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Experimental Modification of Dream Content by Meaningful Verbal Stimuli

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Abstract

Spoken personal names which were randomly presented during the rapid eye movement periods of dreaming were incorporated into the dream events, as manifested by the ability of the experimental subjects and an independent judge subsequently to match correctly the names presented with the associated dreams more often than would be expected by guessing correctly by chance alone. Incorporation of emotional and neutral names into the dream events occurred equally often. The manner in which the names appeared to have been incorporated into the dream events fell into four categories of decreasing frequency: ( a ) Assonance, ( b ) Direct, ( c ) Association, and ( d ) Representation. Perceptual responses to the stimulus names, as manifested by subsequent dream recall, occurred without any accompanied observable differential electroen-cephalographic or galvanic skin responses compared with those occasions on which no such perceptual responses were evident. The frequency of recall of colour in dreams was higher than has been previously reported. The results are discussed in relation to the function of dreams and perception during dreaming.

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... The work of Berger, published in 1963, was the first to use human speech to try to modulate the dreamer's subjective experience (Berger, 1963). He selected names as stimuli on a subjectbased approach, with each of his 8 volunteers being presented either personally significant (N=2) or irrelevant names (N=2) over a constant white noise background. ...
... However, at least two forms of SDDCs have been consistently identified and adopted by several authors -although often under different names -, namely direct and indirect incorporations (e.g. Berger, 1963;Castaldo & Holzman, 1969;Koulack, 1969; Figure 1). Based on this classification, direct incorporation occurs when the stimulus itself is incorporated into the dream scenery, with the stimulus being described in an unambiguously recognizable form within the dream report. ...
... Based on this classification, direct incorporation occurs when the stimulus itself is incorporated into the dream scenery, with the stimulus being described in an unambiguously recognizable form within the dream report. Interestingly, this form of incorporation typically takes place seamlessly within the ongoing dream narrative, but the stimulus may also occasionally appear as an alien, out-of-context element (Berger, 1963). Indirect incorporation refers instead to any occurrence within the reported dream content which may be semantically related or otherwise linked to the stimulus, for instance through semantic connection or mnemonic associations based on previous life experiences. ...
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Sleep is commonly regarded as a state of disconnection from the environment. Yet, instances of external sensory stimuli affecting the course of dreams have been reported for centuries. Importantly, understanding the impact of external stimuli on dreams could shed light on the origin and generation of dreams, the functional mechanisms that preserve sleep continuity, and the processes that underlie conscious awareness. Moreover, the possibility of using sensory stimuli for dream engineering could potentially benefit patients suffering from alterations in the intensity or content of sleep conscious experiences. Here, we performed a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines to evaluate the robustness of the current evidence regarding the influence of external sensory stimulation during sleep on dreams experiences. In a literature search using PsycNET, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, we selected any experimental work presenting dream data obtained from a confirmed sleep episode during which visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, or somatosensory stimulation was administered. A methodological assessment of the included studies was performed using an adapted version of the Downs and Black's (1998) checklist. Fifty-one publications met the inclusion criteria, of which 21 reported data related to auditory stimulation, 10 to somatosensory stimulation, 8 to olfactory stimulation, 4 to visual stimulation, 2 to vestibular stimulation, and 1 to multi-modal stimulation (audio-visual). Furthermore, 8 references involved pre-conditioned associative stimulation procedures: 6 relied on targeted memory reactivation protocols and 3 on targeted lucid reactivation protocols. The reported frequency of stimulus-dependent dream changes across studies ranged from 0% to ~90%. Such a variability likely reflects the considerable heterogeneity of experimental and methodological approaches. Overall, the literature analysis identified a lack of substantial understanding of the key mechanisms, functions, and correlates of stimulus-dependent dream changes. We believe that a paradigm shift is required for meaningful and significant advancement in the field. We hope that this review will serve as a starting point for such a shift.
... Concerning auditory stimuli, Berger [77] found that presenting personally significant names during REM sleep provoked a high rate of indirect incorporation of these stimuli into dream experience. For instance, the names were modified for assonance or in an associative manner [77]. ...
... Concerning auditory stimuli, Berger [77] found that presenting personally significant names during REM sleep provoked a high rate of indirect incorporation of these stimuli into dream experience. For instance, the names were modified for assonance or in an associative manner [77]. Similarly, Hoelscher et al. [78] revealed that words with a relevant personal meaning were more frequently incorporated than other words. ...
... The findings of the impact of external stimuli on dream contents are mixed, and no compelling explanation about these phenomena was reported. In fact, the results on dream incorporation are discordant between studies and/or stimuli often fail to be incorporated in the content of dreams directly [1,76,77]. Moreover, the method used to classify the incorporation is quite different among studies. ...
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Dream research has advanced significantly over the last twenty years, thanks to the new applications of neuroimaging and electrophysiological techniques. Many findings pointed out that mental activity during sleep and wakefulness shared similar neural bases. On the other side, recent studies have highlighted that dream experience is promoted by significant brain activation, characterized by reduced low frequencies and increased rapid frequencies. Additionally, several studies confirmed that the posterior parietal area and prefrontal cortex are responsible for dream experience. Further, early results revealed that dreaming might be manipulated by sensory stimulations that would provoke the incorporation of specific cues into the dream scenario. Recently, transcranial stimulation techniques have been applied to modulate the level of consciousness during sleep, supporting previous findings and adding new information about neural correlates of dream recall. Overall, although multiple studies suggest that both the continuity and activation hypotheses provide a growing understanding of neural processes underlying dreaming, several issues are still unsolved. The impact of state-/trait-like variables, the influence of circadian and homeostatic factors, and the examination of parasomnia-like events to access dream contents are all opened issues deserving further deepening in future research.
... Quite a few studies have been focused at effect of meaningful acoustic stimuli on dream content. For example, Berger demonstrated spoken personal names which were randomly presented during the rapid eye movement periods of dreaming were incorporated into the dream content (Berger, 1963). He performed his study on eight subjects by presenting 4 personal names (two emotional and two neutral, according to each subject) and reported up to 41.9 percent incorporation rate, but no difference between emotional and neutral personal name were seen. ...
... Our results are comparable with studies which argued that dream content has been changed by external stimuli (Berger, 1963;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Hoelscher et al., 1981). As mentioned in introduction, such studies use different stimuli and examine direct incorporation of them into dream content. ...
... Although researches support effect of external meaningful acoustic stimuli on dream content, but reported incorporation rate are varies. As mentioned above, Berger (1963) reported incorporation rate of 41.9 percent, by administration of personal names, which has been presented randomly during REM periods. Strauch and Meier (Strauch & Meier, 1996) studied effect of acoustic stimuli by presenting jet fighter or weepy sound during REM period. ...
... Quite a few studies have been focused at effect of meaningful acoustic stimuli on dream content. For example, Berger demonstrated spoken personal names which were randomly presented during the rapid eye movement periods of dreaming were incorporated into the dream content (Berger, 1963). He performed his study on eight subjects by presenting 4 personal names (two emotional and two neutral, according to each subject) and reported up to 41.9 percent incorporation rate, but no difference between emotional and neutral personal name were seen. ...
... Our results are comparable with studies which argued that dream content has been changed by external stimuli (Berger, 1963;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Hoelscher et al., 1981). As mentioned in introduction, such studies use different stimuli and examine direct incorporation of them into dream content. ...
... Although researches support effect of external meaningful acoustic stimuli on dream content, but reported incorporation rate are varies. As mentioned above, Berger (1963) reported incorporation rate of 41.9 percent, by administration of personal names, which has been presented randomly during REM periods. Strauch and Meier (Strauch & Meier, 1996) studied effect of acoustic stimuli by presenting jet fighter or weepy sound during REM period. ...
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p> Introducti o n : Studies have revealed significant impacts of different external stimuli during sleep on dream content and have reported various incorporation rates. The present study was performed to evaluate possible effect of auditory stimulation with sophisticated method. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, fifteen healthy male volunteers, who were tested for having normal auditory sensation, slept for two consecutive nights on sleep laboratory and monitored by polysomnography device. Subjects were not informed about content and time in which the sound was played. Traffic ambience sound (40‐60 decibel for 1 minute) played during second Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep of experimental (second) night and self-written dream report has collected after second and fourth REM sleep of both nights. Dream reports were coded by two independent coders according the Hall and de castle coding rules. Results: Dreaming something related to traffic sound (according to coding rules) was reported significantly more in dream reports of second REM of experimental night (in which sound was played) in comparison to dream reports of second REM of control night(p=0.033). Direct incorporation of traffic sound was reported in 78% subjects. Conclusion: Our finding revealed that information processing of auditory stimuli continues during sleep and can affect dream content, much more than previously estimated. The evaluation of possible correlated EEG changes when dream has been affected by external auditory stimuli is needed in future studies.
... 1958; see also Berger, 1963;Dement, 1972;Hoelscher, Klinger, & Barta, 1981;Koulack, 1968Koulack, , 1969Koulack, , 1991 with convincing cases of incorporation in dream reports occurring up to 3 minutes after stimulation (Koulack, 1968(Koulack, , 1969(Koulack, , 1991. Somethose dealing with somato sensory stimulations-show impressive frequency of explicit, not to say accurate, incorporation (especially Nielsen, 1993 who used pressure cuff stimulation either on right or left leg; see also Dement, 1972;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Koulack, 1969Koulack, , 1991. ...
... Cases of auditory stimulus incorporation in experimental condition are generally less frequent and less explicit-visual stimulus being also less effective in modifying the dream content (Van de Castle, 1994; see also Nielsen, 1993). However, there are many reliable reports for awakening occurring more than 20 seconds (Berger, 1963) and up to 1 minutes later (Dement & Wolpert, 1958; see also Dement, 1972). To my knowledge, no experiment was designed unequivocally involving larger delay after auditory stimulation, but there are no reasons either to think no recall will happen over 1 minute. ...
... Anyway, one must not expect the dreamer to accurately report the feature of an external stimulus that occurred while sleeping. Rather, Ralph Berger-who used a blind matching method to assess dream incorporation-is certainly right noticing "it is [in itself] surprising how frequently stimuli were matched correctly with the dream [reports]" (Berger, 1963). ...
Article
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Owing to the fact that frontal regions of the brain are severely deactivated during sleep, there is a seeming inconsistency between the prominent Global Neuronal Workspace Theory of consciousness and the received view that dreams are vivid experiences occurring while sleeping. Indeed, based on the canonical criterion of reportability, Global Neuronal Workspace theorists claim that frontal activation of the brain is a necessary condition for conscious experience. Does it mean the received view is scientifically questionable? We argue the opposite way considering dreaming as a conscious experience that strikingly satisfies the current use of the canonical criterion though occurring under constraint of delayed reports. Further, this compelling condition of delayed report depends on a constitutional dissociation between experiencing and the cognitive mechanisms preparing report that proves very insightful. In line with recent findings from research on waking perception, this dissociation hints that Global Neuronal Workspace Theory is biased. Eventually, we discuss a recent claim according to which dreaming could "settle the debate opposing cognitive and noncognitive theories of consciousness.".
... Subsequently, research has been conducted both during presleep 131,132 and sleep. 133,134 More recently, stimuli were presented in different sleep stages 135 and LDs elicited. 114 Although most stimuli tested have been visual or auditory, 131,[133][134][135] some studies have applied other sensory stimuli during sleep, such as thermal, 134 tactile, 136 or olfactory stimulation. ...
... 133,134 More recently, stimuli were presented in different sleep stages 135 and LDs elicited. 114 Although most stimuli tested have been visual or auditory, 131,[133][134][135] some studies have applied other sensory stimuli during sleep, such as thermal, 134 tactile, 136 or olfactory stimulation. 114,137 Results of these experiments are mixed and not comparable because of the absence of a systematic methodology. ...
Article
The mechanisms involved in the origin of dreams remain one of the great unknowns in science. In the 21st century, studies in the field have focused on 3 main topics: functional networks that underlie dreaming, neural correlates of dream contents, and signal propagation. We review neuroscientific studies about dreaming processes, focusing on their cortical correlations. The involvement of frontoparietal regions in the dream-retrieval process allows us to discuss it in light of the Global Workspace theory of consciousness. However, dreaming in distinct sleep stages maintains relevant differences, suggesting that multiple generators are implicated. Then, given the strong influence of light perception on sleep regulation and the mostly visual content of dreams, we investigate the effect of blindness on the organization of dreams. Blind individuals represent a worthwhile population to clarify the role of perceptual systems in dream generation, and to make inferences about their top-down and/or bottom-up origin. Indeed, congenitally blind people maintain the ability to produce visual dreams, suggesting that bottom-up mechanisms could be associated with innate body schemes or multisensory integration processes. Finally, we propose the new dream-engineering technique as a tool to clarify the mechanisms of multisensory integration during sleep and related mental activity, presenting possible implications for rehabilitation in sensory-impaired individuals. The Theory of Proto-consciousness suggests that the interaction of brain states underlying waking and dreaming ensures the optimal functioning of both. Therefore, understanding the origin of dreams and capabilities of our brain during a dreamlike state, we could introduce it as a rehabilitative tool. Citation: Vitali H, Campus C, De Giorgis V, Signorini S, Gori M. The vision of dreams: from ontogeny to dream engineering in blindness. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(8):2051-2062.
... These behavioral criteria have been complemented by neurophysiological criteria. Dement & Wolpert, 1958Koulack, 1969Nielsen, 1993;Nielsen et al., 1993;Leslie & Ogilvie, 1996Cubberly, 1923Solomonova, 2017Berger, 1963Hoelscher et al., 1981Dement & Wolpert, 1958De Saint-Denys, 1867Trotter et al., 1988Schredl et al., 2009Okabe et al., 2020 LaBerge & Levitan, 1995Conduit et al., 1997Dement & Wolpert, 1958 of large amplitude at a frequency between 0.5 and 2 Hz named slow waves (Loomis et al., 1937;Iber et al., 2007). Measures of arousal thresholds correlate with slow-wave activity (SWA) and sleep restrictions lead to enhanced SWA along with increased sleep duration (Williams et al., 1964). ...
... The question whether sleep learning in this sleep state would lead to an explicit rather than implicit memory remains also to be tested. (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Berger, 1963;Rechtschaffen & Foulkes, 1965). Dreaming has been associated, but not exclusively, with rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, a period when brain activity is the closest to wakefulness . ...
Thesis
Sleep is a mystery for the conscious mind. Indeed, whilst being asleep, either consciousness is reduced and few memories remain upon awakening. Or consciousness is altered during dreams and memories struck us by their incongruity. What happens then when we sleep? In this thesis, we played complex sounds to study how the brain interprets information from the external world during sleep. We asked ourselves how the sleep disconnection from its sensory environment depends on cognitive processes occurring during sleep. To do so, we used EEG, a brain imaging technique. We could show that the sleeping brain keeps on monitoring sounds and can even selectively enhance or suppress certain information, as well as learn a foreign language. These capacities depend nevertheless crucially on markers of internal activity during sleep, demonstrating that sleep is a fundamentally active process and host of complex cognitive [activity].
... Feeling of something on the foot transformed into dancing imagery Auditory stimulation. Name "Richard". /REM sleep. (Berger. 1963) "Had been to a sale in at a big shot at the center of Edinburgh." "Richard"the name of the shop in Edinburgh Dozing while sitting on a couch near an IKEA cash register, which abruptly sounds with a loud clatter. Auditory. /Stage 1 NREM sleep. (Nielsen, 2017) "A bright, multi-colored clown/jester suddenly somersaults with a snapping, ela ...
... The same holds true for the success rate of incorporation of sound stimuli into dream content. For example, in one of the earliest laboratorybased studies, Berger (1963) presented his participants with personally significant names during REM sleep, and found a high rate of incorporation of these stimuli into dreams. These incorporations, however, were not necessarily representations of the named individuals (which also happened on some occasions), rather they were often processed in an associative manner. ...
... Concerning sensory stimulation delivered during REM or NREM sleep stages, early studies described the incorporation of meaning verbal stimuli (Berger, 1963;Hoelscher et al., 1981). Also, somatosensory stimulation (e.g., water on the skin, thermal stimulation, pressure cuff, electrical pulses) (Baldridge et al., 1965;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Koulack, 1969;Nielsen, 1993) or vestibular stimulation (Leslie & Ogilvie, 1996) were found to affect dream content. ...
Article
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Several studies have tried to identify the neurobiological bases of dream experiences, nevertheless some questions are still at the centre of the debate. Here, we summarise the main open issues concerning the neuroscientific study of dreaming. After overcoming the rapid eye movement (REM) ‐ non‐REM (NREM) sleep dichotomy, investigations have focussed on the specific functional or structural brain features predicting dream experience. On the one hand, some results underlined that specific trait‐like factors are associated with higher dream recall frequency. On the other hand, the electrophysiological milieu preceding dream report upon awakening is a crucial state‐like factor influencing the subsequent recall. Furthermore, dreaming is strictly related to waking experiences. Based on the continuity hypothesis, some findings reveal that dreaming could be modulated through visual, olfactory, or somatosensory stimulations. Also, it should be considered that the indirect access to dreaming remains an intrinsic limitation. Recent findings have revealed a greater concordance between parasomnia‐like events and dream contents. This means that parasomnia episodes might be an expression of the ongoing mental sleep activity and could represent a viable direct access to dream experience. Finally, we provide a picture on nightmares and emphasise the possible role of oneiric activity in psychotherapy. Overall, further efforts in dream science are needed (a) to develop a uniform protocol to study dream experience, (b) to introduce and integrate advanced techniques to better understand whether dreaming can be manipulated, (c) to clarify the relationship between parasomnia events and dreaming, and (d) to determine the clinical valence of dreams.
... Incorporation indirecte dans les scénarios de rêve Nous avons trouvé un taux d'incorporation dans les récits de rêves de seulement 2,6% des mots présentés à l'oreille et plus particulièrement 1,74% des mots présentés pendant le SP. Ce taux est bien inférieur à celui de la littérature (entre 11 et 43%) (BERGER, 1963 ;HOELSCHER et al., 1981). Cependant, dans ces études les stimulus auditifs verbaux pouvaient être présentés plusieurs fois et, surtout, les sujets étaient réveillés peu de temps après leur présentation. ...
Thesis
Les expériences de notre nuit sont souvent décrites comme des îlots d'activité mentale, internement générées dans un océan d'inconscience. En sous-texte de cette vision se cachent deux pré-supposés que le sommeil lent est un modèle d'inconscience et que le traitement sensoriel du monde extérieur en sommeil paradoxal ne peut être qu'inconscient. Dans cette thèse, nous avons voulu tester ces pré-supposés avec une approche empruntant à trois littératures complémentaires : celle de la conscience, celle du sommeil sain et pathologique et celle de la philosophie de l'esprit. Dans une première étude nous avons mis en évidence l'existence de "blackout' de nuit : une absence total de rappel de contenu du couche au lever dans l'hypersomnie Idiopathique. Nous pensons que notre démonstration de l'existence du phénomène de blackout est intéressante car elle permet, par contraste, de mettre en évidence l'existence d'une expérience minimale de la nuit, comme les philosophes l'avaient suggéré. Dans deux autres études nous avons montré la capacité de patients narcoleptiques (lucides ou non) à traiter l'extérieur pendant des siestes en utilisant comme réponses les muscles de leurs visages. Cela suggère qu'un traitement conscient dans le sommeil peut avoir lieu en sommeil paradoxal chez ces patients. L'ensemble de ce travail de thèse invite à penser que l'idée selon laquelle on perd conscience pendant que l'on dort serait à réévaluer. En effet, une réelle perte de conscience dans le sommeil, si elle existe, pourrait être plutôt transitoire et négligeable face à la fabuleuse pluralité des processus qui se déroulent en son sein.
... The impact of seizures occurring during sleep and their impact on ongoing cognitive processes is still poorly understood. In the same way that stimuli during sleep are likely to be incorporated into dreams, especially if they have a specific intensity, i.e., just below the awakening threshold or a particular meaning for the sleeper (Dement and Wolpert, 1958;Berger, 1963;Koulack, 1969), symptoms related to an epileptic discharge could in theory be incorporated into dream content (this would represent a protective mechanism for sleep according to Freud). This is supported by some clinical observations of patients with nocturnal temporal seizures, reporting that they were having a seizure in their dreams (or reporting subjective feelings associated with seizures as a component of their dream) (Epstein and Hill, 1966;Vercueil, 2005). ...
Article
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The interactions between epilepsy and sleep are numerous and the impact of epilepsy on cognition is well documented. Epilepsy is therefore likely to influence dreaming as one sleep-related cognitive activity. The frequency of dream recall is indeed decreased in patients with epilepsy, especially in those with primary generalized seizures. The content of dreams is also disturbed in epilepsy patients, being more negative and with more familiar settings. While several confounding factors (anti-seizure medications, depression and anxiety disorders, cognitive impairment) may partly account for these changes, some observations suggest an effect of seizures themselves on dreams. Indeed, the incorporation of seizure symptoms in dream content has been described, concomitant or not with a focal epileptic discharge during sleep, suggesting that epilepsy might directly or indirectly interfere with dreaming. These observations, together with current knowledge on dream neurophysiology and the links between epilepsy and sleep, suggest that epilepsy may impact not only wake- but also sleep-related cognition.
... Concerning sensory stimulation delivered during REM or NREM sleep stages, early studies described the incorporation of meaning verbal stimuli (Berger, 1963;Hoelscher et al., 1981). Also, somatosensory stimulation (e.g., water on the skin, thermal stimulation, pressure cuff, electrical pulses) (Baldridge et al., 1965;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Koulack, 1969;Nielsen, 1993) or vestibular stimulation (Leslie & Ogilvie, 1996) were found to affect dream content. ...
Article
Though better knowledge concerning alexithymia in childhood could improve understanding of its development during the lifespan, it has been scarcely investigated in children. A necessary step in research on alexithymia is to create instruments for assessing the construct. The object of the present study was to develop an Italian Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children based on the instrument proposed by Rieffe et al. (2006) and to examine its factor structure and reliability. The English version of the questionnaire was translated into Italian and it was administered to 576 children recruited from primary and secondary schools (age mean = 10.78, s.d. = 1.67; males 357 and 219 females). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) revealed preliminary evidence of a four-factor structure, which explained 37.90% of the variance: Factor 1 "Difficulty Describing Feelings", Factor 2 "Difficulty Identifying Feelings", Factor 3 "Confusion on Physical Sensations" and Factor 4 "Externally-Oriented Thinking". As to reliability, the Cronbach alpha indicated adequate internal consistency. Pearson correlations among the total score and the four factors were statistically significant. Moreover, the sample was divided into two groups (children and pre-adolescents) and a ttest was conducted: children showed significantly higher scores than adolescents on the total score of the questionnaire. No significant gender differences in mean total scores were found. Key words: alexithymia, childhood, questionnaire, Italian version Parole chiave: alessitimia, etŕ evolutiva, questionario, versione italiana
... First, stimuli presented during sleep, though not administered in a TMR design, are often incorporated into dream content. Dreams are influenced by olfactory stimuli (Okabe, Fukuda, Mochizuki-Kawai, & Yamada, 2018;Schredl et al., 2009;Trotter, Dallas, & Verdone, 1988), visual stimuli (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Rechtschaffen & Foulkes, 1965), auditory stimuli (Berger, 1963;Burton, Harsh, & Badia, 1988;Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Hoelscher, Klinger, & Barta, 1981), and-most effectively-somatic/kinesthetic stimuli (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Koulack, 1969;Leslie & Ogilvie, 1996;Nielsen, 1993). It is noteworthy that dream incorporations of such stimuli are rarely direct, episodic memories, but are rather partial representations of the stimuli and their context, involving substantial associative material. ...
Article
Sleep facilitates memory consolidation through offline reactivations of memory traces. Dreaming may play a role in memory improvement and may reflect these memory reactivations. To experimentally address this question, we used targeted memory reactivation (TMR), i.e., application, during sleep, of a stimulus that was previously associated with learning, to assess whether it influences task-related dream imagery. Specifically, we asked if TMR-induced or task-dream reactivations in either slow-wave (SWS) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep benefit whole-body procedural learning. Healthy participants completed a virtual reality (VR) flying task prior to and following a morning nap or rest period during which task-associated tones were readministered in either SWS, REM sleep, wake or not at all. Findings indicate that learning benefits most from TMR when applied in REM sleep compared to a Control-sleep group. REM dreams that reactivated kinesthetic elements of the VR task (e.g., flying, driving) were also associated with higher improvement on the task than were dreams that reactivated visual elements (e.g., landscapes) or that had no reactivations. TMR did not itself influence dream content but its effects on performance were greater when coexisting with task-dream reactivations in REM sleep. Findings may help explain the mechanistic relationships between dream and memory reactivations and may contribute to the development of sleep-based methods to optimize complex skill learning.
... Brain activity paradoxically resembles wakefulness and is able to support the conscious processing of sensory information coming from within (as evidenced by the frequent occurrence of dreams). Yet, based on sleepers' own reports, external stimuli presented in REM sleep often fail to be consciously processed or incorporated to dreams [117][118][119][120]. ...
Article
Sleep suppresses the ability to react to environmental demands. It has been proposed that a phenomenon of sensory isolation, whereby sensory inputs fail to reach cortical brain regions during sleep, would be responsible for this absence of responses. How and why this decoupling is implemented has been intensively investigated. However, sleepers might not be fully disconnected from their environment. We review here the empirical evidence showing that sleepers can perform a surprisingly large range of cognitive processes. We describe potential mechanisms explaining sleepers’ ability to maintain covert cognitive processes as well as their suppression. Rather than being isolated from the environment, sleepers seem to enter a standby mode, allowing them to balance the monitoring of their surroundings with sensory isolation. This balance could allow sleepers to determine when to stay asleep or when to wake up, and might be essential for the fulfilment of sleep functions, notably memory consolidation.
... The sleeper's environment and sensory stimulation during sleep may also impact dream activity and notably its emotional content (2). It is for example the case for sounds (27,28), odors (29,30), and painful stimuli or thirst (31, 32) also for physical bodily position (33). ...
Article
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In order to ensure robust relationships between the dependent and independent variables in clinical dream/nightmare studies, the major factors which influence the frequency of reported dreams must be controlled. This article sets out methodological recommendations to both researchers seeking to ensure the equivalence of experimental groups of participants in group-matching designs, and to clinicians who wish to check that any change in frequency of reported nightmares over the course of a psychological or a pharmacological intervention is not caused by factors other than the experimental treatment itself. The main factors influencing the frequency of dream recall are presented: demographic variables, psychological characteristics, pathological dimensions, and substance consumption. A series of questionnaires is proposed for easily measuring these control variables.
... Sleep leads to a disconnection from the external world. Even when sleepers regain consciousness during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, little, if any, external information is incorporated into dream content [1][2][3]. While gating mechanisms might be at play to avoid interference on dreaming activity [4], a total disconnection from an ever-changing environment may prevent the sleeper from promptly responding to informative events (e.g., threat signals). ...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep leads to a disconnection from the external world. Even when sleepers regain consciousness during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, little, if any, external information is incorporated into dream content [1, 2, 3]. While gating mechanisms might be at play to avoid interference on dreaming activity [4], a total disconnection from an ever-changing environment may prevent the sleeper from promptly responding to informative events (e.g., threat signals). In fact, a whole range of neural responses to external events turns out to be preserved during REM sleep [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. Thus, it remains unclear whether external inputs are either processed or, conversely, gated during REM sleep. One way to resolve this issue is to consider the specific impact of eye movements (EMs) characterizing REM sleep. EMs are a reliable predictor of reporting a dream upon awakening [10, 11], and their absence is associated with a lower arousal threshold to external stimuli [12]. We thus hypothesized that the presence of EMs would selectively prevent the processing of informative stimuli, whereas periods of REM sleep devoid of EMs would be associated with the monitoring of external signals. By reconstructing speech in a multi-talker environment from electrophysiological responses, we show that informative speech is amplified over meaningless speech during REM sleep. Yet, at the precise timing of EMs, informative speech is, on the contrary, selectively suppressed. These results demonstrate the flexible amplification and suppression of sensory information during REM sleep and reveal the impact of EMs on the selective gating of informative stimuli during sleep.
... Sleep leads to a disconnection from the external world. Even when sleepers regain consciousness during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, little, if any, external information is incorporated into dream content [1][2][3]. While gating mechanisms might be at play to avoid interference on dreaming activity [4], a total disconnection from an ever-changing environment may prevent the sleeper from promptly responding to informative events (e.g., threat signals). ...
... Furthermore, cueing during REM sleep did not induce activity in the spindle range, neither for emotional nor neutral memories. Evidence that auditory stimuli are processed during REM sleep comes from the observation that dream content can be modified by presenting words during REM sleep 72,73 . In spite of this successful reinstatement by presenting memory cues during this sleep stage, cued memories are not stabilized during REM sleep, probably because of the missing spindle activity and associated plastic processes. ...
Article
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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is considered to preferentially reprocess emotionally arousing memories. We tested this hypothesis by cueing emotional vs. neutral memories during REM and NREM sleep and wakefulness by presenting associated verbal memory cues after learning. Here we show that cueing during NREM sleep significantly improved memory for emotional pictures, while no cueing benefit was observed during REM sleep. On the oscillatory level, successful memory cueing during NREM sleep resulted in significant increases in theta and spindle oscillations with stronger responses for emotional than neutral memories. In contrast during REM sleep, solely cueing of neutral (but not emotional) memories was associated with increases in theta activity. Our results do not support a preferential role of REM sleep for emotional memories, but rather suggest that emotional arousal modulates memory replay and consolidation processes and their oscillatory correlates during NREM sleep.
... The transformations can take different forms (Dement & Wolpert, 1958). For example, Berger (1963) noted that pronouncing nouns during REM sleep could lead to a variety of incorporations by assonance ("Gillian" transformed into "Chile" [Chilian]); association ("Richard": dreams of a shop by the same name); representation ("Paul" appears in the dream but it is a different person). Not surprisingly, meaningful stimulations such as the dreamer's name are more likely to be incorporated into REM dreams, illustrating the capacity of the brain to process stimuli from the outside world during REM sleep (Perrin, García-Larrea, Mauguière, & Bastuji, 1999). ...
Article
Dreams have fascinated humans from the earliest of times. Yet modern research is still struggling to understand the nature and functions of dreaming. It has been observed that sleep mentation tends to be in continuity with waking mentation but that the memory sources of dreams are significantly transformed into new expressions of past experience and current concerns. Some dreams are creative and useful. Dreams can also be used to increase self-knowledge or as complement in psychotherapy. Negative emotions prevail in dreams and can culminate in nightmares. Fortunately, dreams can be controlled by suggestion, imagery rehearsal, and lucid dreaming. Electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies suggest that the unique features of dreaming are due to the fact that key brain structures are activated and interact differently in REM sleep than in waking. While many dream function theories have been proposed, more rigorous scientific research is needed to determine whether dreaming by itself serves an adaptive function.
... Moreover, external stimuli are often incorporated into dreams in such a way that dreaming and sleeping are maintained (e.g., the sound of an alarm clock misinterpreted as church bells). Tactile stimuli like pressure, water-jets and electro shocks (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Nielsen, 1993), or salient stimuli like the dreamer's name (Berger, 1963) or key words associated with problems in waking life (Hoelscher et al., 1981) have a higher incorporation rate. This puts emphasis on a sentinel function of sleep in so far as such stimuli might preserve the sleeping organism from threats. ...
Article
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The present review gives an overview on common theories of dreaming with a specific emphasis on how they are able to explain lucid dreaming. The theories are grouped either to such that describe structural or biological processes of dreams or to such that describe evolutionary and adaptive functions of dreams. This overview shows that none of the theories outlined is fully capable of explaining neither non-lucid dreaming nor lucid dreaming. With respect to the first group, the concept of “protoconsciousness” is the theory that at best explains lucid dreaming. With respect to theories with an evolutionary and adaptive function of dreams, those theories, that stress the problem solving or simulation functions of dreams are more suited to explain lucid dreaming. Further, aspects that induce or amplify lucidity and the neural mechanisms that may be involved in lucid dreaming are described.
... Moreover, external stimuli are often incorporated into dreams in such a way that dreaming and sleeping are maintained (e.g., the sound of an alarm clock misinterpreted as church bells). Tactile stimuli like pressure, water-jets and electro shocks (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Nielsen, 1993), or salient stimuli like the dreamer's name (Berger, 1963) or key words associated with problems in waking life (Hoelscher et al., 1981) have a higher incorporation rate. This puts emphasis on a sentinel function of sleep in so far as such stimuli might preserve the sleeping organism from threats. ...
Research
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The present review gives an overview on common theories of dreaming with a specific emphasis on how they are able to explain lucid dreaming. The theories are grouped either to such that describe structural or biological processes of dreams or to such that describe evolutionary and adaptive functions of dreams. This overview shows that none of the theories outlined is fully capable of explaining neither non-lucid dreaming nor lucid dreaming. With respect to the first group, the concept of “protoconsciousness” is the theory that at best explains lucid dreaming. With respect to theories with an evolutionary and adaptive function of dreams, those theories, that stress the problem solving or simulation functions of dreams are more suited to explain lucid dreaming. Further, aspects that induce or amplify lucidity and the neural mechanisms that may be involved in lucid dreaming are described.
... Such a high "arousal threshold" gradually increases with the succession of NREM sleep stages and persists also in REM sleep (Rechtschaffen et al. 1966 ;Neckelmann and Ursin 1993 ) . Moreover, stimuli largely fail to be incorporated in the content of dreams (Rechtschaffen 1978 ;Nir and Tononi 2010 ) , though some stimuli such as a spray of water, pressure on the limbs, and meaningful words have a slightly higher chance of incorporation (Dement 1958 ;Berger 1963 ;Koulack 1969 ) . For example, if we are to sleep all night in front of the television, our dreams will have little, if anything, to do with the contents of the surrounding stream of sounds. ...
Chapter
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Sleep offers a unique opportunity to relate changes in brain activity to changes in consciousness. Indeed, if it were not for sleep, when consciousness fades in and out on a regular basis, it might be hard to imagine that consciousness is not a given but depends somehow on the way our brain is functioning. At the same time as changes in consciousness occur, brain activity undergoes major changes through an orderly progression of sleep stages, which can be identified by recording the electroencephalogram (EEG), eye movements (EOG), and muscle tone (EMG). Within each sleep stage, there are frequent, short-lasting electrophysiological phenomena, such as slow oscillations and spindles representing moments at which brain activity undergoes important fluctuations. There are also orderly spatial changes in the activation of many brain regions, as indicated by imaging studies. Importantly, similar brain activities occur in animals, and this has spearheaded detailed studies of the underlying neural mechanisms.
... According to this line of argument, these experiences are not based upon extrasensory processes but upon normal, albeit subtle, sensory processes (Alcock, 1981). Previous research does suggest that it is possible for the content of dreams to be influenced by external stimuli (Corning, 1899;Berger, 1963;Koulack, 1969;Schredl et al., 2009). However, the present study is the first to attempt to explore whether there is any relationship between the propensity to incorporate sensory stimuli into dreams, and precognitive dream experience and belief. ...
Article
Controlled research into alleged psychic functioning can aid our understanding of the nature and limits of consciousness. Some commentators have suggested that the decline in positive results from dream precognition studies might be due to the early experiments being carried out in sleep laboratories whilst later studies tested participants in their own homes. The present study assessed this argument. Twenty participants were selected for prior precognitive dream experience, and were invited to a sleep laboratory. Participants were asked to dream about a target video they would later view. A judge rated participants' dreams against the target and decoys. No evidence was found for dream precognition. The study also tested the hypothesis that precognitive dream experiences may occur when a person subconsciously incorporates sensory information into their dream. A sound clip was played to sleeping participants and a judge rated the target and decoy clips against the participants' dream tran-scripts. The correlation between degree of sensory incorporation and prior precognitive dream experience was non-significant. Suggestions for future research in this area are discussed.
... Evans, Gufstafson, O'Connell , Orne, and Shor (1970) showed that sleeping subjects generated motor responses in reaction to cued words that were introduced by hypnotic suggestion during the ascending phase of Stage I of sleep. Berger (1963) presented spoken proper names to subjects while they were asleep. Postexperimental matching of the names with the associations of the dreams indicated that the subjects incorporated the stimuli into their dreams. ...
Article
Sleeping subjects were presented with simple nouns and they were asked to respond to them. Mieroswitch pressings and distribution of K complexes indicated that subjects could report to nonemotive verbal information during sleep. The underlying processes were examined on the basis of generalizations to distractors related to the subjects in sound or meaning (within or across languages).
... People often report sleeping through an alarm because its significance was distorted by the dream. Berger (1963) has confirmed in the sleep laboratory that external stimuli can indeed be incorporated into dreams and be interpreted as part of the dream. The possibility that this effect could raise the arousal threshold and thus "preserve" sleep has never been experimentally tested. ...
Article
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Latency to arousal from dreaming sleep to a gradually increasing white noise stimulus was measured in eight volunteer Ss. Dream reports were collected immediately after arousal. Reports which included the stimulus in the dream narrative were found to be associated with higher arousal thresholds.
... Another related research area is in understanding how external stimuli affect dreams. Sound stimuli while sleeping have been studied extensively: verbal sentences during REM sleep can assist in accessing declarative knowledge during sleep and help consolidate knowledge but this verbal cue will not be inserted into dream content [10]; the insertion of verbal content when sleeping also showed that external verbal stimuli are perceived as belonging to the events of the dream [3]; the insertion of verbal stimuli prior to falling asleep was also studied and shown to effect dream content as well as recall after waking [9]; and finally another study revealed that sound stimuli while sleeping cannot be used as an alert [5]. Smell stimuli have also been studied although it has been shown that olfactory senses are very limited while sleeping, and therefore have little effect on dream content [2,8]. ...
Article
The DreamThrower is a novel technology that explores virtually creating, throwing and catching dreams. It detects users’ dream state by measuring rapid eye movement. Once the dream state is detected, sound and light stimuli is played to alter the dream. Users report on their dream, and they can send the stimuli that they have used to another person via an on-line website. A working prototype accurately detects REM sleep. Based on results from the first experiment with three subjects, light and environmental sounds such as a jungle and ocean were found to have little influence on dreams. The second experiment with five subjects found that voice sound stimulus could influence dreams in one case. Interestingly, our subjects felt that the DreamThrower system would be a fun gaming experience and many said that they would share their dreams for a collaborative gaming experience. User engagement with the social network may be sufficient to alter dreams. Two studies with different stimuli showed some evidence that dreams can be altered.
... Elle varie suivant que la stimulation est délivrée au début, au milieu ou à la fin d'une période de SP (Passouant et coll., 1965) ; les seuils, en outre, s'élèvent pendant les bouffées de mouvements oculaires rapides (Hodes et Suzuki, 1965 ;Trigona et coll., 1968). Enfin, si le stimulus est signifiant pour le sujet (Berger, 1963) ou s'il est rendu significatif par son association avec un choc électrique (Williams et coll., 1966 ;Williams, 1967, chez l'homme ;Trigona et coll., 1968, chez l'animal) le seuil de réponse au cours du SP est fortement abaissé. ...
... Stimulation administered in most sensory modalities has demonstrated changes in at least some dreams. Such changes have been provoked by olfactory stimulation (frotter, Dallas, & Verdone, 1988), auditory stimulation (e.g., Berger, 1963;Castaldo & Holzman, 1969;Castaldo & Shevrin, 1970;Hoelscher, Klinger & Barta, 1981;Strauch, 1988), visual stimulation (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Rechtschaffen & Foulkes, 1965), vestibular stimulation (Woodward, Tauber, Spielman, & Thorpy, 1990, and a variety of somatosensory stimuli. The latter include applications to the skin of water (Dement & Wolpert, 1958;Foulkes & Shepherd, 1972;Foulkes, 1982), of trains of electrical pulses (Koulack, 1969) and of cotton swabs (Foulkes, 1982), passive displacements of trunk (Baldridge, Nielsen k . . ...
Article
The notion that dreaming is isolated from sensory activity is challenged by demonstrations that somatosensory stimuli are frequently incorporated into dream content. To further study such effects, four volunteers were administered pressure stimulation to either the left or the right leg during REM sleep and awakened to report their dreams. These dreams were rated and compared to non-stimulated dreams. Stimulated dreams more frequently contained leg sensations and references to the pressure stimulus than did non-stimulated dreams; dreamed leg activity, but not dreamed arm activity, was also rated as more intense. Incorporations of the stimulus were typically simple, direct kinesthetic sensations of pressure or squeezing but were also sometimes embedded in more extended ‘problem-solving’ sequences. Stimulation also increased bodily bizarreness. The latter included changes in kinesthetic quality of movement, instabilities of posture and the environment, as well as visual-kinesthetic synthesias. Although micro-arousals may be an explanatory factor, the results suggest that somatosensory stimulation influences ‘kinesthetic fantasy’, a dimension of dreaming associated with both central and peripheral sources of kinesthetic activity.
Chapter
Dream-related behaviors like sharing dreams are best measured via questionnaires whereas dream content analysis provides information about dream content, for example, bizarreness of dreams, emotional tone of dreams. The main focus of this chapter is the so-called continuity hypothesis of dreaming, stating that dreams reflect the waking-life experiences of the dreamer. Research had identified factors that affect this continuity between waking and dreaming, for example, emotional intensity of the waking-life experience or the type of the waking-life activity (studying vs. meeting with friends). Also, gender differences in dream content seem to be continuous to gender differences found in waking life.
Thesis
Les troubles du sommeil chez l'enfant et l'adolescent victimes d'abus sexuels sont en lien étroit avec les états de stress post-traumatique (ESPT). Toutefois, dire que les troubles du sommeil sont un mécanisme clé dans la physiopathologie des ESPT n'est pas encore évident car les études, peu nombreuses, entreprises jusqu'à présent ne sont pas complètes pour l'adulte et quasi inexistantes pour l'enfant ou l'adolescent. Après un rappel théorique et nosographique sur les concepts de sommeil normal puis de troubles du sommeil, d'abus sexuels et d'états de stress post-traumatique chez l'enfant et l'adolescent, l'auteur présente les études existantes sur le sommeil et les ESPT ainsi que celles, plus nombreuses, chez l'adulte. Cette partie théorique permettra à l'auteur de discuter de son étude portant sur 48 cas d'enfants et d'adolescents ayant été expertisés, à la suite d'un abus sexuel, à l'unité fonctionnelle d'accueil et d'évaluation des maltraitances à l'enfant de l'Hôpital d'Enfants de Nancy sur une période d'un an. L'objectif principal ayant été de décrire les caractéristiques de ces troubles du sommeil. Ces caractéristiques se sont révélées superposables aux troubles énoncés dans les critères B et D du DSM-IVTR pour le diagnostic des ESPT. De plus, il a été démontré qu'il existait significativement plus de troubles du sommeil chez les patients présentant un état de stress post-traumatique que chez ceux n'en présentant pas suite à la maltraitance. Il est suggéré que les troubles du sommeil puissent être un symptôme phare dans la recherche diagnostique d'un ESPT chez l'enfant ou l'adolescent victime de maltraitance. L'intérêt clinique de cette hypothèse serait important, face à ces jeunes patients en repli sur leurs souffrances. Des études dans ce domaine sont à concevoir encore.
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Von den besänftigenden Liedern des antiken Orpheus bis zum „Non, je ne regrette rien“ als Aufweck-Lied im Kino-Blockbuster „Inception“: Musik, Schlaf und Traum werden immer wieder in einen Zusammenhang gebracht, der auch in wissenschaftlicher Hinsicht viele spannende Facetten in sich birgt.
Chapter
Humans utilize sensory and motor systems developed genetically, physically and socially for interfacing with our external environment. We use these same systems to interface in our interactions with artificial intelligence. There are other functioning central nervous system (CNS) systems, however, involved in cognitive processing for which the function and environmental interface is less clear. The synchronous physiologic electrical field system utilizes broadcast extracellular electrical fields for a wide variety of CNS functions. The operations of this system are usually non-conscious and most apparent during sleep (especially the conscious states of sleep that include dreaming), and un-focused waking. The electrical fields of this system are altered and affected by both internal and external stimuli. These fields can be monitored and analyzed by artificial intelligence (AI) systems, and independently of human input, AI systems can utilize similar frequency based electrical potentials to convey data, communicate, supply power, and to store memory. From both human and AI perspectives, these systems have the potential to function more fully in human/machine interaction. This chapter reviews our current knowledge as to function, current interactive approaches, and interface potential for these physiological electrical fields.
Chapter
Dreaming is an activity. People in various cultures throughout history have understood the activity of dreaming in different ways that can be categorized as: (1) visits to a different world, (2) omens, (3) meaningless, and (4) continuous with waking life. Although the way the Senoi people of Malaysia were said to value and make use of dreams has been well popularized, it is now discredited. The assumption that dreams are an example of psychic phenomena is also without credible foundation. The dominant view of dreams in the Western world is that dreams are a product of the individual dreamer’s mind and what is contained within it. Much of this comes from their waking life but depends on the differing functional reorganization of the brain during REMS and NREMS and the brain’s rhythmic influences. Sensory stimuli and experiences at times are incorporated into dreams, sometimes through “dream incubation” where a person is able to determine prior to sleep what they will dream about. Overall, the dreams of individuals tend to remain consistent over their adult life, but there are also circumstances that can produce changes such as pregnancy, divorce, and psychological trauma.
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This paper discusses two recent speculations within the field of neural networks about the purpose of Rapid Eye Movement sleep, the time of sleep during which most vivid dreams occur. These theories are part of the information-processing view of REM sleep and are based on the finding that the mnemonic efficiency of neural networks is increased if the networks are programmed to periodically enter an altered state of functioning. One theory, that of Hopfield, Feinstein and Palmer /54/, emphasises the necessity for the network to enter this state throughout its life, whereas the other theory, that of Clark, Rafelski and Winston /19/, views the altered state as a preparation for learning by the newly formed network. Evidence is presented that the former algorithm is only relevant to systems which have orthogonal, separate memories; that the phenomenology of REM dreams is different from that predicted by both theories, and that the information-processing paradigm of REM sleep is widely contested.
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The Dream Experience provides the mental health professional with a systematic scientific basis for understanding the dream as a psychological event. Milton Kramer's extensive research, along with the findings of others, establishes that dreams are structured, not random, and linked meaningfully to conscious events in daily life and past memories. The book explores this link between dreams and consciousness, providing a review of information about normative dreaming, typical or repetitive dreams, and nightmares, while also showing how mental health professionals can use dream content in therapy with clients. Kramer's book is an illuminating description of dreaming for dreamers, therapists and neuroscientists.
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On two tasks measuring cognitive “boundaries,” the performance of seventy-two hypnotized subjects was compared to the performance of seventy-two wakened subjects. On a task measuring the “boundary” between visual sensations and auditory sensations, all subjects counted the visible pulses of a metronome on some trials, counted the audible pulses of a metronome on other trials, and then decided whether they had seen or heard each number of counted pulses. Hypnotized subjects confused the visible pulses and audible pulses, whereas wakened subjects maintained the “boundary” between visible sensations and audible sensations. On a task measuring the “boundary” between visual sensations and emotional sensations, all subjects imaged specific emotions while viewing pictures of surprised faces, and then decided whether they had seen a surprised or emotional or assimilated (surprised-emotional) expression on each face. Hypnotized subjects assimilated the visual expressions and emotional images, whereas wakened subjects maintained the “boundary” between emotional sensations and visual sensations.
Article
Dreams can be influenced by external stimuli. In this study attempts were made to influence or direct the theme of a dream or sleep mentation using a series of thematically related words. 10 subjects were presented one of four series of 6 tape-recorded theme words, repeated 10 times, during REM or Stage 2 sleep followed by awakening to collect the dream or mentation report. Of the 40 awakenings, 30 produced a report, 10 of which were judged by two “blind” judges to be on the same or a very similar theme to the words. It was concluded that the theme of a dream can be influenced by the theme of the words.
Article
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Zusammenfassung Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die Forschung zur Inkorporation von während des Schlaf applizierten externen Reizen in das Traumgeschehen. Der Vergleich der Inkorporationsraten zwischen den Studien legt 2 mögliche Einflussfaktoren auf die Integration externer Reize in den Traum nahe: „Körpernähe“ (Hautreiz wirksamer als akustischer Reiz) und Bedeutsamkeit des Stimulus. Eine Besonderheit stellen olfaktorische Reize dar, da sie kortikal anders verarbeitet werden als beispielsweise akustische Stimuli (Umgehung des Thalamus, direkte Verbindungen zur Amygdala). Tatsächlich zeigt sich in einer neueren Studie, dass die Traumemotionen, nicht jedoch der Trauminhalt, durch die Valenz des olfaktorischen Reizes beeinflusst werden. Die bisherige Forschung zeigt sehr klar, dass eine Informationsverarbeitung während des Schlafes stattfindet. Eine Fortführung dieser Forschungsrichtung wäre die Untersuchung von internen Reizen auf den Trauminhalt, z. B. Schmerzreize bei chronischen Schmerzpatienten oder Atemstillstände bei Schlafapnoe-Patienten.
This chapter surveys a body of evidence from diverse sources which suggests that since unconscious perception occurs in many contexts, there is every reason to assume that it may well occur during general anaesthesia
Article
Dream reports were tape recorded each morning independently for 10 weeks by both members of an adult heterosexual couple who alleged they regularly shared dreams. The transcribed reports were evaluated blind by 12 trained analysts using quantitative dream-content analysis. The couple had identified 13 pairs of dreams (17% of the sample) as shared. The mean percentage content overlap score of these 13 pairs (39.15%) was significantly greater than that of 80 randomly matched pairs of unshared dreams (5.23%). The content overlap scores of each analyst correlated significantly with those of the unblinded male subject (r = .72). The mean probability that the observed overlap in putatively shared dreams was caused by chance was calculated as 1 in 5 billion. Shared dreams appeared to occur in a distinct temporal cycle of 30–35 days. Content overlap between shared dreams was greatest in three of seven categories; objects, themes, and effect.
Article
On the face of it, subliminal perception violates common sense. How can a stimulus for which you have no knowledge make any difference? In its simplest terms, the answer is as follows: (1) when you have a known stimulus at a known intensity; (2) which is at or below the level of conscious awareness; and (3) behavior on a concurrent or subsequent task is modified; then (4) you have a subliminal perception. This report reviews and integrates the literature on subliminal perception. We review the history (early research was weak) and theoretical roots. Then we examine in detail the five prominent methodologies: signal detection, dual channel, masking, lexical decision, and neurophysiologic, the latter very briefly. The main part of the review addresses two major areas: Subthreshold information acquisition and subconscious information processing. Current criticisms are examined. Operational relevance is discussed. The significance of subliminal perception for operational applications is that it provides a methodological basis for one kind of training to enhance situational awareness. Cognitive processing, States of awareness, Human performance, Subliminal perception, Situational awareness.
Article
It was found that characteristic frontal EEG waves significantly often precede the rapid eye movements of dreaming. The rapid eye movements were absent during dream periods of 3 men with life-long blindness, and of 2 men, 30 and 40 years blind, respectively, but were present during dream periods in 3 men blind only 3, 10, and 15 years, respectively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In 33 adults, discrete periods of rapid eye movement potentials were recorded without exception during each of 126 nights of undisturbed sleep. These periods were invariably concomitant with a characteristic EEG pattern, stage 1.Composite histograms revealed that the mean EEG, eye movement incidence, and body movement incidence underwent regular cyclic variations throughout the night with the peaks of eye and body movement coinciding with the lightest phase of the EEG cycles. A further analysis indicated that body movement, after rising to a peak, dropped sharply at the onset of rapid eye movements and rebounded abruptly as the eye movements ceased.Records from a large number of nights in single individuals indicated that some could maintain a very striking regularity in their sleep pattern from night to night.The stage 1 EEG at the onset of sleep was never associated with rapid eye movements and was also characterized by a lower auditory threshold than the later periods of stage 1. No dreams were recalled after awakenings during the sleep onset stage 1, only hypnagogic reveries.
Article
Literature of studies where " results presented could be checked by repetition of the investigation," is reviewed under the topics: Imagery; speed; incidence and frequency; content; external stimulation; personality; ego-involvement; physiology. Studies are found to be poor in quality of scientific reporting, especially in description of samples. Control groups are rarely employed. Failure of agreement on definitions for classifying the data leads to artificial contradictions. Little use is made of appropriate statistical techniques. 121-item bibliography.
Article
A high incidence of dream recall was obtained when Ss were awakened during periods of rapid eye movements (REM), and a low incidence when awakened at other times. Ss judged these dream durations with high accuracy. The pattern of the REM's was related to the visual imagery of the dream. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present paper has been prepared as a microgenetic approach to perception and thought. Within this approach, thoughts and percepts are believed to undergo a very brief, but theoretically important, microdevelopment. Evidence was offered both to support the possibility that such microdevelopments do occur in the normal process of thinking and perceiving and to suggest some of the formal characteristics of such evolutions. Further, an attempt was made to delineate some of the possible implications of this approach for cognitive functioning in abnormal individuals and normal individuals under atypical conditions." 139-item bibliography.
Article
Using the subception hypothesis of Lazarus and McCleary, 2 hypotheses pertaining to the effect upon verbal and autonomic behavior of subliminal visual stimulation were tested. The hypotheses stated that: response latencies and GSRs would be determined by the affective value of the stimuli, and the verbal guesses made during subliminal stimulation would be associations to the stimulus items. 7 Ss were used, and after subliminal presentation of the stimuli, each S was presented with his responses and asked to match them against the stimulus items. The part of the hypothesis pertaining to response latencies was not supported, but the part pertaining to GSRs was confirmed. The second hypothesis, likewise, was confirmed. 18 references.
Article
The amount of observed eye movement was related to the degree of participation of Ss in the events of the dreams. The last eye movement before awakening corresponded in direction to the last reported fixation of the dreamer. Certain external and internal stimuli did not influence the dream content. The course of time in the dream was comparable to the time elapsing for that activity while awake. The implications of these findings are discussed. 15 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
If a loop of tape plays a clearly pronounced word or phrase over and over, sudden shifts seem to occur in what is being said. This ‘verbal transformation effect’ continues at frequent intervals during continued stimulation, sometimes introducing a new form, sometimes returning to a form already reported. The illusion was found for all stimuli used: from a word with two speech sounds to complete sentences. Quantitative measures were obtained of the effect of stimulus complexity, loudness, masking noise, and repetition rate. Transitions frequently involved a very great degree of phonetic distortion and often exhibited semantic consistency.
Article
Independent confirmation is offered that the amount of rapid eye movement during dreaming is associated with the dream content.
Article
Continuous nocturnal recording of EEG, eye movements and bed-movements was carried out on six patients, not previously receiving hypnotics, and six sex and age-matched controls. They were involved on five successive nights each—the first night being ignored. The patients were ill with typical melancholia ("endogenous depression" or "manic depressive psychosis/depressive type", 301.1 in the International Classification). According to a planned design, each patient received 400 mg. of heptabarbitone (Medomin) on two nights and dummy tablets on two nights. All the recordings were analysed by one of us in ignorance of whether the record was that of a patient or of a control. Findings included: (1) Patients spent significantly more of the night awake, although times of awakening were not related to the recurrence of rapid eye movement periods ("paradoxical sleep"). Percentage time spent during the latter, and frequency of shifts in depth of sleep, did not differ significantly from the controls. (2) Heptabarbitone greatly decreased duration of rapid eye movement (dreaming) periods and also the frequency of eye movements within those periods. (3) Heptabarbitone decreased time awake, especially in patients in early hours of the morning, and decreased frequency of shifts of sleep depth and frequency of body movement. (4) The EEG discriminated far better than body motility, which is subject to large individual variations. (5) Body motility decreased according to traditional EEG stages of sleep depth, being significantly greater in association with "paradoxical sleep" than in association with traditional "deep" sleep.
Article
A method is described whereby non-schizophrenic persons can be induced to hear illusory and hallucinatory voices by causing them to listen to repetitive personal remarks. The phenomena ranged from understandable mishearing to frank hallucinosis resembling acute paranoid schizophrenia. The observations were made during “behaviour therapy”, including that of two rubber-clothing fetishists and a transvestist, of which only one fetishist appears to be cured. The phenomenon of the “voices” is discussed in relation to recent reports of other workers. Some of the practical features of “behaviour therapy” are discussed and it is argued that (contrary to Eysenck's views) the personal relationship between patient and therapist cannot be disregarded.
Article
The tonus of extrinsic laryngeal muscles was studied in sleeping humans by means of electromyograms. A striking decrease in the muscle tonus was observed at the onset of each phase of electroencephalographic light sleep, rapid eye movements, and dreaming.
Preliminary Report presented at Meeting of Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep
  • A Rechtschaffen
  • G Shaikun
“Analyse électroencéphalographique comparée du sommeil physiologique chez le chat et chez l'homme”
  • Jouvet
“Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mécanismes responsables des differentes phases du sommeil physiologique”
  • Jouvet
Studies in Word Association
  • C G Jung