M M Buhr

University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Are you M M Buhr?

Claim your profile

Publications (62)111.79 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Great efforts have been taken in recent years for improving feed efficiency in beef cattle. Despite there being several studies on biological factors associated with this trait, little is known about the potential relationships between fertility and feed efficiency in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between feed efficiency traits and bull fertility traits [sperm motility, viability and scrotal circumference (SC)]. From a total of 328 crossbred beef bulls that were subjected to a performance test (112 d in each of 6 yr), SC was measured and semen collected from 110 bulls using the electroejaculation method (average age +/- SE =417 +/- 2.5 d). Sperm were extended, cooled, and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Two residual feed c intake (RFI) measures were considered with different prediction models for dry matter intake (DMI), RFIKoch included size and growth rate and RFIbkft included the additional adjustment for backfat thickness (BKFT). Sperm viability, motility and progressive motility of the 10 bulls with the greatest RFIkocb (Hi-RFIKoch) were greater than those of the 10 bulls with the lowest RFIKoch (Lo-RFIKoch; P <0.05, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively). Sperm motility (P <0.01), progressive motility and SC (P <0.05) of the 10 bulls with the greatest RFIbkft (Hi-RFIbkft) were greater than those of the 10 bulls with the lowest RFIbkft (Lo-RFIbkft). In summary, these data indicate that young beef bulls with greater feed efficiency have decreased sperm motility, sperm viability and SC, which is an undesirable effect of selection for improved feed efficiency that needs to be addressed through multiple trait selection.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Canadian Journal of Animal Science
  • Katie D Hickey · Mary M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existing as a ubiquitous transmembrane protein, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase affects sperm fertility and capacitation through ion transport and a recently identified signaling function. Functional Na(+)K(+)-ATPase is a dimer of α and β subunits, each with isoforms (four and three, respectively). Since specific isoform pairings and locations may influence or indicate function, the objective of this study was to identify and localize subunits of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in fresh bull sperm by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using antibodies against α1 and 3, and all β isoforms. Relative quantity of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in head plasma membranes (HPM's) from sperm of different bulls was determined by densitometry of immunoblot bands, and compared to bovine kidney. Sperm and kidney specifically bound all antibodies at kDa equivalent to commercial controls, and to additional lower kDa bands in HPM. Immunofluorescence of intact sperm confirmed that all isoforms were present in the head region of sperm and that α3 was also uniformly distributed post-equatorially. Permeabilization exposing internal membranes typically resulted in an increase in fluorescence, indicating that some antibody binding sites were present on the inner surface of the HPM or the acrosomal membrane. Deglycosylation of β1 reduced the kDa of bands in sperm, rat brain and kidney, with the kDa of the deglycosylated bands differing among tissues. Two-dimensional blots of β1 revealed three distinct spots. Based on the unique quantity, location and structure Na(+)K(+)-ATPase subunits in sperm, we inferred that this protein has unique functions in sperm.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews stresses boar sperm undergo during processing and presents preliminary results of dietary modification that minimize this damage. Processing for artificial insemination (AI) stresses boar sperm by osmotic effects; altering cell size, shape and membranes; intracellular ice formation; and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sperm response to ROS is concentration-dependent, with low levels activating the ERK pathway to stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation (Tyr-P) and capacitation, but high concentrations or inappropriately timed onset of ROS pathways can harm sperm. Fresh boar sperm exposed to ROS increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ) phospholipase and lipid peroxidation, maintained viability but lost motility and underwent acrosome reactions (AR). Direct incorporation of lipids ± the antioxidant Vitamin E improves the survival of liquid- and frozen-stored semen. Boars fed dietary flaxseed for 8 weeks to increase n-3 fatty acids displayed improved sperm morphology (p < 0.05), increased membrane fluidity (p < 0.05) and better retention of motility and viability during 5-7 day storage (p < 0.05). Processes reducing oxidative damage to stored sperm should be evaluated.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The African elephant population in North American zoos is not self-sustaining, in part due to the prevalence of ovarian acyclicity. While little is known about the cause of this condition, earlier research has shown that females without cyclic corpus luteum (CL) function rank higher in the dominance hierarchy than females with cyclic CL function. The goal of this study was to measure longitudinal serum testosterone concentrations in captive female African elephants to determine if there is a relationship among serum testosterone concentrations, social dominance rank and ovarian cyclicity status. Weekly blood samples from 49 female African elephants (24 having and 25 not having cyclic CL function at 22 facilities) were collected over a 12-month period and analyzed for serum testosterone using an enzymeimmunoassay. A progesterone radioimmunoassay was used to quantify serum progestagen concentrations and categorize ovarian cyclicity status. The dominance hierarchy of individual elephants within each herd was assessed by a written temperament survey, which identified 19 dominant, 15 middle and 15 subordinate females. No clear patterns of serum testosterone secretion were observed in females with and without cyclic CL function. Furthermore, no significant relationships were found among serum testosterone concentrations, dominance rank, and ovarian cyclicity status. These data suggest that increased circulating testosterone concentrations are not associated with greater rates of ovarian acyclicity or dominance status in captive female African elephants.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2011 · Animal reproduction science
  • Source
    Katie D Hickey · Mary M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sperm membranes change in structure and composition upon ejaculation to undergo capacitation, a molecular transformation which enables spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction and be capable of fertilization. Changes to the membrane environment including lipid composition, specifically lipid microdomains, may be responsible for enabling capacitation. To study the effect of lipid environment on proteins, liposomes were created using lipids extracted from bull sperm membranes, with or without a protein (Na(+) K(+)-ATPase or α-amylase). Protein incorporation, function, and orientation were determined. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) confirmed protein inclusion in the lipid bilayer, and protein function was confirmed using a colourometric assay of phosphate production from ATP cleavage. In the native lipid liposomes, ATPase was oriented with the β subunit facing the outer leaflet, while changing the lipid composition to 50% native lipids and 50% exogenous lipids significantly altered this orientation of Na(+) K(+)-ATPase within the membranes.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2011
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to nicotine on the male reproductive tract. Dams were randomly assigned to receive saline or nicotine bitartrate (1mg/kg-d s.c.) daily for two weeks prior to mating until weaning (postnatal day 21). Male offspring were sacrificed at 7 (peri-pubertal) and 26 (adult) weeks of age. Nicotine-exposure resulted in retention of spermatids after stage VIII, tubular vacuolation, degeneration of pachytene and round spermatids at stage VII in the testes; and lymphocyte infiltration, germ cell exfoliation, and hypospermia in epididymides, at 7 weeks of age. Nicotine-exposure had no effect on testis or epididymal morphology, daily sperm production, epididymal sperm reserve, sperm viability at 26 weeks of age, and circulating testosterone levels at either age examined. We conclude that maternal nicotine-exposure during pregnancy and lactation can induce transient structural changes in the testis and epididymis of male offspring.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · Reproductive Toxicology
  • Source
    Basim J Awda · Mary M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) family of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is identified for the first time in boar sperm and is associated with capacitation and tyrosine phosphorylation (tyr-P). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate this signal transduction. Western immunoblotting detected the ERK pathway components RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 in extracts from fresh boar spermatozoa and determined that their phosphoprotein profiles differed in a capacitation-dependent fashion. Capacitation was accompanied by appearance of two new ERKs (158 and 161 kDa) and disappearance of others. Capacitation was verified with increased tyr-P, which was inhibited by a 30-min pre-exposure of fresh boar sperm to a xanthine/xanthine oxidase ROS-generating system prior to the capacitating incubation; ROS pre-exposure also affected the phosphorylation of RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2. Preincubating sperm with inhibitors of the ERK components with or without the ROS generator affected subsequent capacitation. Inhibiting ERK1/2 inhibited tyr-P of capacitated boar spermatozoa proteins of 172, 97, and 66 kDa (P ≤ 0.04); with ROS, this inhibition increased (P < 0.002) and tyr-P of 111 kDa declined (P < 0.028). Pre-exposure to ROS plus MEK1/2 inhibitor prevented capacitation-induced tyr-P of proteins of 187 (P < 0.01) and 112 kDa (P < 0.04) versus capacitation with or without ROS. Therefore, ERK1/2 components of the MAPK pathway significantly regulate boar sperm capacitation, and RAF1 and MEK1/2 may have some lesser influence through crosstalk with different pathways. ROS affect RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2 and could influence the sequential events of boar sperm capacitation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2010 · Biology of Reproduction
  • D C Bongalhardo · S Leeson · M M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present work aimed to compare the effect of dietary flax with other oil sources on rooster sperm membranes and on semen characteristics. White Leghorn roosters (16 per diet) were fed 1 of 4 treatments: control diet (CON), or a diet containing corn oil (CORN), fish oil (FISH), or flax seed (FLAX) as the lipid source. Semen from 4 birds (30 wk old) of each treatment was pooled, the sperm head (HM) and body membranes (BM) were isolated, and lipids were extracted and analyzed. Aspects of lipid composition tested were as follows: percentage of individual fatty acids (C14:0 to C24:1) in total fatty acids, percentage of fatty acid categories [saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio] within total fatty acids, and percentage of phospholipids [phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin] in total phospholipids. Sperm characteristics evaluated were as follows: volume, concentration, viability, percentage of motile cells, average path velocity, track speed, progressive velocity, lateral head displacement, straightness, and linearity. Diet did not affect membrane phospholipid ratios in either membrane but modified major fatty acids within certain phospholipids. Birds fed FISH and CORN showed, respectively, the highest and the lowest n-3 in sperm, causing reciprocal significant changes in n-6:n-3 ratio. Feeding FLAX caused intermediate effects in n-3, with values significantly lower than FISH but higher than CORN in HM (PC, PE, and phosphatidylinositol) and PC in BM (P < 0.05). In the PE phospholipids, FISH, followed by FLAX, increased n-3 in BM and decreased n-6 PUFA in HM. Sperm concentration was specifically correlated with the amount of 20:4n-6 in FLAX and 22:4n-6 in CON. In FLAX diets, straightness correlated with C18:0, n-3, and n-6:n-3 ratio. Diets containing distinct lipid sources differentially modify the lipid contents of HM and BM, with minor effects on sperm characteristics. Flax seed produced changes similar to fish oil and could be used as a substitute.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Poultry Science
  • Source
    Muhammad Anzar · Tom Kroetsch · Mary M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assessing semen quality is crucially important for the exploitation of genetically superior sires in an artificial insemination (AI) program. In this study, we compare modern and conventional techniques to estimate bovine sperm concentration and membrane integrity. First, the NucleoCounter SP-100 was validated for sperm concentration and provided statistically reliable and repeatable estimates among aliquots and replicates of 25 fresh ejaculates. Sperm concentrations in 78 ejaculates were then determined with hemacytometer, flow cytometer, and NucleoCounter SP-100 and were significantly correlated (P < .001), with regression coefficients among these 3 techniques close to 1 (P < .01). However, the sperm concentration determined by hemacytometer was lower (P < .01) than by flow cytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100. Forty frozen-thawed semen samples were then assessed for sperm concentration and membrane integrity with hemacytometer, flow cytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100. Significant relationships were found for sperm concentration determined by hemacytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100 and for sperm membrane integrity determined by flow cytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100 (P < .01). Finally, the standard curves of sperm concentrations in 6 spectrophotometers, comparing optical density against counts drawn by hemacytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100 (n = 94 fresh ejaculates) showed different (P < .01) intercepts and regression coefficients (linear, quadratic, cubic). It was calculated that a breeding station can improve its production potential by 13% with the use of NucleoCounter SP-100 instead of hemacytometer for calibration of spectrophotometers. Flow cytometer and NucleoCounter SP-100 can be used with equal confidence to estimate sperm concentration and membrane integrity in domestic animals and human semen.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Andrology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Boar spermatozoa are very susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS), but ROS involvement in damage and/or capacitation is unclear. The impact of exposing fresh boar spermatozoa to an ROS-generating system (xanthine/xanthine oxidase; XA/XO) on sperm ROS content, membrane lipid peroxidation, phospholipase (PL) A activity, and motility, viability, and capacitation was contrasted to ROS content and sperm function after cryopreservation. Exposing boar sperm (n = 4-5 ejaculates) to the ROS-generating system for 30 min rapidly increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation in all sperm, increased PLA in dead sperm, and did not affect intracellular O2- (flow cytometry of sperm labeled with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorscein diacetate, BODIPY 581/591 C11, bis-BODIPY-FL C11, hydroethidine, respectively; counterstained for viability). Sperm viability remained high, but sperm became immotile. Cryopreservation decreased sperm motility, viability, and intracellular O2- significantly, but did not affect H2O2. As expected, more sperm incubated in capacitating media than Beltsville thawing solution buffer underwent acrosome reactions and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (four proteins, 58-174 kDa); which proteins were tyrosine phosphorylated was pH dependent. Pre-exposing sperm to the ROS-generating system increased the percentage of sperm that underwent acrosome reactions after incubation in capacitating conditions (P < 0.025), and decreased capacitation-dependent increases in two tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins (P < or = 0.035). In summary, H2O2 is the major free radical mediating direct ROS effects, but not cryopreservation changes, on boar sperm. Boar sperm motility, acrosome integrity, and lipid peroxidation are more sensitive indicators of oxidative stress than viability and PLA activity. ROS may stimulate the acrosome reaction in boar sperm through membrane lipid peroxidation and PLA activation.
    Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Biology of Reproduction
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This is the first study where the systematic application of theories and techniques used in mammalian sperm cryopreservation have been applied to honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) semen as a means to improve postthaw viability of cryopreserved sperm. Six newly designed diluents, three cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMA, glycerol), and five diluent:semen ratios (1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1) were tested. In addition, the sperm freezing tolerance of three honey bee strains was evaluated. Specific protocols were designed to control semen freezing and thawing rates. Sperm motility was assessed visually, whereas sperm viability was assessed using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide fluorescent stains. Diluent treatments did not affect fresh (nonfrozen) sperm viability yet affected fresh sperm motility (P<0.05). Based on these assessments, two diluents were chosen and used in all successive cryopreservation experiments. Using the selected diluents, semen was collected at various diluent:semen ratios, along with one of the three cryoprotectants. Semen collected at high dilution ratios, using a hypotonic antioxidant diluent containing catalase, in combination with dimethyl sulfoxide, provided higher postthaw sperm viability than that of all other combinations tested (68.3+/-5.4%; P<0.05). Using this combination of dilution ratio, diluent, and cryoprotectant, there were no differences among honey bee strains for postthaw sperm viability (P=0.805). Nevertheless, these new semen dilution and freezing methods improved postthaw viability of sperm to levels that could theoretically sustain worker populations in colonies, thus providing potential for further optimization of cryopreservation techniques for the genetic preservation and improvement of honey bee genotypes.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2009 · Theriogenology
  • Adam J. Colley · Mary M. Buhr · Serguei P. Golovan

    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) might become the most efficient and cost effective technique to generate transgenic animals, which will significantly increase their application in biomedical research and in commercial production. Despite some successes, the technique has remained controversial for almost 20 years and despite number of studies the reasons for poor reproducibility of this promising technology has not been understood. We suggest that the reason for poor reproducibility is the presence of natural defences against exogenous DNA invasion acting in spermatozoa or in embryo. Based on previous reports we have investigated the effect of foreign DNA binding on spermatozoa by monitoring motility, viability and genomic DNA damage. Evaluation of DNA binding in sperm collected from 16 boars demonstrated that 28-45% of the added pEGFP plasmid was bound to spermatozoa with 9-32% being internalized in sperm nucleus. In agreement with previous reports, our results demonstrated that the pEGFP-treated sperm show an average a 2-fold decrease in motility (p<0.05), 5-fold decrease in progressive motility (p<0.05), and 1.4-fold increase in number of sperm with highly damaged DNA (p<0.05) as detected by Comet assay. In contrast with previous reports, we demonstrate that all such changes were associated with the removal of seminal plasma during the washing step and not with foreign DNA binding per se. We suggest that poor reproducibility of SMGT most likely result from selection against DNA-loaded sperm at later stages of fertilization.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · Theriogenology
  • Basim J. Awda · Mary M. Buhr

    No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Theriogenology
  • Source
    A Colley · M Buhr · S.P. Golovan
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sex-sorted bovine semen has become a valuable tool in animal production for sex preselection. Development of novel sperm sexing technologies, or evaluation of the quality of existing methods, often requires a single-sperm, sex-typing method that is reliable and easy to perform. In the present study, we report the development, validation, and application of a simple, reliable, and cost-effective method for single-sperm sex typing using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the amelogenin gene. Several hundred single sperm were isolated using a simple manual technique, or a high-speed flow-sorter, and were successfully sex-typed using the amelogenin nested PCR. Based on the pooled results of individual sperm, there was no significant difference in the semen sex ratio of unsorted (44.6% X-sperm and 55.4% Y-sperm) or X/Y-sorted semen (91.4% X-sperm and 94.0% Y-sperm), as compared to the expected ratio in unsorted semen or the post-sorting reanalysis data, respectively. The amelogenin single-sperm sexing method was an adaptable, accurate, and reliable tool for single-sperm sex typing.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2008 · Theriogenology
  • Mary M Buhr

    No preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Theriogenology
  • M.M. Buhr · M.J. Pettitt

    No preview · Article · Oct 2007 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In swine, the use of frozen-thawed (FT) sperm for artificial insemination (AI) is limited because of poor sow fertility, possibly associated with a post-thaw capacitation-like status resulting in fewer fully viable sperm. Sow fertility to AI with FT sperm may improve with deeper deposition of sperm within the female tract, insemination very close to ovulation, or reversal of cryocapacitation by seminal plasma (SP). We performed two experiments to examine these suggestions. In experiment 1, 122 multiparous Yorkshire sows received 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin at weaning and 5 mg pLH 80 h later to control time of ovulation. The predicted time of ovulation (PTO) was 38 h after pLH injection. Thereafter, sows were assigned on the basis of parity to a single AI of FT sperm at 2 h before PTO, or at 12 h before PTO, or FT sperm supplemented with 10% SP at 12 h before PTO. Control sows received fresh semen at 12 h before PTO. All semen doses were adjusted to 3 x 10(9) live cells and deposited into the cervix. Experiment 2 employed 99 multiparous crossbred sows and repeated the treatments of experiment 1 except that all FT inseminations were intrauterine. In both experiments, farrowing rates were lower (p < 0.01) following FT inseminations with no effect of time of insemination or of supplemental SP. In experiment 1, litter size was smaller following FT insemination (p < 0.05), but no effect on litter size was evident in experiment 2. Supplemental SP had no effect on litter size in either experiment. The lack of effect of either SP or timing of FT insemination on sow fertility suggests that the non-lethal sperm cryoinjury affecting fertility involves more than just cryocapacitation.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2007 · Reproduction in Domestic Animals
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A heteromeric integral membrane protein, Na+/K+ATPase is composed of two polypeptides, alpha and beta, and is active in many cell types, including testis and spermatozoa. It is a well-known ion transporter, but binding of ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K+ATPase, to Na+/K+ATPase in somatic cells initiates responses that are similar to signaling events associated with bovine sperm capacitation. The objectives of the present study were to demonstrate the presence of Na+/K+ATPase in bovine sperm and to investigate its role in the regulation of bovine sperm capacitation. The presence of Na+/K+ATPase in sperm from mature Holstein bulls was demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal antibody developed in mouse against the beta 1 polypeptide of Na+/K+ATPase. Binding of ouabain to Na+/K+ATPase inhibited motility (decreased progressive motility, average path velocity, and curvilinear velocity) and induced tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation but did not increase intracellular calcium levels in spermatozoa. Furthermore, binding of ouabain to Na+/K+ATPase induced depolarization of sperm plasma membrane. Therefore, binding of ouabain to Na+/K+ATPase induced sperm capacitation through depolarization of sperm plasma membrane and signaling via the tyrosine phosphorylation pathway without an appreciable increase in intracellular calcium. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the signaling role of Na+/K+ATPase in mammalian sperm capacitation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Biology of Reproduction
  • Source
    M Anzar · M M Buhr
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sperm-mediated DNA transfer can be used to transfer exogenous DNA into the oocyte for the production of transgenic animals. In spite of controversy in the literature, sperm-mediated DNA transfer is a simple and quick technique that can be used in routine breeding programs (AI, embryo transfer and IVF). The main objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the spontaneous uptake of exogenous DNA by bull spermatozoa. For this purpose, fresh and frozen spermatozoa (0.25 x 10(6)), from the same ejaculate from each of four bulls were co-incubated with fluorescent-labeled green fluorescent protein (GFP) and chloremphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmids at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Neither bull nor plasmid significantly affected the uptake of exogenous DNA. However, transfection efficiency was higher in frozen-thawed versus fresh spermatozoa (P<0.001). Regardless of whether transfected spermatozoa were alive or dead, all transfected spermatozoa were immotile. It can be concluded that a population of spermatozoa is present in bull semen which has the ability to uptake exogenous DNA spontaneously. There is tremendous scope to improve transfection efficiency of spermatozoa while maintaining motility; this needs to be achieved in order to more easily use this technique in transgenesis. However, live-transfected bull spermatozoa clearly can incorporate exogenous DNA and should be usable in intracytoplasmic sperm injection protocols.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2006 · Theriogenology

Publication Stats

2k Citations
111.79 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2013
    • University of Saskatchewan
      • • Department of Animal and Poultry Science
      • • College of Agriculture and Bioresources
      Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
  • 1992-2012
    • University of Guelph
      • • Department of Animal and Poultry Science
      • • Department of Population Medicine
      Guelph, Ontario, Canada
  • 2000
    • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
      Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 1989-1990
    • University of Manitoba
      • Department of Animal Science
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada