations were also present in the peak electron density and height of the F2 layer measured by the Goose Bay ionosonde. The numerical simulation of the inverse problem show good agreement between Goose Bay radar and Goose Bay ionosonde measurements. But these LS TIDs would be difficult to deduce from the ground based ionospheric station data alone, because hmF2 variations were 10–40 km only and fOF2 variations between 10% and 20%. The results demonstrate how important SuperDARN radars can be, and that this is a more powerful technique than routine ground-based sounding for studies of weak quasi-periodic variations in the dayside subauroral ionosphere related to LS AGW.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2010 · Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics
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    ABSTRACT: Recent discoveries concerning rotating (helical) phase fronts and orbital angular momentum (OAM) of laser beams are applied to radio frequencies and comprehensive simulations of a radio OAM system are performed. We find that with the use of vector field-sensing electric and magnetic triaxial antennas, it is possible to unambiguously estimate the OAM in radio beams by local measurements at a single point, assuming ideal (noiseless) conditions and that the beam axis is known. Furthermore, we show that conventional antenna pattern optimization methods can be applied to OAM-generating circular arrays to enhance their directivity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

Publication Stats

886 Citations
102.94 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Chalmers University of Technology
      • • Department of Signals and Systems
      • • Department of Earth and Space Sciences
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2007-2011
    • University of Glasgow
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2004-2011
    • University of Sussex
      • Biomedical Engineering Group
      Brighton, England, United Kingdom
  • 2000-2004
    • Swedish Institute of Space Physics
      Kiruna, Norrbotten, Sweden
  • 2003
    • Institutet för rymdfysik
      Kiruna, Norrbotten, Sweden