ArticleLiterature Review

Facts, Factors, and Artifacts: The Quest for Psychological Meaning

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Abstract

Issues relating to the psychological interpretation of factors are surveyed, and possible solutions are suggested. The most basic arguments regarding the reality and interpretability of factors are examined in terms of preferences for different modes of verbal formulation, preferences for different types of theoretical constructs, and confusion regarding the function of constructs. The multiplicity-parsimony issue largely dissolves when examined in the light of the functions of scientific theory, but the relevant concepts of simplicity and unity need more operational analysis. Arguments regarding causal status stem largely from widespread failure to analyze causal concepts and focus directly on the component issues. The closely related problems of descriptive generality are examined in the light of a modified hierarchical model. (34 ref.)

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... This "realism" requires deviation from the idealized system which imposes unreachable standards. They also found that factors relating to restriction on personal freedom were ranked as more distressing than real or anticipated stresses pertaining to patients (21). ...
... Hybrid measures may then be constructed which reflect the relative contributions of the "common source" to each task measure. However, this procedure still does not insure that one has a measure of some discrete problem solving component, since factors may emerge for other reasons (21). ...
Article
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Different kinds of students experience the medical school environment in different ways, pay attention to different things, perceive the same events in different ways, and consequently make various kinds of career commitments. Who is affected by what kinds of experience to become what kind of physician? The taxonomic method used identifies different types of problem-solving systems of medical students and investigates their differential behavior in the medical school setting. The different types of problem-solving systems are identified on the basis of what are considered "personality" indices, such as: (1) extraversion vs. introversion; (2) rule-bound vs. unconstrained; (3) feeling vs. thinking; (4) divergence vs. conventionality of thought; and (5) anxiety vs. adjustment. Twelve relatively homogeneous types were identified in a group of medical students at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Definite patterns of characteristics emerged for the twelve types. (Author/KE)
... This "realism" requires deviation from the idealized system which imposes unreachable standards. They also found that factors relating to restriction on personal freedom were ranked as more distressing than real or anticipated stresses pertaining to patients (21). ...
... Hybrid measures may then be constructed which reflect the relative contributions of the "common source" to each task measure. However, this procedure still does not insure that one has a measure of some discrete problem solving component, since factors may emerge for other reasons (21). ...
Technical Report
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Different kinds of students experience the medical school environment in different ways, pay attention to different things, perceive the same events in different ways, and consequently make various kinds of career commitments. Who is affected by what kinds of experience to become what kind of physician? The taxonomic method used identifies different types of problem-solving systems of medical students and instigates their differential behavior in the medical school setting. The different types of problem – solving systems are identified on the basis of what are considered"personality" indices, such as: (1) extraversion vs introversion; (2) rule-bound vs unconstrained; (3) feeling vs thinking; (4) divergence vs. conventionality of thought; and (5) anxiety vs adjustment. Twelve relatively homogeneous types were identified in a group of medical students at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Definite patterns of characteristics emerged for the twelve types.
... Thurstone's (1938a) writings about factor analysis as a method to isolating "psychological entities" or "mental faculties" led some to believe that his interpretations were a form of reification or hypostatization (e.g., Anastasi, 1938). Such interpretations imply that factors reference some tangible underlying entities or actual processes (Coan, 1964), and are the types of interpretations inherent in the clinical tradition of interpreting intelligence test scores (Mann, 1971). ...
Article
Charles Spearman and L. L. Thurstone were pioneers in the field of intelligence. They not only developed methods to assess and understand intelligence, but also developed theories about its structure and function. Methodologically, their approaches were not that distinct, but their theories of intelligence were philosophically very different – and this difference is still seen in modern approaches to intellectual assessment. In this article, we describe their theories of intelligence and then trace how these theories have influenced the development and use of intelligence instruments, paying particular attention to score interpretation.
... Raw score data for 11 of the Wiggins Content Scales of the MMPI (Wiggins, 1966) were subjected to principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation. Unlike most scales of the MMPI, this set does not contain overlapping items and therefore does not create artificial correlations and "artifactors" (Coan, 1964) simply because they share identical content. The Religious Fundamentalism (REL) and Feminine Interests (FEM) scales were omitted from the analysis, because they shared little variance with the other scales. ...
Article
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Thirty-seven findings from a previous study were replicated after the addition of 68% more cases, the inclusion of extraverts, and some slight revisions in kinds of analyses. Compared to other veterans, ISTPs and INTPs were again found to score higher on a Rebelliousness factor derived from MMPI content scales, to score lower on a Phobic Symptoms scale, to be more likely to earn a diagnosis of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder on DSM III-R/IV Axis I, and to be labeled “antisocial” and “avoidant” on Axis II. They also were more likely to have dropped out of school and to have been convicted of a crime unrelated to substance-abuse than other veterans. The findings that INTPs had shorter job lengths and more marriages and that ISFPs were low on Rebelliousness, high on Psychological Distress and Phobic Symptoms, and less likely to receive an “antisocial” diagnosis were also replicated. Twelve earlier findings were not replicated, including the association between INFJs and receipt of a diagnosis in the “dramatic” group, and INTJs and a Major Depression diagnosis. Numerous new findings were reported, including a greater likelihood that ENFP participants had made one or more suicide attempts. A type-centric perspective was proposed in which the bipolar preference contrasts as well as preference effects and preference interaction effects on other variables are viewed as artifacts of more basic whole type dynamics. It was concluded that the results of psychological type research might be valuable in the development of “type fair” measures of psychopathology.
... The theoretical status of factors has caused much debate in the past and remains a live issue in the literature today. Coan (1964) has surveyed some of' the issues relating to the psychological interpretation of f'actors and has proposed some solutions. Royce (1963) pas touted, the advantages of factors as constructs while Overall (1964) has attempted to demonstrate the futility of imputing any fundamental meaning to factors. ...
Article
"Prepared in connection with research done under Office of Naval Research Contract Nonr 1858-(15) ..." Educational Testing Service. Research bulletin CRB-67-20 and ONR Technical report. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Princeton University.
... However, this link is easy to understand once it is realized that a higherorder factor exerts an influence on a greater number of manifest variables than does a factor below it. Thus, the gfactor has a wider breadth of influence than other factors of intelligence, but it does not necessarily exert a particularly strong influence on performance on any single task (see Coan, 1964; Gustafsson, 2002; Humphreys, 1962). Thus, according to Cattell's line of reasoning, the Gffactor develops into a general factor because it influences acquisition of knowledge and skills in different domains. ...
Article
According to Cattell's [Cattell, R.B. (1987). Intelligence: Its structure, growth and action. New York: North-Holland.] Investment theory individual differences in acquisition of knowledge and skills are partly the result of investment of Fluid Intelligence (Gf) in learning situations demanding insights in complex relations. If this theory holds true Gf will be a factor of General Intelligence (g) because it is involved in all domains of learning. The purpose of the current study was to test the Investment theory, through investigating the effects on the relation between Gf and g of differential learning opportunities for different subsets of a population. A second-order model was fitted with confirmatory factor analysis to a battery of 17 tests hypothesized to measure four broad cognitive abilities The model was estimated for three groups with different learning opportunities (N = 2358 Swedes, N = 620 European immigrants, N = 591 non-European immigrants), as well as for the total group. For this group the g–Gf relationship was .83, while it was close to unity within each of the three subgroups. These results support the Investment theory.
... The principal alternative to the mental faculty conception of factors is to view factors as mathematical artifacts, providing convenient frames of reference for classification. Burt put forward such a view; factors are principles of classification, not causal explanations (Coan, 1964;Eysenck, 1972). However, a denial that factors have a base in the reality of mental functions has not found favor. ...
Article
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Current theories of the structure of cognitive abilities are critically examined and are found to lack adequate description of the processes underlying the abilities. An alternative model, A. Luria's (1966) theory of simultaneous and successive syntheses, is presented and discussed. This model of information processing is supported by factor analytic studies of cognitive abilities and then related to data from studies of memory, imagery, and language. A model of abilities in terms of a structure-process distinction is proposed. (64 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... or administrative role, which operates in special organizational settings, or delusions, which are limited to specific psychotic groups, Rather, the appropriate degree of generalizability for a measure depends upon the nature of the construct assessed and the scope of its theoretical applicability. A closely related issue of "referent generality" (Coan. 1964;Snow, 1974), called "referent validity" by Cook and D. Campbell (1979), concerns the extent to which research evidence supports a measure's range of reference and the multiplicity of its referent terms. This concept points to the need to tailor the level of construct inte~pretation to the limits of the evidence and to avoid both oversimp ...
Article
Questions of the adequacy of a test as a measure of the characteristic it is interpreted to assess are answerable on scientific grounds by appraising psychometric evidence, especially construct validity. Questions of the appropriateness of test use in proposed applications are answerable on ethical grounds by appraising potential social consequences of the testing. The 1st set of answers provides an evidential basis for test interpretation, and the 2nd set provides a consequential basis for test use. The present article stresses (a) the importance of construct validity for test use because it provides a rational foundation for predictiveness and relevance and (b) the importance of taking into account the value implications of test interpretations per se. By thus considering both the evidential and consequential bases of both test interpretation and test use, the roles of evidence and social values in the overall validation process are illuminated, and test validity comes to be based on ethical and evidential grounds. (2½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
... Among other things, the two types of tests differ in what Snow (1974;Coan, 1964) calls referent generality --that is, in the breadth or variety of performances presumed to be covered or interpreted by the respectively measured constructs of educational achievement and scholastic ability. One implication of this difference in referent generality, according to Snow (1980), is that "if one chooses to work with a relatively specific level of achievement measurement, the best predictor ••• will be relevant prior achievement, [and] next best will be general scholastic ability ••• lf one chooses to work at a more general level of achievement construct, [such as college grade-point average,] the best ••• measures for prediction purposes will be general scholastic ability, followed by specific prior achievement tests" (Snow, 1980, p. 46 Pike, 1978), whereas others include under the same rubric virtually full-time instruction at specialized preparatory schools for periods of six months or more (cf. ...
Article
Controversies over coaching for scholastic aptitude tests include disputes over the meaning of scholastic aptitude, over the meaning of coaching, over the nature of the fundamental research questions, over the adequacy of the empirical evidence for coaching effectiveness, over the possible implications of effective coaching for student performance and for test validity, and over the consequent ethical imperatives for educational and testing practice. Three possible outcomes of coaching having different implications for college performance are discussed — genuine improvements in the abilities measured by the test resulting in commensurate increases in test scores; enhanced test‐taking sophistication (item familiarization, guessing, pacing) resulting in increased test scores that are more accurate assessments of ability; and, heightened test‐taking artifice (stratagems and answer‐selection tricks) resulting in increased test scores that are inaccurately high assessments of ability. A framework for gauging the practical utility of coaching effects is presented and several ostensible yardsticks of coaching impact are discounted as largely irrelevant.
... Because trait researchers tend to proceed inductively in search of traits, a priority question in the measurement validation of lifestyle factors ought to be whether the factors correspond to traits or method artifacts. Coan (1964) argues that cross-validation replication in new data shows that artifacts, like chance characteristics of a sample, do not account for obtained results. 4. Discriminant validity. ...
Article
How valid are lifestyle trait concepts and measures? A literature review shows little published evidence to suggest lifestyle trait researchers have rigorously tested the validity of their concepts and measures. An illustrative validation study demonstrates how trait validation efforts can improve. The validation study carefully scrutinizes three previously proposed lifestyle traits and provides only partial support for the validity of two of the three traits evaluated.
... Though the picture formats are similar to those on the tests above, only CogAT 7 attempts to use them to measure Gf content factors and thus provides the recommend minimum of three indicators for each group factor and three group factors for Gf (Bollen, 1989;Carroll, 1997). Heterogeneity of item content yields a measure of Gf with high "referent generality" (Gustafsson, 2002;Coan, 1964) and less construct underrepresentation (Messick, 1989). This plurality of measures is helpful for assessing the validity of the new formats in terms of detecting distinct verbal and quantitative factors. ...
Article
Measures of broad fluid abilities including verbal, quantitative, and figural reasoning are commonly used in the K-12 school context for a variety of purposes. However, differentiation of these domains is difficult for young children (grades K-2) who lack basic linguistic and mathematical literacy. This study examined the latent factor structure of a picture-based measure of broad fluid reasoning abilities using a bifactor MIRT model to separate general and broad domain factors in a large representative sample of U.S. school children. Substantial evidence showed that picture-based item formats can distinguish between general and domain-specific fluid reasoning abilities in the early school grades. The verbal tasks showed the strongest domain factor and discriminant validity, although the quantitative tasks also showed considerable evidence of a domain factor. Furthermore, comparisons of ELL vs. non-ELL, FRL-eligible vs. non-FRL, Black-White, Hispanic-White, and Asian-White students all yielded small to negligible group differences (below 0.4 SD) on these measures. These results compare favorably to differences observed on tests using traditional item formats, and are smaller than the .50–1.0 SD group differences often observed in older students.
... These two outcomes involving FFM facets are consistent with the view that the facets are more likely than the five broader factors to be predictive of performance outcomes (Borman et al.,1997;Hough, 2003;Hough & Schneider, 1996, Murphy, 1996Paunonen, 1998;Paunonen & Ashton, 2001). Indeed, a number of writers have emphasized the heuristic value of a multilevel hierarchical approach to personality (Carroll, 2002;Coan, 1964;Costa & McCrae, 1995;Digman, 1997;Emmerich, 1968;Hough & Schneider, 1996;John, 1990;John & Srivastava, 1999;Saucier & Goldberg, 2003). An important implication of this view is that measurement at different levels of the FFM hierarchy can help systematize relationships between the FFM and other domains (Hough & Ones, 2001;Mount et al., 2003;Johnson, 2003). ...
Article
Does personality impact differently on occupational choice and occupational performance? In a study of established teachers, interests, the Five-Factor Model, and attributions were examined in relation to occupational choice and performance. Attributions were assessed using a new instrument designed for teachers. Choice of teaching specialty was found to be most strongly associated with interest in the arts and sciences, openness to experience, and internal attributions in response to a positive classroom event. On the other hand, quality of teaching assessed by the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) was associated (negatively) with business interests and with a tendency to externalize blame in response to a problematic teaching situation. Study findings suggested the hypothesis that broad traits located relatively high in a personality hierarchy influence trait matching in selecting an occupation, whereas more specific motivational/dynamic factors located lower in the personality hierarchy influence performance within the chosen niche. The report includes supplemental evidence on the construct validity of the personality measures for assessing teachers.
... Constructs close to the apex of the hierarchical model can be described as having high referent generality, and constructs that are highly specific to a limited situation have low referent generality (see, e.g., Coan, 1964). For example, programming skill in a single programming language can be regarded as a narrow construct with low referent generality. ...
Article
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This study investigates the role of working memory and experience in the development of programming knowledge and programming skill. An instrument for assessing programming skill – where skill is inferred from programming performance – was administered along with tests of working memory and programming knowledge. We recruited 65 professional software developers from nine companies in eight European countries to participate in a 2-day study. Results indicate that the effect of working memory and experience on programming skill is mediated through programming knowledge. Programming knowledge was further found to explain individual differences in programming skill to a large extent. The overall findings support Cattell’s investment theory. Further, we discuss how this study, which currently serves a pilot function, can be extended in future studies. Although low statistical power is a concern for some of the results reported, this work contributes to research on individual differences in high-realism work settings with professionals as subjects.
... Raw score data from the 158 introverted cases for 11 of the Wiggins Content Scales (Wiggins, 1966) of the MMPI were subjected to Principal Components Factor Analysis with Varimax Rotation. In contrast to the other scales of the MMPI, these scales do not contain overlapping items and therefore do not create artificial correlations and "artifactors" (Coan, 1964) simply because they share identical content. Support for the validity of these scales may be found in Wiggins, Goldberg, and Appelbaum (1971), Jarnecke and Chambers (1977), and Mezzich, Damrin, and Erickson (1974). ...
... Extending this logic, one could argue that the "strong program" of CV research necessitates strong theory, but that weak theory may be borne by overlapping, if contradictory, nomological networks ( Cronbach, 1988, p.12;Meehl, 1990). Regarding the focal questionnaires, in contrast to the H-FTP scale, recent measurement development of C-FTP has provided evidence for its context-sensitivity ( Coan, 1964;Guilford, 1961). For example, Zacher and Freese (2009) has investigated the empirical differentiation of general and occupational FTP. ...
Thesis
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The dissertation presents evidence on the measurement properties of self-report items in contemporary organizational contexts (Podsakoff & Organ, 1986). Operationally, the dissertation adopts a construct representation approach to construct validity, defined by the response processes engaged for measurement performance in trait assessment (AERA, 2014; Embretson, 1983). For example, self-report measures are known to be affected by a variety of variables, such as semantic and referent features (Cermac & Craik, 1979; Kelly, 1955) and design factors that impact cognitive context (Stone, et al, 2000; The Science of Self-Report). In turn, the response processes impacts the external correlations (Embretson, 2007). To the extent that semantic-referent features and design factors are construct-irrelevant, reduced external correlations can be expected. This dissertation presents evidence from a qualitative review of self-report future time perspective (FTP) instruments across organizational and retirement contexts. A quantitative review compares external correlates of the two instruments. A retrospective-observational study benchmarks the psychometric properties of Carstensen's self-report instrument using modern latent-variable modeling (item-response theory [IRT]). Structural equation modeling (SEM) is further used to test for moderating effects of subjective life expectancy (SLE) on latent predictors of FTP and retirement plans. Evidence from a '3 x 2' mixed-subjects experimental design is also presented indicating the effects of subjective life expectancy (SLE) on measurement error in personality factors, FTP, and retirement plans. Discussion centers on advancing measurement paradigms in psychological and education research, as well as -more generally- adopting an integrated perspective of construct validity for advancing and evaluating substantive research.
... Referent generality, then, refers to the range of variables potentially implicated with or affected by the construct as measured. It is similar in many ways to the concept of nomothetic span (Embretson, 1983) and to the distinctions made in factor analysis among general, broad, and narrow or specific factors (Coan, 1964 J • Differences among constructs in referent generality point to the need to tailor the level of construct interpretation to the limits of the evidence and to avoid both overgeneralization and oversimplif ication of construct labels. Nonetheless, construct interpretations depend not only on available evidence but on potential evidence, so that the choice of construct labels is influenced by theory as well as by evidence and, as we shall see, by ideologies about the nature of society and humankind which add value implications that go beyond evidential validity per sa. ...
... The principal alternative to the mental faculty conception of factors is to view factors as mathematical artifacts, providing convenient frames of reference for classification. Burt put forward such a view; factors are principles of classification, not causal explanations (Coan, 1964;Eysenck, 1972). However, a denial that factors have a base in the reality of mental functions has not found favor. ...
Article
Current theories of the structure of cognitive abilities are critically examined and found to lack adequate description of the processes underlying the abilities. An alternative model, Luria's theory of simultaneous and successive syntheses, is presented and discussed. This model of information processing is supported by a number of factor analytic studies of cognitive abilities and then related to data from studies of memory, imagery, and language. Finally, a model of abilities in terms of a structure-process distinction is proposed.
... Notably, descriptive models from behavioral economics (Kahneman and Tversky, 1979;Kahneman and Tversky, 1982;Q17 planning fallacy) and predictive models from psychology (Azjen, 1991) do not delineate planning behavior in terms of its degree of formality. However, accepting RePlanning as a contextual construct (Coan, 1964), the earliest distinction regarding formality can be sourced to Kroeger (1982). Specifically, Kroeger ascribes formal planning and informal planning to employersponsored and employee-directed activities, respectively. ...
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As workforce aging continues through the next decade, the number of persons who will retire from long-held jobs and careers will increase. In recent years, researchers across disciplines of psychology have focused attention on the impact of the retirement process on post-retirement adjustment and well-being. One area that has received attention from investigators in both psychology and economics pertains to the impact of retirement planning on the retirement decision and post-retirement adjustment. The objective of the current review is twohreefold. The first goal is to review the literature on retirement planning with attention to past conceptualizations and current theoretical specifications. Second, empirical work investigating the psychological antecedents of retirement planning is reviewed. The primary conclusion reached from this review is that, conceptually, retirement planning continues to be poorly delineated and, thereby, narrowly investigated. Empirically, cognitive antecedents of retirement planning continue to figure prominently in both workplace and retirement researches. The boundary conditions of retirement planning, as well as alternative mechanisms for adult wellbeing, are discussed. Specifically, retirement planning’s meaning amidst increasing job mobility and longer life expectancies are identified as two complementary areas for future empirical integration of work - retirement research domains.
... Following Cattell (1978) and Coan (1964); Carroll (1993) did not determine the abilities' strata based solely on a factor order, but his judgment of the their degree of referent generality. This was largely because the data sets he used contained a variety of breadth in the measured variables. ...
Article
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John Carroll's three-stratum theory—and the decades of research behind its development—are foundational to the contemporary practice of intellectual assessment. The present study addresses some limitations of Carroll’s work: specification, reproducibility with more modern methods, and interpretive relevance. We re-analyzed select datasets from Carroll's survey of factor analytic studies using confirmatory factor analysis as well as modern indices of interpretive relevance. For the majority of the datasets, we found that Carroll likely extracted too many factors representing Stratum II abilities. Moreover, almost all of factors representing Stratum II abilities had little-to-no interpretive relevance above and beyond that of general intelligence. We conclude by discussing implications of this research and some directions for future research.
... The principal alternative to the mental faculty conception of factors is to view factors as mathematical artifacts, providing convenient frames of reference for classification. Burt put forward such a view; factors are principles of classification, not causal explanations (Coan, 1964;Eysenck, 1972). However, a denial that factors have a base in the reality of mental functions has not found favor. ...
Article
The development of theoretical systems in the social sciences has proceeded without sufficient attention to structural similarities between different universes of content. This has interfered with the discovery of isomorphic relationships between theories. In this paper the central variables of teacher-counselor personality are assigned to 3 domains (Personal, Interpersonal, and Attitudinal) which are analyzed in terms of similar dimensional structures. Facet analysis is used to compare domain elements and to discover empirical patterns of variables. Finally, the interdomain correlations are used to construct a heuristic typology of counselor syndromes. (38 ref.)
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It is proposed that many concepts of personality structure and structural development are of primary relevance to one of three general orientations, here called the “classical,” “differential,” and “ipsative” views. Certain theoretical and methodological features of each approach are reviewed. The discussion emphasizes differences and similarities among the views and points out some implications for research.
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The relationship between learning, development, and ability factors is considered. After defining learning as effects changes in ability factor scores, some of the more learning principles are stated within this framework. types of learning are integrated with the concept of the ment of ability factors. This account provides for a leaning view of the growth of ability factors, which is hypothesized provide the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative and qualitative (structural) changes in ability factor scores. In this way, mechanistic and organismic approaches to development are brought together in considering interindividual differences in intraindividual changes over the life span.Copyright © 1973 S. Karger AG, Basel
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Interpretation of intelligence tests has changed over time, from a focus on the elevation of general ability in the early 1900s, to the shape and/or scatter of subtest and index scores in the mid-1900s to the early 2000s, and back to elevation today. The primary emphasis of interpretation now, however, is widely recommended to be on normative strengths and weaknesses of scores reflecting broad and narrow abilities in the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory (Schneider & McGrew, 2012). Decisions about which abilities are important to assess for the diagnosis of learning difficulties are based largely on literature reviews by Flanagan, Ortiz, Alfonso, and Mascolo (2006) and McGrew and Wendling (2010). These were narrative research syntheses, however, and did not attempt to estimate the magnitude of the relations between CHC abilities and academic achievement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the effect size for these relations across age groups. Results of our analyses found that psychometric g and one or more broad cognitive abilities are substantially related to each area of academic achievement. Across all achievement domains and ages, g had by far the largest effect, with a mean effect size of r2=0.540. In fact, psychometric g explained more variance in academic outcomes than all broad abilities combined. Most broad abilities explained less than 10% of the variance in achievement and none explained more than 20%. Some age-related changes in cognitive ability-achievement relations were also observed. In sum, results of our meta-analysis support the interpretation of the overall score on intelligence tests as a measure of psychometric g for diagnosing difficulties in reading and mathematics, but only the interpretation of index scores measuring Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) when diagnosing difficulties in reading. Implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
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The theoretical and methodological concepts available to, and needed by, research on aptitudes as cognitive processes are discussed. Contemporary views of cognitive processes are examined in relation to individual difference constructs and methods used to examine their reliability and validity. Individual difference constructs are discussed in relation to cognitive process models and research thereon. Studies of short-term memory processes are reviewed to demonstrate the complementary strengths and weaknesses of experimental and correlational methods and concepts. A coordinated approach to the study of aptitude as information processing is suggested.
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The hierarchical and radex models of ability organization are shown to be parallel. Both models suggest a complexity continuum along which cognitive performance tasks can be arrayed. In our revised radex model, the complexity continuum from the center to the periphery is shown to correspond to the general-to-specific dimension in factor analyses, or to test correlations with the general factor; complexity is redefined as apparent processing complexity. Examination of the theoretical and empirical bases for this continuum indicates its central importance for theories of intelligence.
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Ss were 400 scholarship candidates. A 60 * 60 correlation matrix was factor analyzed using an alpha factor analysis. The resulting factor matrix was then rotated to simple structure with both orthogonal and oblique rotations. A 2nd-order factor analysis was run on the intercorrelation between factors after the oblique rotation. A similar procedure was followed on 2,500 randomly answered MMPIs and SVIBs to assess the effect of scale interdependency. The results show 10 1st-order factors accounting for 76.7% of interscale variance of the original variance. The 2nd-order analysis procedures form alpha factors including a personality factor, 2 interest factors, and a factor which has loading from both interest and personality domains. Effects of scale interdependence are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Considers the concepts of quantitative and structural change as these have been characterized from a multivariate perspective, and introduces a 3rd type-quantistructural change, a hybrid of the original 2 types. These 3 types of change properties, together with the possibility for stability, are applied to 3 separate situations: the latent structure of a factorially complex criterion variable that is "extra" the original factor analysis; a factor defined in terms of salient variables; and hierarchical factor models. This provides for 2 separate 2-level analyses of change. The trait-state factor distinction and long-term vs short-term time spans are also considered and are seen to imply certain restrictions as to the possible types of multivariate ontogenetic change. (51 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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As workforce aging continues through the next decade, the number of persons who will retire from long-held jobs and careers will increase. In recent years, researchers across disciplines of psychology have focused attention on the impact of the retirement process on post-retirement adjustment and well-being. One area that has received attention from investigators in both psychology and economics pertains to the impact of retirement planning on the retirement decision and post-retirement adjustment. The objective of the current review is twohreefold. The first goal is to review the literature on retirement planning with attention to past conceptualizations and current theoretical specifications. Second, empirical work investigating the psychological antecedents of retirement planning is reviewed. The primary conclusion reached from this review is that, conceptually, retirement planning continues to be poorly delineated and, thereby, narrowly investigated. Empirically, cognitive antecedents of retirement planning continue to figure prominently in both workplace and retirement researches. The boundary conditions of retirement planning, as well as alternative mechanisms for adult wellbeing, are discussed. Specifically, retirement planning’s meaning amidst increasing job mobility and longer life expectancies are identified as two complementary areas for future empirical integration of work - retirement research domains.
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How valid are lifestyle trait concepts and measures? A literature review shows little published evidence to suggest lifestyle trait researchers have rigorously tested the validity of their concepts and measures. An illustrative validation study demonstrates how trait validation efforts can improve. The validation study carefully scrutinizes three previously proposed lifestyle traits and provides only partial support for the validity of two of the three traits evaluated.
Article
Developments in psychological measurement over a 50-year period reveal a growing awareness of the modifiability of human behavior, as exemplified in cross-cultural comparisons, as well as in intergenera tional changes within a single culture. Implications for testing are examined with special reference to the need for considering the context in which test takers devel oped and the contexts in which they are expected to function. Norms are viewed as the test performance of a population at a particular time and place. This orien tation affects the interpretation of test scores. At a more basic level, cohort studies reveal systematic pop ulation changes. Cognitive scores may rise or decline, depending on concomitant societal changes. Progres sive changes in attitudes, self-concepts, and other af fective traits may in turn influence cognitive develop ment. Affective variables may thus serve as intervening variables in the complex chain of events from genes to aptitudes. The traits identified by factor analysis are being increasingly recognized as descrip tive categories for summarizing behavioral consisten cies, rather than as underlying, fixed, causal entities. For testing purposes, this orientation provides flexibil ity in developing and choosing tests that fit the needed level, from highly specific behavioral units, through group factors of intermediate breadth, to such broad factors as scholastic aptitude. From a theoretical view point, the question of factor formation becomes mean ingful, insofar as the very traits into which intelligence becomes organized reflect the influence of individuals' learning histories and the experiential contexts in which they were reared.
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Established teachers’ self-reports on Five-Factor Model (FFM) scales, interests, and attributions were studied in relation to two outcome criteria, choice of teaching specialty (niche selection) and quality of teaching. Choice of teaching specialty was most strongly associated with openness to experience, interest in the arts and/or sciences, and internal-locus attributions (ability and effort) in response to a positive classroom event. On the other hand, quality of teaching assessed by the National Board of Professional Teaching Standards was positively associated with several facets of the FFM, and negatively associated with business interests and with a tendency to externalize blame. Unexpectedly, Conscientiousness was unrelated to teacher performance. Findings suggested that broadly defined personality characteristics impact more on niche selection than on performance within the chosen niche, whereas narrowly defined characteristics better predict performance, at least among established professionals.
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