Article

Human Auditory System Response to Modulated Electromagnetic Energy

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  • Randomline, Inc
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Abstract

The intent of this paper is to bring a new phenomenon to the attention of physiologists. Using extremely low average power densities of electromagnetic energy, the perception of sounds was induced in normal and deaf humans. The effect was induced several hundred feet from the antenna the instant the transmitter was turned on, and is a function of carrier frequency and modulation. Attempts were made to match the sounds induced by electromagnetic energy and acoustic energy. The closest match occurred when the acoustic amplifier was driven by the rf transmitter's modulator. Peak power density is a critical factor and, with acoustic noise of approximately 80 db, a peak power density of approximately 275 mw/ cm ² is needed to induce the perception at carrier frequencies of 425 mc and 1,310 mc. The average power density can be at least as low as 400 μw/cm ² . The evidence for the various possible sites of the electromagnetic energy sensor are discussed and locations peripheral to the cochlea are ruled out.

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... Sound. Hissing, buzzing or fluttering sounds from ball lightning have been reported, which can be perfectly explained by the microwave hearing effect 48,49 . At 0.1 mJ/cm 2 , a microwave pulse (microsecond or shorter) at 0.2-3 GHz can induce an audible sound wave. ...
... Microwave can penetrate deeply into the tissue and cause an influence by thermal effects. Microwave hearing 48,49,56 is the lowest power effect on humans and occurs when the absorbed energy in the brain tissue reaches 10 μJ/g for a 10 μs pulse. For a typical adult brain with 14 cm in diameter and 1.4 kg in weight, we get an energy flux threshold of 0.1 mJ/cm 2 . ...
... For a typical adult brain with 14 cm in diameter and 1.4 kg in weight, we get an energy flux threshold of 0.1 mJ/cm 2 . Experiments 48,49 show this hearing effect induced by 0.2-3 GHz microwave pulses with 1− 100 μs in duration. Theoretical analysis reveals that rapid (~μs) temperature rise (~10 −6 degree) leads to a thermoelastic expansion of tissue, which launches an acoustic wave travelling by the skull to the inner ear. ...
Article
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Ball lightning, a fireball sometimes observed during lightnings, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a lightning stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball lightning, such as the occurrence site, relation to the lightning channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for lightning protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.
... Very little about the biological effects of EMR on living tissue appears in the literature until Frey (1961;1962) announced that he had discovered some peculiar tactile and auditory effects while exposing humans to pulsed radar at average power far too low to heat tissue significantly. The auditory effects, including clicks, hisses, or buzzes, were easily demonstrated; they were dubbed microwave hearing. ...
... Each 5 s , 1W cm 2 pulse produces the sensation of a distinct "click" or "pop" when directed at the head of a human with normal hearing for high frequencies. The loudness, according to Frey (1962) and others, may vary from barely perceptible to 60 dB or more. At 5 pulses per second, the duty cycle would be only 25 10 6   , making the time-averaged power just 25 W cm 2 . ...
... Because, then, according to this theory, almost none of the heard microwave energy could be delivered by the pulse edge transients, the thermoacoustic effect should be described as entirely a pulse envelope (low-pass) phenomenon. This alone would imply a different mechanism from that of Frey (1962), who reported that the sensations he was studying seemed to be associated with noise riding (high-passed) on each of his radar pulses. ...
Research
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Abstract For over sixty years, it has been reported that microwave electromagnetic radiation (EMR) had effects on humans which could not be explained by detectible heating of tissue. Auditory responses to radar, called microwave hearing, have been the best known of these phenomena. To account for microwave hearing, many studies in the literature have adopted a rate-of-heating hypothesis advanced by Foster and Finch in 1974. We show here that theoretical and experimental studies supporting this hypothesis are weaker than usually assumed. We develop a simple framework of understanding of EMR that may be used to explain microwave hearing as a nonthermal, nonacoustic effect. We then extend this approach to other contexts, pointing out several fundamental misconceptions confounding the field. EMR, especially wide-band EMR, primarily must have a nonthermal effect on living tissue before conversion to heat. Auditory and tactile sensations, central neurological disability, and blood pressure loss caused by EMR have been documented. Except microwave hearing, parameters of irradiation causing such effects have not been explored adequately and remain unknown. There appears not to be any forensic methodology to prove the cause of harm at nonthermal levels.
... 44 of the Proceedings of the IRE The advertisement described observations made in 194? on the hearing of sounds that oecurred at the repetition rate of a radar white the listener stood close to a horn antenna, When the observers first told their coworkers in the Laboratory of their hearing experiences, they encountered skepticism and rather pointed questions about their mental health. Later, Frey (1961Frey ( ,1962Frey ( ,1963) authored a series of papers in which he described the hearing phenomenon. Frey (1961) initiated research by selecting a number of persons who had sensed the phenomenon. ...
... In subsequent papers, Frey (1962Frey ( ,1963 reported an extended study of human subjects exposed to 216-, 425-' and 8900-MHz fields at various pulse widths' Depending ontheparameters of pulsing, i.e., pulse widthand repetition rate, the rf sound was perceived as a buzzing, ticking, hissing, or knocking sound that originated within or immediately behind the head' At 425 MHz, a pulse varying in width from 125 to 1000 lis was used' The threshold peak of power at that frequency was between 22g-21L mW/emz. When the 8'9-GHz transmitter was used. ...
... Preference for the shielded side shifted from about 50% before exposure to about ?0% during exposure. The levels of incident energy in this study are near the threshold of hearing if compared with the human data of Frey (1962). However, it should be emphasized that the effect is related to the quantity of absorbed energy, It has been shown theoretically \Dutney et al', tgiS), ana experimentatly (Gandhi et al',t911), that the applied frequency ot 1,2 GHz is near the resonant frequency of the rat, which could result in energy absorption one order of magnitude higher than that in a man exposed to microwaves with body axis parallel to the vector of the electric field. ...
Article
Full-text available
Absorption of pulsed microwave energy can produce an auditory sensation in human beings with normal hearing. The phenomenon manifests itself as a clicking, buzzing, or hissing sound depending on the modulatory characteristics of the microwaves. While the energy absorbed (∠10 μJ/g) and the resulting increment of temperature (∠10−6 °C) per pulse at the threshold of perception are small, most investigators of the phenomenon believe that it is caused by thermoelastic expansion. That is, one hears sound because a miniscule wave of pressure is set up within the head and is detected at the cochlea when the absorbed microwave pulse is converted to thermal energy. In this paper, we review literature that describes psychological, behavioral, and physiological observations as well as physical measurements pertinent to the microwave‐hearing phenomenon.
... The hypothesis of the occurrence of an auditory effect was raised because previous findings highlighted that pulsed HPEM signals induce the so-called microwave auditory effect or Frey effect, which was first described in 1961 by the American neuroscientist Allan H. Frey [13]. This effect is due to short-lived and low-scale heating (in the range of 10.5 • C-10.6 • C), which occurs in the head due to E-field exposure [14][15][16]. The hearing of microwave pulses involves electromagnetic waves with frequency ranges from tens of MHz to tens of GHz [15,16], which cause a mechanical shock due to thermo-elastic expansion. ...
... This effect is due to short-lived and low-scale heating (in the range of 10.5 • C-10.6 • C), which occurs in the head due to E-field exposure [14][15][16]. The hearing of microwave pulses involves electromagnetic waves with frequency ranges from tens of MHz to tens of GHz [15,16], which cause a mechanical shock due to thermo-elastic expansion. The thermo-elastic wave induces acoustic pressure, which travels by bone conduction to the inner ear, and activates the cochlear receptors via the same process as the one that is involved in normal hearing. ...
... While at the current stage, we do not have irrefutable proof of whether this auditory phenomenon actually occurred in exposed mice, it might be considered as a potential secondary effect associated with RF-induced thermal action. In any event, the eventual occurrence of this phenomenon has no evident detrimental health effects [16], and did not, in our case, correlate neither to animal weight loss nor did it affect tumor growth. ...
Article
Full-text available
High power radiofrequencies may transiently or permanently disrupt the functioning of electronic devices, but their effect on living systems remains unknown. With the aim to evaluate the safety and biological effects of narrow-band and wide-band high-power electromagnetic (HPEM) waves, we studied their effects upon exposure of healthy and tumor-bearing mice. In field experiments, the exposure to 1.5 GHz narrow-band electromagnetic fields with the incident amplitude peak value level in the range of 40 kV/m and 150 MHz wide-band electric fields with the amplitude peak value in the range of 200 kV/m, did not alter healthy and tumor-bearing animals’ growth, nor it had any impact on cutaneous murine tumors’ growth. While we did not observe any noticeable behavioral changes in mice during the exposure to narrow-band signals when wide-band HPEM signals were applied, mice could behave in a similar way as they respond to loud noise signals: namely, if a mouse was exploring the cage prior to signal application, it returned to companion mates when wide-band HPEM signals were applied. Moreover, the effect of wide-band signals was assessed on normal blood vessels permeability in real-time in dorsal-chamber-bearing mice exposed in a pilot study using wide-band signal applicators. Our pilot study conducted within the applicator and performed at the laboratory scale suggests that the exposure to wide-band signals with the amplitude of 47.5 kV/m does not result in increased vessel permeability.
... Prior to Frey's first review in 1961, there was no scientific report of hearing electromagnetic energy. After reproducing the audible effect of RF energy, Frey's subjects described the sound as a "click, buzz, hiss, knock, or chirp" (98)(99)(100). Through various experiments on humans, Frey reported that the ability to hear air-conducted sound in the range of 5-8 kHz is a requirement for hearing RF energy (98,101,102). ...
... Initially, the mechanism behind RF hearing was thought to involve direct stimulation of neurons (99). However, Frey and colleagues showed that RF energy stimulated the cochlea, producing cochlear microphonics (electrical potentials), in a manner similar to acoustic stimuli (92,105). ...
Article
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Objective: We aim to examine the existing literature on, and identify knowledge gaps in, the study of adverse animal and human audiovestibular effects from exposure to acoustic or electromagnetic waves that are outside of conventional human hearing. Design/Setting/Participants: A review was performed, which included searches of relevant MeSH terms using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. Primary outcomes included documented auditory and/or vestibular signs or symptoms in animals or humans exposed to infrasound, ultrasound, radiofrequency, and magnetic resonance imaging. The references of these articles were then reviewed in order to identify primary sources and literature not captured by electronic search databases. Results: Infrasound and ultrasound acoustic waves have been described in the literature to result in audiovestibular symptomology following exposure. Technology emitting infrasound such as wind turbines and rocket engines have produced isolated reports of vestibular symptoms, including dizziness and nausea and auditory complaints, such as tinnitus following exposure. Occupational exposure to both low frequency and high frequency ultrasound has resulted in reports of wide-ranging audiovestibular symptoms, with less robust evidence of symptomology following modern-day exposure via new technology such as remote controls, automated door openers, and wireless phone chargers. Radiofrequency exposure has been linked to both auditory and vestibular dysfunction in animal models, with additional historical evidence of human audiovestibular disturbance following unquantifiable exposure. While several theories, such as the cavitation theory, have been postulated as a cause for symptomology, there is extremely limited knowledge of the pathophysiology behind the adverse effects that particular exposure frequencies, intensities, and durations have on animals and humans. This has created a knowledge gap in which much of our understanding is derived from retrospective examination of patients who develop symptoms after postulated exposures. Lubner et al. Audiovestibular Symptomology Following Energy Exposure Conclusion and Relevance: Evidence for adverse human audiovestibular symptomology following exposure to acoustic waves and electromagnetic energy outside the spectrum of human hearing is largely rooted in case series or small cohort studies. Further research on the pathogenesis of audiovestibular dysfunction following acoustic exposure to these frequencies is critical to understand reported symptoms.
... Winey has also shown radio-protective effects of torsion fields on microwave heated water when fed to plants as compared to controls. The biological harm of non-native EMF's is well documented (see Alan Frey) (Frey 1962;1993). https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/the-work-of-allan-h-frey/ ...
... https://www.cellphonetaskforce.org/the-work-of-allan-h-frey/ In light of Frey's work (Frey 1962;Frey 1993) on relatively weak microwave radiation, the proposed introduction of 5G is arguably a far 'Braver Newer' world than even mRNA gene therapies (Rubik 2021). ...
Preprint
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Adverse events of myocarditis, pericarditis, and thrombosis, temporally associated with mRNA vaccination(s) and/or mRNA vaccine boosters, have been reported during post-marketing safety surveillance in the U.S. CDC VAERS database and 2021 CDC guidance to physicians. An interim report unexpectedly revealed inflammatory biomarker elevations in vaccine recipients. During review of considerable published research on the Sanarelli-Shwartzman phenomenon (SSP) and the use of nucleic acids as vaccine adjuvants, a novel, hypothesis is proposed. Even today, after being studied for over a century, the pathophysiology of the SSP is not fully understood. Motivated by a paper from 1950, titled "General Adaptation Syndrome" by Hans Selye, and recent published research by Korean investigators, a novel, non-conventional hypothesis was generated. Gluten and lectin sensitivity are cited as examples of sensitizing events of the SSP, for which we propose ensemble hydrophobic chiroptical catalysis may have therapeutic benefit. Under the ensemble HCC hypothesis, we propose that inflammatory stress and scurvy promote loss of chirality control, anomeric fidelity, phenotypic stability, and immune function, both humoral and cell-mediated, with the dialyzable transfer factor, L-ascorbic acid, and spin water playing central roles. It is proposed that therapeutic synergy of L-ascorbic acid, bioflavonoids, and corticosteroids in countering the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen arises from memory of chirality which originated during their biosynthesis. It is proposed that ensemble HCC is powered by radiant and or zero-point energy (quantum vacuum fluctuations) which may support a paradigm shift to supramolecular biology. The distinction between supramolecular biology and supramolecular xenobiology is highlighted.
... (i) Microwave hearing: The theoretical basis that could support a hypothetical effect of EMF specifically on OHC could be derived from the phenomenon of microwave hearing in humans and animals, and from the following fundamental studies using animal models. The observation that pulse RF fields could induce an auditory effect, i.e., an auditory sensation, both in humans (Frey, 1962;Frey and Messenger, 1973) and in animals (Frey 1967;Guy et al., 1975;Lebovitz and Seaman, 1977;Taylor and Ashleman, 1974) raised the idea to investigate this microwave hearing phenomenon. The most commonly accepted hypothesis for this is the thermo-elastic expansion of the soft tissues inside the head (Foster and Fynch, 1974;Guy et al., 1975). ...
... The rationale for this research was based on the following observations and assumptions, (i) Microwave hearing phenomenon, suggesting that pulsed electromagnetic fields could induce an auditory sensation, both in humans (Frey, 1962;Frey and Messenger, 1973) and in animals (Frey, 1967;Lebovitz and Seaman, 1977) (ii) Mobile phone use necessitates holding the phone in close proximity to the ear, thus exposing the auditory system to the near-field of phone radiation. ...
Article
The discovery of otoacoustic emissions (OAE) has advanced our understanding of cochlear mechanics and the efferent auditory system. OAE are sounds generated within normal cochlea either spontaneously or in response to stimulation. The ability to measure OAE non-invasively, objectively and quickly makes a powerful tool to probe cochlear mechanics. Stimulation of the efferent auditory system causes changes in cochlear amplification processes and hence changes characteristics of OAE. Contralateral acoustic stimulation, commonly called OAE suppression, provides an index of the efferent auditory system (specifically, medial olivocochlear bundle) functioning. OAE is also a sensitive tool to demonstrate subtle changes in cochlear functioning caused by various pathological (e.g., noise exposure, aspirin toxicity, etc.) and non-pathological (e.g.,posture, efferent stimulation) factors. Although OAE are frequently used in both clinic and laboratory, their generation mechanism was not clearly understood until recently. It is currently accepted that distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) are composed of two separate components, named wave- and place-fixed emissions. They not only arise from two different cochlear locations but also from two fundamentally different processes. Wave-fixed components arise from distortion sources and manifest a phase that is almost independent of frequency, where as, place-fixed components arise from reflection sources and have a phase that increases systematically with frequency. The overall aim of the work presented in this thesis was to use various OAE methods to examine cochlear function and the efferent auditory system. A related objective was to substantiate the functional relevance of the efferent auditory system in speech-in-noise perception, in order to address the clinical significance of measuring OAE suppression. Cochlear functioning was potentially manipulated by three treatments separately: one extrinsic (electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phone) and two intrinsic (posture and efferent activation). Potential changes in auditory function due to mobile phone exposure were evaluated in a within-subject study in a double-blind design (n=35).A comprehensive examination of the auditory system was conducted using audiometry,OAE and auditory event related potentials (ERP). The second experiment used mechanism-based DPOAE to investigate posture-induced changes in cochlear functioning (n=15). Similar DPOAE measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of contralateral acoustic stimulation on cochlear functioning (n=14). The last experiment examined the relationship between contralateral suppression of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) and recognition of speech in noise (n=13). Results indicate that (i) acute exposure to mobile phone radiation does not cause any significant changes in auditory functions measured by TEOAE suppression, DPOAE or ERP (however, there were changes in auditory thresholds at 6 and 8 kHz), (ii) posture induced cochlear changes and contralateral acoustic stimulation cause significantly greater reduction in place-fixed components than wave-fixed components, and (iii) the efferent auditory system plays an anti-masking role in speech-in-noise recognition. It appears that wave- and place-fixed components are differentiallysensitive to changes in cochlear functioning. Collectively, the present results provide emerging empirical support for the need to separate the wave- and place-fixed components in DPOAE measurements. Because of inherent differences in the generation of wave- and place-fixed components, it is suggested that the separation of the components may improve the efficiency of DPOAE-based measures of cochlear dysfunction and also, of the efferent auditory system function.
... Among physical parameters, it is mostly dependent on shape of pulses and energy in one pulse. If the PD at peak value was relatively high, 267 mW/cm 2 at the duty cycle of 0.0015 and a frequency of 1.3 GHz fitting into the range of mobile phone carrier frequencies, threshold value expressed in units of average incident PD was 0.4 mW/cm 2 (Frey, 1962). At first, MW hearing was repeatedly dismissed as an artifact until it was demonstrated in rats in a carefully controlled study by King et al. (Justesen, 1975;King et al., 1971). ...
... Auditory analyzer is an important part of human sensory system, it's functional state determines the ability of a person to perform different specific kinds of activity. It has been studied as a receiver and a source for sound and electromagnetic waves 1,2,3,4 . We suggest using pulse diagnostics in order to take into account the physiological background of auditory system functioning. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper discusses questions of human auditory state evaluation with technical means. It considers the disadvantages of existing clinical audiometry methods and systems. It is proposed to use method for evaluating of auditory analyzer state by means of pulsometry to get the medical study more objective and efficient. It provides for use of two optoelectronic sensors located on the carotid artery and ear lobe, Using this method the biotechnical system for evaluation and stimulation of human auditory analyzer stare wad developed. Its hardware and software were substantiated. Different modes of simulation in the designed system were tested and the influence of the procedure on a patient was studied.
... Also, the dopamine-opiate system may be involved in headaches and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems [37][38][39] . However, since Frey's group first reported headaches occurring after microwave energy exposure at approximately the same frequencies and incident energies that present day MP emit 40 , the exact mechanism under this association is still not fully understood now. ...
Article
Full-text available
Headache is increasingly being reported as a detrimental effect of mobile phone (MP) use. However, studies aimed to investigate the association between MP use and headache yielded conflicting results. To assess the consistency of the data on the topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cross-sectional studies. Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved and screened, and 7 cross-sectional studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We found that the risk of headache was increased by 38% in MP user compared with non-MP user (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18–1.61, p < 0.001). Among MP users, the risk of headache was also increased in those who had longer daily call duration (2–15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34–1.98, p < 0.001; >15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.76–3.54, p < 0.001) and higher daily call frequency (2–4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07–1.76, p < 0.001; >4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.78–3.58, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that MP use is significantly associated with headache, further epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to affirm and understand this association.
... These phenomena were investigated in several waves of scientific study, but the proposed mechanisms of action were subjected to strong criticism. In his studies, Frey [37] revealed that utilization of electromagnetic pulses with carrier frequencies ranging from 500 MHz to 9 GHz resulted in acoustic-like perception in human subjects. Of particular interest is that 'radio-hearing' was observed even in clinically deaf subjects. ...
Article
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Since regular radio broadcasts started in the 1920s, the exposure to humanmade electromagnetic fields has steadily increased. These days we are not only exposed to radio waves but also other frequencies from a variety of sources, mainly from communication and security devices. Considering that nearly all biological systems interact with electromagnetic fields, understanding the affects is essential for safety and technological progress. This paper systematically reviews the role and effects of static and pulsed radio frequencies (100–109 Hz), millimetre waves (MMWs) or gigahertz (109– 1011 Hz), and terahertz (1011–1013 Hz) on various biomolecules, cells and tissues. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to affect the activity in cell membranes (sodium versus potassium ion conductivities) and non-selective channels, transmembrane potentials and even the cell cycle. Particular attention is given to millimetre and terahertz radiation due to their increasing utilization and, hence, increasing human exposure. MMWs are known to alter active transport across cell membranes, and it has been reported that terahertz radiation may interfere with DNA and cause genomic instabilities. These and other phenomena are discussed along with the discrepancies and controversies from published studies.
... Nevertheless, there is a huge body of evidence of a substantial impact ( [1][2][3][4], see, especially, the book by Binhi [5] and the references therein). One of such manifestations is given by the microwave auditory effect or Allan Frey hearing effect [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16], an auditory perception of microwave pulses by humans and animals, which earlier has been considered mysterious. Now, the mystery of this effect is completely resolved within a thermoelastic theory [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] of acoustic wave production in closed resonators (e.g., human or animal head) filled with microwave absorbing tissues having a very large water content (think about heating of food in microwave oven, to realize a possible physical reason). ...
Article
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[-15]Magnetic nanoparticles are met across many biological species ranging from magnetosensitive bacteria, fishes, bees, bats, rats, birds, to humans. They can be both of biogenetic origin and due to environmental contamination, being either in paramagnetic or ferromagnetic state. The energy of such naturally occurring single-domain magnetic nanoparticles can reach up to 10-20 room k B T in the magnetic field of the Earth, which naturally led to supposition that they can serve as sensory elements in various animals. This work explores within a stochastic modeling framework a fascinating hypothesis of magnetosensitive ion channels with magnetic nanoparticles serving as sensory elements, especially, how realistic it is given a highly dissipative viscoelastic interior of living cells and typical sizes of nanoparticles possibly involved.
... Limited work has been performed examining the use of microwaves to stimulate sound directly in a user [4,5]. However, the communication has been limited to barely audible clicks (no complex messages) due to the inefficiencies in the transmission through bone and tissue. ...
Article
We describe a means of communication in which a user with no external receiver hears an audible audio message directed only at him/her. A laser transmits the message, which is encoded upon a modulated laser beam and sent directly to the receiver’s ear via the photoacoustic effect. A 1.9 μm thulium laser matched to an atmospheric water vapor absorption line is chosen to maximize sound pressure while maintaining eye-safe power densities. We examine the photoacoustic transfer function describing this generation of audible sound and the important operational parameters, such as laser spot size, and their impact on a working system. https://www.osapublishing.org/ol/fulltext.cfm?uri=ol-44-3-622&id=404226
... However what is very different about these individuals is their sensitivity to ambient electromagnetic fields. More than fifty years ago Frey (1962) demonstrated that GHz range transmitted fields pulsed within the EEG-frequency band could induce auditory experiences. We have measured GHz power densities in the 10 mW · m −2 range frequently within modern habitats. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Since 1980 we have assessed individuals who report electromagnetic sensitivity and “hearing voices” who do not display formal thought disorder but are clearly distressed by their experiences. Their intellectual levels and memory scores are average to above average with no neuropsychological impairment although right prefrontal deficits have been discernable. They exhibit experimentally verifiable sensitivity to physiologically-patterned magnetic fields at intensities they could encounter in their habitats. Presentation of Hypothesis Considering the previous evidence that the parahippocampal region in the right hemisphere is sensitive to geomagnetic and experimentally generated weak, physiologically-patterned magnetic fields, these individual should display anomalous activity within the temporal lobes according to classic electroencephalographic measurements but with specific enhancements of current source density as measured by Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) in the right parahippocampal region. Testing of Hypothesis A middle-aged woman who displayed characteristics typical of this population exhibited persistent and conspicuous enhanced power in the low beta-range over the temporal lobes and specific changes in current source densities within the left inferior temporal gyrus and right parahippocampal region. Implications of Hypothesis This configuration could be helpful to differentiate this population. Given the increasing density and complexity of electromagnetic fields generated by commercial and private sources the prevalence of this subpopulation is expected to increase during the next decades.
... It has been demonstrated that experiences and responses can be evoked by means other than standard transduction pathways. Although brief exposures to weak radiofrequency electromagnetic fields [1] or aurora-related magnetic variations [2] pulsed within the audible range have produced reliable simple auditory sensations, more recent studies [3] have shown that pulsed magnetic fields applied over the left frontal lobe can increase the acceptance of false statements as true. The latter occurred without the subjects' "awareness". ...
Article
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The audible energies associated with intense meaningful words significantly affect our experience and responses. Personal listening devices (such as music players) emit weak-intensity magnetic fields, that are shadowed by the sonic patterns, which have been associated with the induction of affective experiences experimentally within the laboratory. In the present study only the electromagnetic (EM) equivalents (1 to 5 microTesla) of emotional words as well as intensity-matched 60 Hz sine wave fields were presented across the temporal lobes. The EM equivalents were produced by converting a digital audio signal into an electromagnetic field. We found that subjects selected significantly more words with the same pleasantness as the target word presented as an EM equivalent. We also found an enhancement of the effect for the presentation of unpleasant-active words. These results suggest that the electromagnetic component of the spoken word from electronics may mediate emotional information that affects decision-making.
... Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses (Dwyer and Leeper, 1978;Pall, 2016). EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades (Liboff, 1984;Blackman et al., 1985;Smith et al., 1987;Pall, 2013Pall, , 2015, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells (Irmak et al., 2002;Zmyslony et al., 2004;Friedman et al., 2007;Blank and Goodman, 2009;De Iuliis et al., 2009;Georgiou, 2010;Avci et al., 2012;Jing et al., 2012;Bilgici et al., 2013;Burlaka et al., 2013) as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions (Frey, 1961;Thomas et al., 1986;Carrubba et al., 2007;Nittby et al., 2009;Xu et al., 2010;Molot, 2013;Yakymenko et al., 2016;Pall, 2016;Kim et al., 2017) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Salford et al., 2008;Nittby et al., 2009). Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF (Maher et al., 2016). ...
Article
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as “Microwave syndrome”, is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings. Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems. It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses. More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.
... More generally, thermoacoustics refers to generation of acoustic signals by heating. In the early 1960's thermoacoustics was attributed to audible detection of 1✉ 1 1 microwave pulses, even by deaf study volunteers [2]. By the early 1980's, photoacoustic spectroscopy and pulse oximetry were used in commercial [3] and medical applications, respectively. ...
Chapter
This conference paper provides a cursory overview of thermoacoustic phenomena and attempts to highlight aspects that may be unfamiliar to the mathematical community or could benefit from more rigorous mathematical analysis. A new clinical application, thermoacoustic range verification during particle therapy, is presented. The goal is to ground expectations and generate further interest in thermoacoustics within the mathematical community.
... 22 Specifically, this presumption would argue that the Frey effect, which describes auditory effects caused by pulsed or modulated radio frequencies, was being used for hostile purposes. 23 Frey's original experiments were conducted in the 1960s and used electromagnetic energy to induce the perception of sounds in both normal hearing and deaf humans. These proposed explanations inherently imply that the experiences of American and Canadian diplomats in Cuba were the direct result of hostile action intended to do harm with some experimental weapon. ...
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Special Operations Forces have made brain health a medical priority in recent years, and new guidance identified a new challenge-unconventionally acquired brain injury (UBI). Although this emerging condition is described as a cluster of neurosensory and cognitive symptoms with unknown etiology/ origin, there remain critical questions about how this diagnosis differs from other brain injuries. More importantly, there are limited recommendations about how medical personnel should approach the problem. The current discussion will provide context and information about UBI based on higher guidance and will also review the scant literature to provide context. Foremost, UBI can be distinguished from traumatic brain injury (TBI) largely due to an unknown point of injury. The described symptoms otherwise appear to be largely the same as TBI. Likewise, the recommended course of treatment is to follow the Clinical Practice Guidelines for mild TBI/TBI even if the injury is an actual or suspected UBI. Personnel must be careful to avoid entering sensitive information into the medical record, which may be particularly challenging if identifying the cause involves classified information about an unconventional weapon. Finally, we briefly discuss the literature about several suspected incidents fitting UBI diagnostic criteria, and we conclude with five primary takeaways for medical personnel to follow.
... Among physical parameters, it is mostly dependent on shape of pulses and energy in one pulse. If the PD at peak value was relatively high, 267 mW/cm 2 at the duty cycle of 0.0015 and a frequency of 1.3 GHz fitting into the range of mobile phone carrier frequencies, threshold value expressed in units of average incident PD was 0.4 mW/cm 2 (Frey, 1962). At first, MW hearing was repeatedly dismissed as an artifact until it was demonstrated in rats in a carefully controlled study by King et al. (Justesen, 1975;King et al., 1971). ...
... Although these events have previously been referred to as "sonic attacks" (Tumolo, 2019), it has been well known since the 1960's that a series of microwave pulses to the head may be sensed as an audible noise (e.g., chirping, buzzing, or clicking) (Frey, 1961(Frey, , 1962. Originally referred to as "RF hearing", it was initially observed that subjects standing up to hundreds of feet away from a transmitter could hear the audible noises. ...
Article
Following the mysterious health attacks on U.S. diplomats in Cuba in 2016, the cause of concussion-like symptoms concurrent with strange noises heard by the diplomats remains undetermined. A wide range of possible causes of the sensations have been proposed: pulsed microwave exposure, infrasound acoustic devices, pesticides/neurotoxins, and even mass hysteria (psychogenic illness). Here, we numerically examine the pulsed microwave exposure hypothesis and the simulated mechanical response of brain tissue. A computational model is used to examine the influence of various spatially varying temperature gradients and pulse durations on the mechanical response of brain tissue. We show that a stress-focusing effect due to a rapid temperature increase may result in brain tissue strains larger than the initially applied thermal strains.
... That electromagnetic energy can directly induce the experience of sound has been known since the historical experiments of Frey (1962). He investigated the perception of sounds, even by those subjects who were clinically deaf, centimeters to hundreds of meters from MHz and GHz transmitters. ...
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Infrasound displays a special capacity to affect human health and adaptation because its frequencies and amplitudes converge with those generated by the human body. Muscle sounds and whole-body vibrations are predominately within the 5- to 40-Hz range. The typical amplitudes of the oscillations are within 1–50 μm, which is equivalent to the pressures of about 1 Pa and energies in the order of 10−11 W m−2. Infrasound sources from the natural environment originate from winds, microbaroms, geomagnetic activity, and microseisms and can propagate for millions of meters. Cultural sources originate from air moving through duct systems within buildings, large machinery, and more recently, wind turbines. There are also unknown sources of infrasound. It is important to differentiate the effects of infrasound from the awareness or experience of its presence. Moderate strength correlations occur between the incidences of infrasound and reports of nausea, malaise, fatigue, aversion to the area, non-specific pain, and sleep disturbances when pressure levels exceed about 50 db for protracted periods. Experimental studies have verified these effects. Their validity is supported by convergent quantitative biophysical solutions. Because cells interact through the exchange of minute quanta of energy that corresponds with remarkably low levels of sound pressure produced by natural phenomena and wind turbines upon the body and its cavities, traditional standards for safety and quality of living might not be optimal.
... Uno di questi effetti è rappresentato dall'effetto uditivo indotto dalle microonde, chiamato effetto uditivo di Allan Frey. Si tratta di una percezione degli impulsi a microonde da parte di esseri umani e animali, che in precedenza era stata considerata misteriosa (Frey 1962). Ora, il mistero di questo effetto è completamente risolto all'interno di una teoria di acustica termoelastica, tipica dei tessuti con un contenuto d'acqua molto elevato (si pensi al riscaldamento del cibo nel forno a microonde, per realizzare una possibile ragione fisica). ...
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... The effect was first observed and brought to notice of the scientific community by a neuroscientist Allan Frey and hence it's also known as Frey effect. [1] Of the competing theories explaining the mechanism of Microwave Hearing Effect, some prominent researchers have favored the thermo-elastic stress model [2], in which sudden heating in the order of 10 -6 degrees C, cause brain tissue to expand suddenly, resulting in an acoustic wave to be heard at the ear. Disagreements have remained, however, as the theory did not explain why some researchers could not detect the normal "microphonic" electrical signals from the cochlea that would be expected (microphonics were later seen, but only under somewhat different conditions), nor could it explain why a 2in square metal shielding could block the effect, but only if it was placed in front of the ear. ...
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The phenomenon of Microwave Hearing Effect(MHE) can be explained by assuming the inner ear specifically the Human Cochlea to act as a receiving antenna for pulsed Microwaves. The spiral structure of the Cochlea picks up these incoming waves and demodulates it due to its directional conductivity and a net voltage is induced which explains the audible clicks as observed in MHE. Further, the maximum Electromagnetic absorption is observed near the side of the head where the cochlea is located.
... The MAE, also referred to as "microwave hearing" or the "Frey effect" due to its discovery by Allan Frey in 1961 (7,8), was initially observed when subjects standing up to hundreds of feet away from a radar transponder could hear an audible tonal noise (e.g., chirping, buzzing, or clicking). The scientific underpinnings of the MAE were controversial for the first several years (9)(10)(11). ...
Article
When considering safety standards for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave energy, the dominant concerns pertain to a thermal effect. However, in the case of high-power pulsed RF/microwave energy, a rapid thermal expansion can lead to stress waves within the body. In this study, a computational model is used to estimate the temperature profile in the human brain resulting from exposure to various RF/microwave incident field parameters. The temperatures are subsequently used to simulate the resulting mechanical response of the brain. Our simulations show that, for certain extremely high-power microwave exposures (permissible by current safety standards), very high stresses may occur within the brain that may have implications for neuropathological effects. Although the required power densities are orders of magnitude larger than most real-world exposure conditions, they can be achieved with devices meant to emit high-power electromagnetic pulses in military and research applications.
... Brief but intense pulses of radiofrequency (RF) energy can elicit auditory sensations when absorbed in the head of an individual, an effect known as the microwave auditory or "Frey effect" after the first investigator to examine the phenomenon (1). The effect is known to arise from thermoacoustically (TA)-induced acoustic waves in the head (2). ...
Article
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Brief but intense pulses of radiofrequency (RF) energy can elicit auditory sensations when absorbed in the head of an individual, an effect known as the microwave auditory or “Frey effect” after the first investigator to examine the phenomenon (1). The effect is known to arise from thermoacoustically (TA)-induced acoustic waves in the head (2). Lin has proposed that the Frey effect may be linked to unexplained health problems reported by U.S. officers in Cuba and elsewhere, the so-called Havana syndrome (3). The failure to detect microwave exposure to the affected individuals lends no support to this hypothesis, and we do not speculate about the cause of the symptoms. The question remains: whether the auditory effect can be “weaponized,” i.e., used to harass or harm an individual. For reasons of effect size and practicality this appears unlikely, but the lack of publicly available information about existing high power RF technology and uncertainties about thresholds for adverse effects does not allow full resolution of the matter.
Article
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Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness". Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome.
Article
Background: Psychiatrists frequently evaluate complaints of remote sound transmission. Aim: Evidence for technologies capable of remote sound or voice transmission isolated to individuals is surveyed along with target tracking capacity that can maintain apparent psychosis. Method: Examination of government reports, engineering databases, the patent database post 1976, PubMed, and the Internet for available pertinent authentic sources. Results: Ultrasound and radio frequency voice transmission are described as methods to remotely isolate voice to individuals. Accounts of ultrasound and radio frequency energy forms used on people also exist. Conclusion: Evidence indicates development of technologies capable of remotely isolating sound and voice to an individual. Covert misuse of such technologies would result in simulated hallucination, which has no diagnostic recognition.
Chapter
In vivo and in vitro studies of nervous tissues exposed to microwave radiation are reported. It is shown that the conduction and transmission latencies and amplitudes of evoked potentials in both the CNS of anesthetized cats, isolated nerves of cats, and ganglia of rabbits are affected by CW microwaves in a manner very similar to that of localized conduction heat. Temperature rises are always associated with any observable changes of the measured characteristics in the nervous tissues exposed to CW irradiation. The threshold of occurrence of latency changes falls between 2.5 – 5.0 W/kg of absorbed power density in the affected tissues which is about one-quarter to one-half of the normal metabolic rate of brain tissue. This absorbed power corresponds to 5 –10 mW/cm2 and 10 – 25 mW/cm2 incident upon a cat head and a human head, respectively. Pulsed microwaves of high peak intensity and low average power induce a hearing phenomenon in man. Electrophysiological studies on cats indicate that pulsed microwaves interact with mammalian auditory systems in a manner similar to that of conventional acoustic perception. A possible mechanism of microwave interaction is the acoustic energy release from rapid thermal expansion due to power absorption in the gross structure of the head.
Chapter
Ex vivo thermoacoustic (TA) imaging of large porcine specimens demonstrates the feasibility of performing whole organ TA imaging. A smaller system optimized for ex vivo prostate cancer imaging has been developed and is currently in use to determine whether the TA contrast mechanism can visualize prostate cancer. Electromagnetic design of the testbeds is detailed. Choice of irradiation frequency is explained and irradiation pulsewidth is matched to transducer bandwidth. Power deposition in specimens is estimated from directional coupler measurements during scanning. These measurements confirm that tissue heating is microdegrees per irradiation pulse.
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The methodology and the use of anecdotal data are considered together with observations by professionally trained observers, surveys, individual observations, hypotheses of auroral audibility, and the case for brush discharge and aurorally induced electric fields. The characteristics and analysis of auroral sound events are discussed, giving attention to the frequency of occurrence, the geographic extent, latitudinal dependence, seasonal dependency, diurnal variation, sunspot cycle dependency, questions of the correlation with magnetic activity, auroral characteristics, the weather, the effect of altitude and terrain, and effects on animals. (IAA)
Article
The pressure waves developing at the cochlea by the irradiation of the body with a plane wave microwave pulse are obtained by numerical simulation, employing a two-step finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. First, the specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution is obtained by solving the Maxwell equations on a FDTD grid. Second, the temperature rise due to this SAR distribution is used to formulate the thermoelastic equations of motion, which are discretized and solved by the FDTD method. The calculations are performed for anatomically based full body human models, as well as for a head model. The dependence of the pressure amplitude at the cochlea on the frequency, the direction of propagation, and the polarization of the incident electromagnetic radiation, as well as on the pulse width, was investigated. Bioelectromagnetics 35:XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Abstract Living cells react defensively and start to synthesize stress proteins when exposed to potentially harmful stimuli. Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are among the many different environmental stimuli that initiate stress protein synthesis. Although there is greater energy transfer and heating due to EMF at higher frequencies, there is no greater stress response. The cellular stress response is far more sensitive to EMF than to an increase in temperature. It should be obvious that an EMF safety standard should be based on the more sensitive, natural biological response.
Conference Paper
Herein I present the evidence to support the hypothesis that the microwave communication with the application of microwave auditory effect causes of schizophrenia. Since the microwave communication had been developing during the WWII, automaton in use for the microwave communication is presumed to be developed in the same period. The Dartmouth AI conference in 1956 and the monograph entitled "Automata Studies" published in 1956 declassified automaton or finite-state machines, and the Logic Theorist by Newell et al. showed that the automaton was not only the abstract entity in the discipline of mathematics but the real entity in electrical engineering. Scientific philosophy by Bertrand Russell such as logical atomism is the origin of natural language processing such as LISP and the Logic Theorist, and the corresponding machine had been classified.
Article
This paper reviews the effects of electromagnetic fields, from DC to microwaves, on biological systems. Electrical properties of biological substances are briefly described. At DC, strong magnetic fields and steady DC electric fields are reported to produce several effects. At low frequencies, interest of many researchers is centered around stimulation, involuntary movements and shock hazards. produced by currents flowing through the body. Results of several experimental studies are cited. With shifts to higher frequencies, there seem to arise several points which need further clarification. At ultra-high and microwave frequencies, situations are quite different. Most of the effects produced are usually considered attributable to heat developed by electromagnetic energy dissipation, although several papers point out non-thermal effects. Calculations by electromagnetic theory and some experimental results are described. It is emphasized that several points need urgent solution.
Chapter
Research conducted during the past three decades has shown that exposure of laboratory animals to radiofrequency radiation can cause a variety of behavioral changes. These changes range from subtle effects such as perception of microwave-induced sound to complete cessation of behavioral performance due to severe hyperthermia. A central theme of this research has been to determine a relationship between specific absorption rate (SAR) and adverse consequences of exposure to microwave radiation. Studies evaluating microwave exposure on the performance of well-learned opreant tasks have been the primary avenue for determining this relationship. This information provides a scientific data base from which safe exposure standards can be derived.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the aspects of sound perception that have been explored by researchers in recent history. The outer ear channels acoustic energy to the middle ear, which channels transduced mechanical energy to the inner ear, which in turn transduces mechanical into electrical energy before it is sent through the auditory nerve to the brain for processing. The method of sound energy transduction is the most efficient method by which sound is perceived; however, there are several other documented ways in which sound energy can be sensed by the brain. These are bone conduction, cartilage conduction, tinnitus, and electromagnetic hearing. In addition to diseases of the auditory system, there is a segment of the population that is hypersensitive to sound and electromagnetic fields, which can have debilitating effects. These are briefly discussed in the chapter.
Chapter
Volta in 1800 first reported evoking hearing sensation by direct electrical stimulation. Since that time many experimenters have produced a hearing sensation by placing one electrode in the ear canal which had been filled with a conducting fluid and the other electrode on the arm. This phenomenon of hearing was named “electrophonic hearing”by Stevens (1937). Stevens removed the wires from a speaker of a radio set and connected electrodes to the wires. The result was highly distorted music and speech which was not intelligible. By adding DC polarizing voltage both music and speech became “dramatically clear”compared to the previous report of “a mere sequence of sounds.”Davis and Silverman in 1962 stated that electrophonic research had practically ceased because it offered so little promise.
Chapter
“Electromagnetic Fields,” is a review of the current information on the toxicity and carcinogenicity of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields and humans. The chapter focuses on the area of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes electric power frequencies, radio waves, microwave frequencies, and mobile phone frequencies.
Article
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Main noise source in the city of Havana is road traffic, but many noise complaints are connected to a mechanical source and audio exposures as level induced from air conditioners or fun which escapes from entertainment places. Last year some complaints by noise exposure to the so called “noise attacks” were referred by American diplomats. This paper intends to present a sound characterization of possible noise events experienced including audible structure of this acoustic episodes (target sound). Article could contribute to clarify nature of the so-called noise attacks which have worsened the diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba. Some recordings of the target sound supplied were assessed and also, background noise was featured through sound level measurements. It was watched that background noise at night is connected several times to presence or absence of crickets calls in green spaces at a residential neighborhood, Western of Havana. Target sound is described on behalf its possible noise level and frequency structure, by two main shapes, one of them reflects a broadband noise with a high pitch overlapped. The other one has no high frequency (pitch). Several target sounds episodes recorded show certain likeness to the background noise with cricket sounds added. Ultrasounds and microwaves are not supported as source of target sounds connected to noise attacks. Sound estimated levels and frequency structure do not support hypothesis of induced health impairment. Sometimes target sound level is weak, close to background. Directional sound seems not able to penetrate isolated built environment.
Article
The impact of electromagnetic waves on health has been clearly established by many studies in recent decades. No State, with the exception of Russia, takes any real precautions in terms of standards for the population. Conflicts of interest and political lies are used to hide the truth about the dangers of electromagnetic pollution. In addition, it would seem that other sources of radiation than the most well-known ones (mobile phones, digital enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) phones, bluetooth, base stations, Wi-Fi, 4G, 5G) come into play. A system such as HAARP (High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program), as well as directed wave beams (related to past and recent scandals) must be analyzed and considered in a comprehensive way to understand why the wave level is only increasing despite the considerable amount of scientific work demonstrating that the standards are not adequate to maintain public health. Thus, official documents show that the impact of electromagnetic waves is not only physical and biological. Indeed, the climate and the behavior of the population are also targeted.
Chapter
This chapter first addresses the privacy issues and concerns arising from Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable technology, including those related to health data and data collected from children. It next turns to safety and health issues, and then discusses social and psychological impacts of these technologies. Further, the chapter examines regulatory actions in the United States set by the federal government, including the Federal Trade Commission, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, and by private companies practicing self‐regulation within the industry. As a means of comparison, the chapter also discusses the regulatory actions taken by the European Union. As IoT and wearable technology continue to evolve, it is important to stay informed about risks and safety standards and make sure products meet regulatory requirements.
Article
Due to the pressing need for electromagnetic interference and radar stealth, microwave absorbers have garnered considerable attention. Through chemical co-precipitation and in-situ polymerization, we synthesize a ternary composite containing reduced graphene oxide, Fe3O4 with flower-like nanostructures, and polyaniline (PANI). To fine-tune the impedance matching and corrosion resistance of composite materials, the conductive PANI was densely coated on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/flower-like Fe3O4(f-Fe3O4). The ternary composite exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance. In comparison to rGO/f-Fe3O4(1:10), which has a minimum reflection loss (RLmin) of -32.81 dB at 10.61 GHz and a 5.15 GHz effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) (7.34-12.49 GHz), rGO/f-Fe3O4(1:10)@PANI has an RLmin of -46.49 dB at 9.93 GHz with a 2.5 mm thickness and an EAB of 4.25 (8.90-13.15 GHz). The results indicate that the addition of the PANI anticorrosion coating layer has no discernible effect on the final microwave absorption performance. This article also examines the effect of rGO weight ratio on microwave absorbing properties. When the rGO content is too high, the impedance will be mismatched, while the too low rGO content will affect the absorbing performance. This research work has contributed to our present understanding of the structure design and composition control of microwave absorber.
Chapter
Research have shown that a cascade of events takes place when a beam of microwave pulses is aimed at a human or animal subject’s head. Absorption of pulsed microwave energy creates a rapid expansion of brain matter and launches an elastic wave of pressure that travels inside the head to the inner ear. There, it activates the nerve cells in the cochlea and the neural signals are then relayed through the central auditory system to the cerebral cortex for sound perception. The microwave thermoelastic theory is widely recognized as the mechanism of interaction for the microwave auditory effect. This chapter discusses the mechanisms that have been suggested whereby auditory responses might be induced by pulse-modulated microwave radiation and is followed by detailed description of the thermoelastic theory.
Chapter
The microwave auditory effect has been widely recognized as one of the most interesting and significant biological phenomena from microwave exposure. The hearing of pulsed microwaves is a unique exception to the airborne or bone-conducted sound energy, normally encountered in human auditory perception. This chapter describes the research studies leading to scientific documentation that absorption of a single microwave pulse impinging on the head may be perceived as an acoustic zip, click, or knocking sound, depending on the incident microwave power. A train of microwave pulses to the head may be sensed as an audible buzz, chirp, or tone by humans. It discusses the neurophysiological, psychophysical, and behavioral observations from laboratory studies involving humans and animals as subjects. The objective is to present what is scientifically known about the microwave auditory effect.
Article
Rectangularly pulsed, 800-MHz microwaves were coupled via waveguide from a 500-W source to the parietal area of the head of normal human observers (Os). Pulse widths from 5 to 150 μS and pulse-repetition rates (PRRs) from 50 to 20,000 pulses per second (pps) were employed. Sine-wave audio-frequency (AF) signals could be presented alternately to or concurrently with microwave pulses (RF signal) under conditions in which O could adjust the amplitude, frequency and phase of the AF signal. By matching timbre and loudness of the perceived RF and AF signals during a succession of psychophysical measures—some while O's head was being immersed in water—the Os yielded the following results: (1) Both loudness and perceptual thresholds of the RF signal were biphasic functions of pulse width and of PRR; (2) When pulse widths increased toward 100 μs, some subjects perceived a different sound that was lower in pitch and was referred externally to the head; (3) By appropriate phasing of AF and RF signals after matching for pitch and timbre, loudness of the RF signal could be reduced below the threshold of perception; and (4) Extent of immersion of the head in water was correlated with reduced loudness of the RF signal. Some of the data are interpreted as posing explanatory difficulties for an exclusively ther-moelastic mechanism of RF hearing.
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