Long-term interleukin 10 therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients has a proviral and anti-inflammatory effect

Department of Medicine, University of Florida, 1600 S.W. Archer Road, PO Box 100214, Gainesville, FL 32610-0214, USA.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.06). 10/2003; 38(4):859-68. DOI: 10.1053/jhep.2003.50427
Source: PubMed


An imbalance in Th1 and Th2 cytokine production is implicated in disease progression of HCV. Our aim was to determine the effect of IL-10 administration in patients with HCV-related liver disease. Thirty patients with advanced fibrosis who had failed antiviral therapy were enrolled in a 12-month treatment regimen with SQ IL-10 given daily or thrice weekly. Liver biopsies were performed before and after therapy. Serum and PBMC were collected for HCV RNA, ALT, and functional T-cell analysis. IL-10 led to significant improvement in serum ALT (mean ALT: day 0 = 142 +/- 17 vs. month 12 = 75 +/- 10; P <.05). Hepatic inflammation score decreased by at least 2 in 13 of 28 patients (mean decrease from 4.6 +/- 0.3 to 3.7 +/- 0.3, P <.05) and 11 of 28 showed a reduction in fibrosis score (mean change from 5.0 +/- 0.2 to 4.5 +/- 0.3, P <.05). Serum HCV RNA levels increased by 0.5 log during therapy (mean HCV RNA day 0: 12.3 +/- 3.0 Meq/mL; 12 months: 38 Meq/mL; P <.05) and returned to baseline at the end of follow-up (11.0 +/- 2.4 Meq/mL). Five patients developed viral loads of greater than 120 Meq/mL and two of these developed an acute flare in serum ALT. IL-10 caused a decrease in the number of HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma secreting T cells and alterations in PBMC cytokine production towards a Th2 dominant profile. These changes parallel the improvement in ALT and rise in HCV RNA. In conclusion, long-term rIL-10 therapy appears to decrease disease activity, but also leads to increased HCV viral burden via alterations in immunologic viral surveillance.

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    • "Moreover, chronically HCV-infected patients who received a short treatment with recombinant IL-10 showed decreased hepatic inflammation and reduced liver fibrosis.37 On the other hand, a 12-month IL-10 therapy in patients with advanced fibrosis led to increased levels of serum HCV RNA and a reduction in fibrosis score,38 suggesting that high levels of IL-10 not only decrease fibrogenesis but also lead to an increased HCV viral burden. This could be achieved by decreasing the number of HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ gamma interferon-secreting T cells and polarizing the immune response towards a Th2-dominant profile. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoregulatory cytokines may influence the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcome. This study aimed to determine the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the interleukin (IL)-10 (-1082) G/A polymorphism, and its association with chronicity or resolution of HCV genotype 4 infection in Egypt. The frequencies of different dimorphic polymorphisms based on single nucleotide substitution in chronic HCV patients (50) and resolved HCV patients (50) were: IL-10 (-1082) G/G 22 (44%) and 18 (36%), G/A 19 (38%) and 24 (48%), and A/A 9 (18%), and 8 (16%), respectively. In the sustained virologic response (SVR) (36) and spontaneously resolved subjects (14) groups, the frequencies were: IL-10 (-1082) G/G 11 (30.6%) and 7 (50%) G/A 18 (50%) and 6 (42.9%), A/A 7 (19.4%) and 1 (7.1%), respectively. An association between male gender and chronic hepatitis C outcome (P value 0.041) was found. However, no significant gender difference was found when we compared females versus males with elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in the chronic HCV patient group (P value = 1). No significant difference in the frequency of IL-10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 1082 was found between chronic and resolved HCV subjects.
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    • "Moreover, the stimulation of CB2 favors the transition of the Th1/Th2 balance to an anti-inflammatory Th2 profile by increasing the IL-10 levels [50]–[52]. In a study evaluating IL-10 administration in 30 patients with HCV-related liver disease, Nelson et al showed that IL-10 caused a decrease in the number of HCV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-gamma secreting T cells and alterations in PBMC cytokine production towards a Th2 dominant profile, as well as an improvement in the ALT serum levels [53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aim To evaluate in anti-HCV-positive patients the clinical impact of the rs35761398 variant of the CNR2 gene leading to the substitution of Gln (Q) of codon 63 of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) with Arg (R). Patients and Methods 253 consecutive anti-HCV-/HCV-RNA-positive patients were enrolled, of whom 53 were HCV carriers with persistently normal ALT (PNALT group) and 200 had a history of steadily abnormal serum ALT values (abnormal ALT group). All patients were naive for antiviral therapy and were screened for the CNR2 rs35761398 polymorphism by a TaqMan assay. Results Subjects in the PNALT group, compared with those in the abnormal ALT group were older (58.5±12 vs. 50.7±12.4 years, p = 0.001), more frequently female (66% vs. 42%, p = 0.003), with lower body massindex (BMI) (24.5±3.1 vs. 26.6±4.6, p = 0.003), and more frequently with HCV genotype 2 (43.1% vs 17.7%, p = 0.0002) and CB2-63 QQ variant (34% vs. 11%, p = 0.0001). Considering all 253 patients, no difference in the demographic, biochemical, or virological data was observed between patients in the different CB2-63 variants. The logistic regression analysis identified CB2-63 QQ, HCV genotype 2, older age and lower BMI as independent predictors of PNALT (p<0.00001). Discussion The CB2-63 QQ variant in HCV patients was independently associated with the PNALT status.
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    • "The combination of these 3 SNPs (ATA, ACC, and GCC) is linked to differential expression of IL-10 gene [84]. As IL-10 production affects HCV replication or the host immune system, it is likely to affects the treatment outcome [86]. Many studies have shown that the carriage of the -592A or the -819 T SNP was linked with a sustained virological response. "
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