Article

Phospholipid-Based Signaling in Plants

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Amsterdam, NL-1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Annual review of plant biology (Impact Factor: 23.3). 02/2003; 54(1):265-306. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134748
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Phospholipids are emerging as novel second messengers in plant cells. They are rapidly formed in response to a variety of stimuli via the activation of lipid kinases or phospholipases. These lipid signals can activate enzymes or recruit proteins to membranes via distinct lipid-binding domains, where the local increase in concentration promotes interactions and downstream signaling. Here, the latest developments in phospholipid-based signaling are discussed, including the lipid kinases and phospholipases that are activated, the signals they produce, the domains that bind them, the downstream targets that contain them and the processes they control.

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Available from: Harold J G Meijer
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    • "Phosphatidic acid is rapidly and transiently generated in response to various stresses and has been proposed to function as a second messenger [49]. This phosphatidic acid constitutes a minor portion of membrane lipids under control conditions, but its levels significantly increased upon exposure to numerous stresses including cold stress [49] [50]. Several modes of action for phosphatidic acid in signal transduction can be imagined. "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
    • "Lipid signalling has emerged as one of the major signalling networks as adaptive mechanism in response to various environmental cues and adverse growth conditions (Singh et al., 2015). In this sense, membranes are the sites where many signals are perceived by the cell and it is well establish that lipids or lipidderived molecules are a group of plant messengers that have been described to be involved in stress responses (Meijer and Munnik, 2003; Sun et al., 2013; Ruelland et al., 2015). Among the enzymes that have a role in mediating membrane lipid remodeling it is important to mention the phospholipases that catalyze the initial step of phospholipid breakdown and generate multiple lipid derived second messengers (Singh et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vicia sativa, is a leguminous species able to germinate, grow in the presence of phenol and remove this contaminant. However, there are not reports concerning the signals triggered by the pollutant and how plants perceive and transduce this signal in order to adapt to adverse conditions. Phosphatidic acid (PA) has been proposed as a key messenger in plants and it can be generated via phospholipase D (PLD) or via phospholipase C (PLC) coupled to diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). Thus, changes in this minor phospholipid and in enzymes involved in its catabolism were analyzed after treatment with phenol (25 and 100mgL-1). The results obtained, seem to suggest that the higher concentration could be sensed as a stressful signal, since a rapid (1.5h) and transient increase in PA, via PLD and a second wave of increase possibly via PLC/DGK was observed after 96h of exposure with 100mgL-1 of phenol. Besides, a markedly increase in enzymes related with PA metabolism, mainly DGK, phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIK) and PA kinase (PAK), was detected after long term treatment. Thus, this study highlighted the key role of minor phospholipids, especially PA, in the transduction pathway induced by phenol.
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    • "This is of particular interest, as these major structural phospholipids are substrates for phospholipases. Phospholipases and phospholipid-derived molecules are crucial elements in stress response mediation, particularly via the activation of the phospholipase A (PLA), phospholipase D (PLD), or phospholipase C (PLC) and diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) pathways (Munnik and Testerink, 2009; Meijer and Munnik, 2003). In animals, in vitro exposure of epithelial cells to O 3 resulted in dose-dependent increases in phospholipase A2, phospholipase C and phospholipase D activity (Salgo et al., 1994; Kafoury et al.,1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: All along their life, plants and trees are exposed to various stresses, and particularly to abiotic ones. Ozone (O3) is one of the most important air pollutants, whose ground levels keep increasing as a result of climate change. High O3 concentrations deeply affect plants and cells, and impact worldwide crop and forest production. In plant leaves, O3 directly interferes with surface tissues or reaches mesophyll cells through stomata. In this case, O3 is almost immediately degraded into reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoplastic space of plant cells. For plants to acclimate to O3, the O3 stress signal has to be perceived at the cellular level and relayed to the nucleus to lead to cell reprogramming. The aim of this review is to focus on different O3-sensing localizations, i.e., epicuticular waxes, the cell wall and the plasma membrane, and to detail the different early signaling components related to these sites – in particular lipids, membrane proteins (G proteins, NADPH oxidases and ion channels) and MAP kinases. Finally, some interesting putative membrane-related O3 signaling components are presented as clues to be validated in future investigations.
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