[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrosomal proteins play crucial roles in the physiology of fertilization. Identification of proteins localizing to the acrosome is fundamental to the understanding of its contribution to fertilization. Novel proteins are still being reported from acrosome. In order to capture yet unreported proteins localizing to acrosome in particular and sperm in general, 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis of mouse sperm proteins was done.
One of the protein spots identified in the above study was reported in the NCBI database as a hypothetical protein from Riken cDNA 1700026L06 that localizes to chromosome number 2. This protein shows 96% identity to the rat spermatid specific protein RSB66. Immunofluorescence studies using the antibody raised in rabbit against the recombinant protein showed that it localized to mouse acrosome and sperm tail. Based on the localization of this protein, it has been named mouse acrosome and sperm tail protein (MAST, [Q7TPM5 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/Q7TPM5)]). Western blotting showed that MAST is expressed testis-specifically. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using the MAST antibody identified two calcium-binding proteins, caldendrin and calreticulin as interacting partners of MAST. Caldendrin and calreticulin genes localize to mouse chromosomes 5 and 8 respectively. In an Yq-deletion mutant mouse, that is subfertile and has a deletion of 2/3rd of the long arm of the Y chromosome, MAST failed to localize to the acrosome. Western blot analysis however, revealed equal expression of MAST in the testes of wild type and mutant mice. The acrosomal calcium-binding proteins present in the MAST IP-complex were upregulated in sperms of Yq-del mice.
We have identified a mouse acrosomal protein, MAST, that is expressed testis specifically. MAST does not contain any known motifs for protein interactions; yet it complexes with calcium-binding proteins localizing to the acrosome. The misexpression of all the proteins identified in a complex in the Yq-del mice invokes the hypothesis of a putative pathway regulated by the Y chromosome. The role of Y chromosome in the regulation of this complex is however not clear from the current study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Alterations at the molecular level in spermatozoa and seminal plasma can affect male fertility. The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility.
The differential expression of proteins in the seminal plasma of men based on sperm count and morphology were examined utilizing proteomic tools. Subjects were categorized based on sperm concentration and morphology into 4 groups: 1) normal sperm count and normal morphology (NN); 2) normal sperm count and abnormal morphology (NA); 3) oligozoospermia and normal morphology (ON); and 4) oligozoospermia and abnormal morphology (OA). Proteomic analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS followed by functional bioinformatics analysis. Protein distribution in the NA, ON and OA groups was compared with that of the NN group.
Twenty proteins were differentially expressed among the 4 groups. Among the unique proteins identified, 3 were downregulated in the NA group, 1 in the ON group and 1 in the OA group while 2 were upregulated in the ON and OA groups. The functional analysis 1) identified biological regulation as the major processes affected and 2) determined that most of the identified proteins were of extracellular origin.
We have identified proteins that are over-or underexpressed in the seminal plasma of men with poor sperm quality. The distinct presence of some of the proteins may serve as potential biomarkers and provide insight into the mechanistic role played by these proteins in male infertility. Further studies using Western Blot analysis are required to validate these findings.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Male infertility is a common and complex problem affecting 1 in 20 men. Despite voluminous research in this field, in many cases, the underlying causes are unknown. Epigenetic factors play an important role in male infertility and these have been studied extensively. Epigenetic modifications control a number of processes within the body, but this review will concentrate on male fertility and the consequences of aberrant epigenetic regulation/modification. Many recent studies have identified altered epigenetic profiles in sperm from men with oligozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. During gametogenesis and germ cell maturation, germ cells undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming that involves the establishment of sex-specific patterns in the sperm and oocytes. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic and environmental factors can have negative effects on epigenetic processes controlling implantation, placentation and fetal growth. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic processes (histone-to-protamine exchange and epigenetic reprogramming post-fertilization), aberrant epigenetic reprogramming and its association with fertility, possible risks for ART techniques, testicular cancer and the effect of environmental factors on the epigenetic processes.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The non-coding fraction of the human genome, which is approximately 98%, is mainly constituted by repeats. Transpositions, expansions and deletions of these repeat elements contribute to a number of diseases. None of the available databases consolidates information on both tandem and interspersed repeats with the flexibility of FASTA based homology search with reference to disease genes. Repeats in diseases database (RiDs db) is a web accessible relational database, which aids analysis of repeats associated with Mendelian disorders. It is a repository of disease genes, which can be searched by FASTA program or by limitedor free- text keywords. Unlike other databases, RiDs db contains the sequences of these genes with access to corresponding information on both interspersed and tandem repeats contained within them, on a unified platform. Comparative analysis of novel or patient sequences with the reference sequences in RiDs db using FASTA search will indicate change in structure of repeats, if any, with a particular disorder. This database also provides links to orthologs in model organisms such as zebrafish, mouse and Drosophila. AVAILABILITY: The database is available for free at http://220.127.116.11/ridsdb/index.php.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human Y chromosome, because it is enriched in repetitive DNA, has been very intractable to genetic and molecular analyses. There is no previous evidence for developmental stage- and testis-specific transcription from the male-specific region of the Y (MSY). Here, we present evidence for the first time for a developmental stage- and testis-specific transcription from MSY distal heterochromatic block. We isolated two novel RNAs, which localize to Yq12 in multiple copies, show testis-specific expression, and lack active X-homologs. Experimental evidence shows that one of the above Yq12 noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) trans-splices with CDC2L2 mRNA from chromosome 1p36.3 locus to generate a testis-specific chimeric beta sv13 isoform. This 67-nt 5'UTR provided by the Yq12 transcript contains within it a Y box protein-binding CCAAT motif, indicating translational regulation of the beta sv13 isoform in testis. This is also the first report of trans-splicing between a Y chromosomal and an autosomal transcript.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To detect aneusomic changes with respect to chromosome 11 copy number in esophageal precancers and cancers wherein the generation of cancer-specific phenotypes is believed to be associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies.
We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on esophageal tissue paraffin sections to analyze changes in chromosome 11 copy number using apotome-generated images by optical sectioning microscopy. Sections were prepared from esophageal tumor tissue, tissues showing preneoplastic changes and histologically normal tissues (control) obtained from patients referred to the clinic for endoscopic evaluation.
Our results demonstrated that aneusomy was seen in all the cancers and preneoplastic tissues, while none of the controls showed aneusomic cells. There was no increase in aneusomy from precancers to cancers.
Our results suggest that evaluation of chromosome 11 aneusomy in esophageal tissue using FISH with an appropriate signal capture-analysis system, can be used as an ancillary molecular marker predictive of early neoplastic changes. Future studies can be directed towards the genes on chromosome 11, which may play a role in the neoplastic transformation of esophageal precancerous lesions to cancers.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · World Journal of Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BLAST and Repeat Masker Parser (BRM-Parser) is a service that provides users a unified platform for easy analysis of relatively large outputs of BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and RepeatMasker programs. BLAST Summary feature of BRM-Parser summarizes BLAST outputs, which can be filtered using user defined thresholds for hit length, percentage identity and E-value and can be sorted by query or subject coordinates and length of the hit. It also provides a tool that merges BLAST hits which satisfy user-defined criteria for hit length and gap between hits. The RepeatMasker Summary feature uses the RepeatMasker alignment as an input file and calculates the frequency and proportion of mutations in copies of repeat elements, as identified by the RepeatMasker. Both features can be run through a GUI or can be executed via command line using the standalone version.
No preview · Article · Feb 2007 · In silico biology