Article

National Trends in Soft Drink Consumption among Children and Adolescents Age 6 to 17 Years: Prevalence, Amounts, and Sources, 1977/1978 to 1994/1998

Authors:
  • United States Department of Agriculture (retired)
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Trends between 1977/1978 and 1994/1998 in the prevalence, amounts, and sources of soft drink consumption were examined among youth age 6 to 17 years. Dietary intake data were examined from three national surveys: the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977/1978 (n=8,908), and the combined Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994/1996, and the Supplemental Children's Survey 1998 (n=3,177). Soft drinks were defined as carbonated beverages (all United States Department of Agriculture database codes starting with 924) and included flavored waters and juice drinks. Subjects/Setting A national sample of youth ages 6 to 17 years were interviewed for each of the 3 surveys. t tests were conducted to examine between-survey changes in soft drink consumption and sources of soft drinks. The prevalence of soft drink consumption among youth ages 6 to 17 years increased 48%, from a prevalence of 37% in 1977/1978 to 56% in 1994/1998. Mean intake of soft drinks more than doubled, from 5 fl oz to 12 fl oz per day. Although the home environment remained the largest source of children's soft drink access, an increasing share was obtained from restaurants and fast-food establishments (+53%), vending machines (+48%), and other sources (+37%). Away-from-home sources of soft drink are an important factor for dietitians to consider when evaluating the dietary intake and nutritional status of youths.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The amount of milk intake reported by the girls in the CON group is lower 5 fl oz/d compared to a national survey for milk 8 fl oz/d (32). In contrast, the amount of non diet soda the girls in this investigation drank was 4.5 fl oz/d compared to the national survey of 14 and 16 fl oz/d (19,64). The prevalence of soft drink consumption among youth, particularly the ages of 6-18 years has increased 48% (64). ...
... In contrast, the amount of non diet soda the girls in this investigation drank was 4.5 fl oz/d compared to the national survey of 14 and 16 fl oz/d (19,64). The prevalence of soft drink consumption among youth, particularly the ages of 6-18 years has increased 48% (64). The mean intakes of soft drinks have more than doubled from 5 fl oz to 12 fl oz/d. ...
... Although not reflected in the beverage consumption patterns in the girls in this investigation the prevalence of obesity among youth has increased dramatically, suggesting that energy intake exceeds needs. Increased carbonated soft drinks, fruit drinks, fruit drinks, could increase adiposity in youth (64). These adolescent girls in this investigation were normally active and were not overweight. ...
Article
Background: Increased soft-drink consumption has contributed to poor calcium intake with 90% of adolescent girls consuming less than the RDA for calcium. Purpose/objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the independent and additive effects of two interventions (milk and resistance training) on nutrient adequacy, body composition, and bone health in adolescent girls. Methods: The experimental design consisted of four experimental groups of adolescent girls 14–17 years of age: (1) Milk + resistance training [MRT]; n = 15; (2) Resistance training only [RT]; n = 15; (3) Milk only [M] n = 20; (4) Control [C] n = 16. A few significant differences were observed at baseline between the groups for subject characteristics. Testing was performed pre and post-12 week training period for all groups. Milk was provided (3, 8 oz servings) for both the MRT and the M groups. The MRT group and the RT groups performed a supervised periodized resistance training program consisting of supervised one-hour exercise sessions 3 d/wk (M, W, F) for 12 wk. Baseline dietary data was collected utilizing the NUT-P-FFQ and/or a 120 item FFQ developed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (Seattle, Washington). Body composition was measured in the morning after an overnight fast using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with a total body scanner (ProdigyTM, Lunar Corporation, Madison, WI). A whole body scan for bone density and lumbar spine scans were performed on all subjects. Maximal strength of the upper and lower body was assessed via a one-repetition maximum (1-RM) squat and bench press exercise protocols. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Significant differences in nutrient intakes between groups generally reflected the nutrient composition of milk with greater intakes of protein and improved nutrient adequacy for several B vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and zinc. Mean calcium intake was 758 and 1581 mg/d, in the non-milk and milk groups, respectively, with 100% of girls in the milk groups consuming > RDA of 1300 mg/d. There were no effects of milk on body composition or muscle performance, but resistance training had a main effect and significantly increased body mass, lean body mass, muscle strength, and muscle endurance. There was a main effect of milk and resistance training on several measures of bone mineral density (BMD). Changes in whole body BMD in the M, RT, MRT, and CON were 0.45, 0.52, 1.32, and −0.19%, respectively (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Over the course of 12 weeks the effects of 1300 mg/d of calcium in the form of fluid milk combined with a heavy resistance training program resulted in the additive effects of greater nutrient adequacy and BMD in adolescent girls. While further studies are needed, combining increased milk consumption with resistance training appears to optimize bone health in adolescent girls.
... High sugar intake, especially in soft drinks, has recently become a major public health concern and health policy problem. [1][2][3] Soft drinks including nonalcoholic, flavored, carbonated or non-carbonated beverages are usually available in bottles or cans. 1,3,4 Although the Food Guide Pyramid suggested that the intake of added sweeteners should constitute 6-10 % of daily energy, 2 soft drinks are regarded as the largest source of added J Health Sci Surveillance Sys April 2017; Vol 5; No 2 sugar and important contributors of high diet calories in United States. ...
... [1][2][3] Soft drinks including nonalcoholic, flavored, carbonated or non-carbonated beverages are usually available in bottles or cans. 1,3,4 Although the Food Guide Pyramid suggested that the intake of added sweeteners should constitute 6-10 % of daily energy, 2 soft drinks are regarded as the largest source of added J Health Sci Surveillance Sys April 2017; Vol 5; No 2 sugar and important contributors of high diet calories in United States. 2,4 Based on the reports, per capita milk consumption has decreased although the amount of consuming low nutrients soft drinks has increased dramatically in the last two decades. ...
... 2,4 Based on the reports, per capita milk consumption has decreased although the amount of consuming low nutrients soft drinks has increased dramatically in the last two decades. 1,5 Based on the informal reports, each Iranian citizen typically consumes about 33-42 liters of carbonated beverages per year which is three or four times more than the global average. Based on the result of the study in Farooj (Northern Khorasan, Iran), 94% of the secondary school students largely used soft drinks at home, with a frequency of 1-2 times per week. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Soft drinks consumption is a major world public health concern. This study investigates the factors which influence the students' intention to consume fewer amounts of soft drinks, using The Extended Parallel Process Model. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 high schools boys in Yazd, Iran (2014). A 15-item, 5-point Likert-type scale questionnaire was used to measure the participants' perceived susceptibility, severity, response-efficacy and self-efficacy and intention about soft drinks' consumption. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha >0.7 for each construct) and external consistency: r=0.79, P=0.01) of questionnaire was approved. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16, using descriptive analysis, bivariate correlation, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The participants' average soft drink consumption was 3±3.4 daily glasses. Danger control processes had more frequency over fear control ones (57.7% vs. 42.3% of participants). The intention of fewer amounts soft drinks consumption was positively correlated with perceived response efficacy, self-efficacy and total efficacy. 16% of the participants' intention variations were explained by self-efficacy. The odds of intention towards not to consume soft drinks were significantly higher for the high efficacy/ low threat category (OR=1.51, P=0.04) compared with low efficacy / low threat category. Conclusion: The results revealed that inducing fear is not an effective way to promote healthy drinking behavior and the choice of fear appeals is often a poor choice in this subject. It can be suggested that health educators should move from traditional threatening fear arousal messages to improving their target audience's self-efficacy.
... Lawinowy wzrost spożycia potraw gotowych, żywności wygodnej, "pustych kalorii" i korzystanie przez większość społeczeństwa, a w szczególności przez dzieci i młodzież, z gotowych, słodzonych napojów, stwarza ryzyko dostarczania zbyt dużych ilości cukrów w codziennej diecie [2,[10][11][12]. Wiąże się to z całkowitą zmianą nawyków żywieniowych: do przeszłości należą już czasy, gdy do obiadu pito kompot, powszechnie konsumowano mleko, soki naturalne i przetwory rozcieńczane wodą [14,16]. W badaniach prowadzonych w USA ustalono, że w latach 1970-2006 ilość kalorii dostarczanych wraz z napojami słodzonymi wzrosła z 64,4 do 141,7 kcal dziennie na osobę [4,16]. ...
... Wiąże się to z całkowitą zmianą nawyków żywieniowych: do przeszłości należą już czasy, gdy do obiadu pito kompot, powszechnie konsumowano mleko, soki naturalne i przetwory rozcieńczane wodą [14,16]. W badaniach prowadzonych w USA ustalono, że w latach 1970-2006 ilość kalorii dostarczanych wraz z napojami słodzonymi wzrosła z 64,4 do 141,7 kcal dziennie na osobę [4,16]. Badania prowadzone przez Brug i wsp. ...
... Syrop ten określany jest również jako izoglukoza [10][11][12]20]. W Stanach Zjednoczonych najczęściej używa się terminu HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup), ze względu na to, że do produkcji syropu stosowana jest przede wszystkim kukurydza [4,19,16,20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. A significant increase in soft drink consumption in Poland creates the necessity of controlling their content and their intake in the daily diet. Aim. To determine the content of fructose, sucrose and glucose in soft drinks, to compare the results with the declarations of producers and to evaluate them according to their daily coverage of body requirements. Material and methods. An analysis was made of 23 popular soft drinks bought in the Rzeszów area. To determine the content of fructose, glucose and sucrose a Varian liquid chromatography apparatus with the ELSD detector was used. The optimum parameters of chromatography analysis were determined. Results. There were no significant deviations between the results of the sugar analyses in the drinks and the producers’ declarations. The total content of the three studied carbohydrates varied – between 3.08-11.51 g/100 ml in a carbonated soft drink. Conclusions. The producers of the studied drinks keep to the declared amounts of added sugars. An increased consumption of such drinks creates the necessity of introducing the intake of those sugars into the daily recommended amount of carbohydrates in the daily diet (usually over 20% of the daily requirement in one glass). Thus the necessity to inform the consumers about the high content of sugar in such drinks. The most effective are GDA (Guideline Daily Amount) on the labels and the use of that information.
... To the best of our knowledge, few studies have investigated trends in dietary habits, especially in adolescent populations [12,[26][27][28] and covering such a long period (>20 years) [28], thus limiting their comparability. The prevalence of non-daily fruit and vegetable consumption doubled between 1990 and 2002 and slightly decreased thereafter, in line with the literature, which highlighted a similar trend for fruit consumption [27]. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, few studies have investigated trends in dietary habits, especially in adolescent populations [12,[26][27][28] and covering such a long period (>20 years) [28], thus limiting their comparability. The prevalence of non-daily fruit and vegetable consumption doubled between 1990 and 2002 and slightly decreased thereafter, in line with the literature, which highlighted a similar trend for fruit consumption [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dietary habits are influenced by various determinants that may evolve over time. This study aimed to examine, among adolescents in Belgium, trends in the dietary habits between 1990 and 2014 and to determine changes in family and regional disparities related to diet during this time period. In the 1990, 2002 and 2014 cross-sectional “Health Behaviour in School-aged Children” (HBSC) surveys, food consumption was estimated using a short Food Frequency Questionnaire. The Relative Index of Inequality (RII) enabled quantification of the gradients of inequality related to the family structure and to the region for non-daily fruit and vegetable and daily sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Between 1990 and 2014, the prevalence of non-daily fruit consumption increased from 27.7% to 60.6%, whereas the daily SSB consumption decreased from 58.9% to 34.8%. Over time, a downward trend in family disparities (p = 0.007) was observed for daily fruit consumption (RII: 1.58 (1.33–1.88) to 1.18 (1.13–1.23)). An upward trend in region-related disparities (p < 0.001) for SSB was found (RII: 1.15 (1.07–1.23) to 1.37 (1.28–1.47)). The overall trend of increasing disparities when dietary habits improved and decreasing disparities when dietary habits worsened highlights the need to implement actions that improve overall dietary habits while ensuring that disparities do not increase.
... It is identified as gram-positive with acidic metabolic products that have strong abilities in changing the etiology of dental plaque [1]. In the US, soft drinks are recognized as the dominant drink among teenagers, and the average consumption is increasing rapidly among the population [2,3]. It has been shown that soft drinks increase caries development and progression as they decrease the pH through fermentation, leading to lactic acid production [2]. ...
... Since both the high consumption of sugar-containing soft drinks and smoking individually have been shown to increase the caries risk in individuals in various studies, more research is necessary to identify recommended soft drinks for smokers to consume in order to combat this problem [3,4,5,11]. This study investigated the effects of different soft drinks (regular with HFCS, sugar-free, and/or caffeine-free) with the presence of nicotine on S. mutans activity along with the formation of biofilm to provide accurate information to patients. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of nicotine on the activity of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in soft drinks. Regular soft drinks contain large proportions of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which increases the activity of S. mutans resulting in high-caries risk compared with sugar-free soft drinks. Nicotine use exhibits a strong correlation with increased S. mutans biofilm formation. The soft drinks chosen were (Coca-Cola Classic, Diet Coke, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Caffeine-Free Diet Coke, Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola Zero Sugar). S. mutans was grown overnight in tryptic soy broth; nicotine was diluted in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1.0% sucrose followed by soft drinks in dilution of 1:3. Total growth absorbance and biofilm growth were determined by spectrophotometry, absorbance measured to determine biofilm formation, and metabolic activity quantified. One-way ANOVA showed a considerable effect for HFCS and caffeine in the presence of nicotine and their interaction in all measures. Results showed sugar-free caffeinated colas demonstrated significant effect in inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity with nicotine. Nicotine-induced S. mutans increased biofilm formation and metabolic activity in the presence of HFCS and caffeine in soft drinks. In conclusion, smokers should consider sugar-free caffeinated versions to minimize the chance of developing dental caries dut to the reduction of biofilm formation.
... Many of the people do not like the normal taste of milk but easily accept when it is blended with some good flavours. Nowadays new trend in beverage consumption is, increase in per capita carbonated soft drink consumption and a decrease in fluid milk consumption (French et al., 2003;Nielson and Popkin, 2005) [6,15] . Mixed fruit juice and milk beverages are considered among the most functional and nutritional foods (Pszczola, 2005) [16] . ...
... Many of the people do not like the normal taste of milk but easily accept when it is blended with some good flavours. Nowadays new trend in beverage consumption is, increase in per capita carbonated soft drink consumption and a decrease in fluid milk consumption (French et al., 2003;Nielson and Popkin, 2005) [6,15] . Mixed fruit juice and milk beverages are considered among the most functional and nutritional foods (Pszczola, 2005) [16] . ...
... Trends in overweight are consistent with increased energy intake over recent decades (1). The upward shift in energy intake may partly consist of the consumption of soft drinks (2)(3)(4)(5). Increased soft drink consumption has coincided with the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity (6,7) over the past 3 decades in the United States (8 -10). In the 1970s, the food industry in the United States introduced high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) sweetener as a substitute for sucrose (11). ...
... Thus, sucrose and HFCS likely trigger GLP-1 release, which may have triggered insulin release and a related increase in satiety. 4 Compensation ҃ energy intake from the diet Ҁ energy intake after any preload as a percentage of the preload. 5 Overconsumption ҃ total energy intake from the diet Ҁ total energy intake after any preload as a percentage of the preload. ...
Article
Background: It is unclear whether energy-containing drinks, especially those sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), promote positive energy balance and thereby play a role in the development of obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine the satiating effects of HFCS and sucrose in comparison with milk and a diet drink. Design: The effects of 4800-mL drinks containing no energy or 1.5 MJ from sucrose, HFCS, or milk on satiety were assessed, first in 15 men and 15 women with a mean (±SD) body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) of 22.1 ± 1.9 according to visual analogue scales (VAS) and blood variables and second in 20 men and 20 women (BMI: 22.4 ± 2.1) according to ingestion of a standardized ad libitum meal (granola cereal + yogurt, 10.1 kJ/g). Results: Fifty minutes after consumption of the 1.5-MJ preload drinks containing sucrose, HFCS, or milk, 170%-mm VAS changes in satiety were observed. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (P < 0.001) and ghrelin (P < 0.05) concentrations changed accordingly. Compensatory energy intake did not differ significantly between the 3 preloads and ranged from 30% to 45%. Energy intake compensations were related to satiety (r = 0.35, P < 0.05). No differences were observed between the effects of the sucrose- and HFCS-containing drinks on changes in VAS and on insulin, glucose, GLP-1, and ghrelin concentrations. Changes in appetite VAS ratings were a function of changes in GLP-1, ghrelin, insulin, and glucose concentrations. Conclusion: Energy balance consequences of HFCS-sweetened soft drinks are not different from those of other isoenergetic drinks, eg, a sucrose-drink or milk.
... The findings of the present study are also partially comparable with French et al. (2003), which indicated that between1977 and 1998, the consumption of carbonated soft drinks by school aged children in United States aged (6-17 years) has increased from 5 fl. oz. ...
... Similar observations were noted in current study. Over the past 25 years, adolescents have changed their beverage intake and decreased their milk intake, (Bowman ,2002 andFrench et al.,2003). This shift had a negative impact on health by lowering nutritional quality and decreasing micronutrient intake. ...
... Empirical results suggest that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive and, hence, there is a rationale for government interventions (Liu and Lopez, 2012). Researchers have suggested numerous reasons for the increasing consumption of soft drinks, but more information is needed to assist in planning effective intervention strategies (French et al., 2003). World Health Organisation (2015) has noted the need to evaluate different behavioural change approaches to promote the reduction of sugar intake, particularly the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. ...
... Australian adolescents, who found availability of soft drinks in their homes, had easy access of drinks in schools' canteens or vending machines and perceived soft drinks as the value for their money, were more likely to be high soft drinks' consumers (Scully et al., 2017). Although home remained the largest source of soft drinks for children, intake from fast food and other restaurants and vending machines has been increasing (French et al., 2003). Restaurants and fast-food establishments that mirror the broad population trends towards more frequent eating away from home have been increasing sources of soft drinks (Lin et al., 1999;Neilsen et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the consumption patterns and attitudes towards soft drinks among Indian youth. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire was used to investigate consumption patterns, attitudes, and socio-demographic profiles of college-attending respondents between the ages of 18 and 30. Cluster analysis and factor analysis were undertaken to obtain a better understanding of the attitudes among young consumers towards soft drinks. A logistic regression model was used as a predictor to distinguish between frequent and non-frequent soft drink consumers. Findings Indian youths preferred diet drinks and fruit juices more than regular soft drinks. Soft drinks were mostly consumed as distinct drinks (not as substitutes) and on specific occasions. Easy availability of soft drinks at the locations closure to consumers was a critical factor in determining consumers’ purchase and consumption level. Attitude towards the utility and nutritional dimensions of soft drinks had a positive and significant influence on the frequency of consumption. Practical implications To remain competitive, soft drinks’ companies need to focus more on healthy products and those that are refreshing and relaxing. Social implications Regulating the availability of soft drinks in and around educational institutions will affect consumption of soft drinks and reduce diseases. Originality/value Only a few studies investigating consumption patterns and attitudes among Indian youth towards soft drinks. This study attempts to fill the gap.
... Researchers found that the amount of soft drinks consumed had increased nearly fivefold. Specifically, French et al. [16] found that soft drink consumption among adolescents has increased 51% since 1978. ...
... There was no significant difference between BMI and the number of times soft drinks was taken with food (p-value=0.808). This result is however different from other researches since French et al. [16] indicates that a serving size of soft drink per day increased the risk of becoming overweight by 60% during the course of 1 year. On the other hand it has been concluded from many epidemiological studies that intake of carbohydrate or even sucrose bears no relation with body adiposity, or the relation may be a negative one [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Soft drinks are non-alcoholic beverages that contain carbon dioxide, nutritive or non-nutritive sweeteners, natural or synthetic flavours, colours, acidification agents, chemical preservatives and emulsifiers in addition to other various functional agents. Studies in adolescents has revealed that soft drink consumption is too high in adolescents which has been associated with higher risk of becoming overweight and increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. This study sought to assess the knowledge, practice and perception of taking soft drinks with food among Junior High School (JHS) students in a municipality in Ghana.
... Though the largest source to access soft drinks is home environment, however vending machines, establishment of fast food and other sources had a great share. [23] Current study revealed that 13.2% children consume soda 1-2 times per day and 47.3% drank weekly. These findings were more than another study where 21.6% drank weekly and very few participants (8.4%) consume soft drinks daily. ...
Article
The consumption of carbonated beverages or soda drinks has increased due to media advertisements. These drinks have ill effects on dental as well as on general health especially in children and adolescent. Therefore, a study was carried out to check the knowledge and attitude of children in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire-based study was conducted. It comprises of three parts i) demographic details ii) attitude toward consumption of soda drinks and iii) knowledge about soda drinks. A total of 393 primary elementary School Children age range 5 to 15 years old responded the questionnaire. 47.3% children drank soda on weekly basis. More than half participants did not have knowledge about the effects of soda on health (55.2%) and on teeth (53.9%). The knowledge of children about the effects of soda drinks on dental health in not convincing one. However, their attitude was relatively better. There is a need to improve their practices for prevention of dental and general health.
... Finkelstein et al. [17] showed that sugar-sweetened beverages are the largest single-source contributor to total energy intake which constituted 7% of calorie consumption [17]. Studies documented that children's consumption of soft drink has risen, with the average intake more than doubling from five to twelve ounces a day [18]. All subjects of our study group consumed high calorie drink on daily basis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The incidence of obesity in children is increasing. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), childhood overweight and obesity reached up to 25% of the population. In addition, UAE has become one of the highest countries in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Various forms of life style behavior and dietary habits have contributed to obesity and the development of the metabolic syndrome. We aim to study energy intake, dietary habits and life style behavior in obese children with dyslipidemia in the UAE and to examine the extent of metabolic syndrome components in their first degree relatives.
... Secondly the soft drinks consumption can affect the dietary quality by decreased consumption of milk and can result in deficiency of calcium. (French et al. 2003) Milk contains pre-biotic and probiotics which are very helpful in treating diarrhea and can also rehabilitate the beneficial microorganisms present in the colon of the GIT. And can also act as a rehydrating drink in diarrhea. ...
Article
Mediterranean diet reflects traditional dietary habits and foods of mediterrranean people, historically associated with good health.Mediterranean diet pyramid having the basis of dietary habits and food pattern more likely according to Crete, Greece and Italy, where life expectancy ratio among adults is greatest in the world. The diet is categorized by plentiful plant foods, fresh fruits as the usual daily dessert, olive oil as the major source of fat, dairy products particularly cheese and milk,fish and poultry in moderate to low amount, zero to four eggs consumed weekly with the consumption of red meats and wine in low amounts.All research studies included in this study emphasize on the fact that combinations of the foods in mediterrranean diet impart beneficial impact on the chronic disease prevention as well as their management primarily due to the nutraceutical nature of the ingredients rich in substances like omega 3 & 6, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and functional fibers likely to be effective in cardiovascular disease risk factors and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome.
... In recent years, the source of energy intake among young people has shifted to consuming Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs), and this change has made the high consumption of sugar, especially SSBs, a health problem and a challenge for policymakers (1)(2)(3). In the world, the consumption of SSBs is estimated at an average of 230 ml per day. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Excessive consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) is a health problem in most societies today; Which has adverse consequences in the areas of: health, social and economic. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the application of social cognitive theory (SCT) in the design and evaluation of educational intervention in order to adopt behaviors to prevent excessive consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) in students. Materials and Methods: The current study was a quasi-experimental study. Using multistage sampling, 200 Junior High-school students in Urmia, Iran in 2021 were selected and assigned to two groups, namely intervention (n=100) and control (n=100). To collect the study data, researchers utilized a researcher-made questionnaire including items about demographic information and SCT constructs such as awareness, outcome expectations, self-regulation, self-efficacy, social support , barriers and Preventive behaviors, which was completed in two stages before and three months after the last training session; the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 25.0. Results: The mean age of the intervention and control groups was 13.71 ± 0.71 and 13.84 ± 0.81, respectively. Before the intervention, the mean scores of social cognitive theory structures and desired behavior were not significantly different between the two groups. But three months after the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge constructs, outcome expectations, self-regulation, self-efficacy, social support, perceived barriers, and desirable student behavior showed a significant difference between the two groups(P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that social cognitive theory can be used as a theoretical basis for designing and evaluating interventions to encourage people to follow a proper diet and reduce the consumption of SSBs.
... Hasil serupa dari sebuah data survey nasional di Amerika Serikat menunjukkan adanya peningkatan asupan energi dari makanan minuman berkalori tinggi dengan pemanis sebesar 3,9 kalori pada tahun 1977 menjadi 9,2% di tahun 2001. Hasil studi lain menyebutkan bahwa prevalensi konsumsi minuman ringan di antara pemuda usia 6 hingga 17 tahun meningkat 48%, dari 37% di 1977/1978menjadi 56% di 1994/1998(French SA, 2003. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sejak beribu tahun yang lalu, orang mengonsumsi fruktosa dalam jumlah terbatas dari buah-buahan segar dan sayuran. Fruktosa yang terdapat dalam bahan alami ini tidak membahayakan kesehatan. Akan tetapi saat ini, fruktosa banyak digunakan sebagai pemanis oleh industri makanan dan minuman dalam bentuk high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Fruktosa sangat efisien menginduksi lipogenesis. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk membuktikan pengaruh konsumsi fruktosa terhadap profil lipid pada hewan coba. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratoris dengan desain postest only controle group. Sampel dibagi dalam 4 kelompok perlakuan dengan masing-masing 6 ekor tikus terdiri dari tikus diet normal (K), tikus diet fruktosa 10% (P1), tikus diet fruktosa 30% (P2), dan tikus diet fruktosa 60% (P3). Fruktosa diberikan secara peroral dengan menggunakan sonde selama 8 minggu. Pada akhir penelitian, dilakukan pengambilan sampel darah untuk pengukuran profil lipid dengan spektrofotometer. Hasil penelitian pada tikus yang diberikan diet fruktosa menunjukkan kadar kolesterol total, LDL, dan trigliserida yang signifikan lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol, sedangkan kadar HDL lebih rendah dibandingkan kontrol. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa diet tinggi fruktosa dapat menginduksi terjadinya dislipidemia. Kata Kunci: fruktosa, profil lipid.
... The prevalence behind the childhood obesity may vary according to individual lifestyle and their socio-economic status. Over the past few years, childhood obesity has increased due to changing lifestyle pattern and purchasing junk food, increasing hours of inactivity due addiction of television, videogames which have replaced outdoor games and other activities (Gortmaker et al. 1996;Andersen et al. 1998;Dietz et al. 1985;Rideout et al. 2003;French et al. 2003;Avena et al. 2003). Many researches demonstrate that childhood obesity is associated with many health and psychological problems likedepression, sleep disorders, asthma, and cardiovascular complications and type 2diabetes which are emerging in childhood and later in adult life (Flodmark et al. 2006). ...
... Hasil serupa dari sebuah data survey nasional di Amerika Serikat menunjukkan adanya peningkatan asupan energi dari makanan minuman berkalori tinggi dengan pemanis sebesar 3,9 kalori pada tahun 1977 menjadi 9,2% di tahun 2001 (Nielsen SJ, 2004). Hasil studi lain menyebutkan bahwa prevalensi konsumsi minuman ringan di antara pemuda usia 6 hingga 17 tahun meningkat 48%, dari 37% di 1977/1978menjadi 56% di 1994/1998(French SA, 2003. Produk High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) sebagai inovasi perkembangan teknologi industri makanan yang merupakan pemanis buatan utama pada makanan maupun minuman kemasan dikarenakan harga murah dan rasa yang manis (Walker RW, 2014). ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Background: Several epidemiological data's reported significant correlation between fructose consumption and diabetes mellitus type 2 by inducing insulin resistance. Leptin resistance induced by fructose was proposed as one novel mechanism that induce insulin resistance but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that fructose diminish the type b leptin receptors in hypothalamus and intestine. Aim: This study was aimed to elucidate fructose effect on the expression of leptin receptor type b in hypothalamus and intestine of Rattus novergicus. Method: twenty eight rats were used and divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was given fructose 10%, group 3 was given fructose 30% and group 4 was given fructose 55% for 2 months. At the end of treatment, the animal were sacrificed and then the hypothalamus and intestine were collected. The expression of type b leptin receptor were measured by immunohistochemistry technique with primary antibody from Bioss antibodies type Leptin receptor polyclonal antibody bs-0109R using Staining kit Skytec Laboratories and DAB chromogen. A positive expression can be seen as a brown colour in cell cytoplasm and counted in 100 cell. The expression then analysed using SPSS 18 with anova one way tes (p<0,05) followed by post hoc test after the data showed normality and homogeneity using Saphiro wilk and Levene test (p>0,05). Result: There was significant differences in type b leptin receptors found in hypothalamus between each group (p<0.05). The significant differences also could be seen in the expression between control and group fructose 30 and 50% in intestinal cell (p<0.05). Conclusion: the consumption of Fructose 55% for 2 months attenuates the expression of type b leptin receptors in hypothalamus and intestine of Rat novergicus.
... The trend of food intake observed in this study was similar to that reported in a study (French et al., 2003) on national trends of soft drink consumption among 6-17-year-old children in the United States. The study showed a 48% increase. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional risk in children is associated with food safety. This is the first study to identify the food type consumed by 6-17-year-old school-going children in Saudi Arabia. Eight permitted artificial food color additives, including Tartrazine (E102), Sunset Yellow (E110), Carmoisine (E122), Allura Red (E129), Indigo Carmine (E132), Brilliant Blue (E133),Fast Green (E143), and Black PN (E151), and two non-permitted ones, Erythrosine (E127) and Red 2G (E128), were determined using 24-h dietary recall questionnaires. Artificial color additives in 839 food products were divided into nine categories, including biscuits, cakes, chocolates, chips, ice cream, juices and drinks, candy, jelly, and chewing gum, and determined using high performance liquid chromatography using diode array detector. The results indicated a high intake of juices and drinks, ice cream, and cakes, but low consumption of chewing gum among school-going children. Among the permitted artificial food color additives, Brilliant Blue (E133) (54.1%) and Tartrazine (E102) (42.3%) were the most commonly used. Sunset Yellow (E110) levels in one chocolate sample, Tartrazine (E102) and Sunset Yellow (E110) levels in one and two juice and drink samples, respectively, and Brilliant Blue (E133) levels in two candy samples exceeded the permitted level. Therefore, further investigations are needed to provide insights into the possible adverse health effects of high intake of these additives in artificial food coloring on the test population are warranted.
... Younger children meet the fruits and cereals requirement by which older children are more likely to display better adherence for egg intake [31]. Other studies established that the increasing soda intakes are a trend with older age [32] due to the presence of extrinsic factors such as peer group influences, lower parental control and autonomy in the choice of food [33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disability that is frequently associated with food refusal, limited food repertoire and high-frequency single food intake mainly among children with ASD. Provision of nutrition can be very challenging due to the fact of these behavioural problems, either for the parents or special educators. Healthy nutrition is associated with providing and consuming nutritious food with results being in a good state of health. Semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among 20 participants at a National Autism Centre to explore their understanding towards healthy nutrition. They were parents and special educators who were actively involved with children with ASD. A series of discussions were transcribed verbatim, and four researchers examined each transcript. Inductive analysis linking codes into main thematic categories was conducted using the constant comparison approach across the full data set. The outcome suggested that participants had limited knowledge relating to the proper dietary and nutritional needs of the children. The key messages from the discussion provide a foundation on the development of a nutrition education module which involves primary caretakers of children with ASD.
... As food environments evolve globally, many populations are experiencing a nutrition transition whereby diets are increasingly characterized by snacking [1,2]. Consumption of unhealthy snack foods among children has been noted across both high-income [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] and low-and middle-income countries [11][12][13][14]. While snacks, in addition to meals, can be an important source of energy and nutrients, consumption of ultra-processed snack foods and beverages is concerning and the role of snacks in the escalating rates of overweight and obesity among children has garnered substantial attention [15,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The World Health Organization recommends feeding snacks between meals to young children. This study explored nutritional quality of snacks consumed between meals and consumption metrics (% total energy intakes (%TEI) and amount of kcal from snacks) to understand correlations with dietary outcomes (total energy intakes and dietary adequacy) and body-mass-index-for-age z-scores (BMIZ). Data used were 24-h dietary recalls and anthropometric measurements among a representative sample (n = 679) of one-year-olds in Nepal. Nepali meal patterns for young children were identified through formative research and all foods/beverages consumed outside of meals were categorized as snacks. A nutrient profiling model was used to categorize snacks as healthy or unhealthy, based on positive and negative nutrient content. Snacks consumed between meals provided half of all energy consumed, and were associated with increased energy and nutrient intakes. The positive effect of snacks between meals on dietary adequacy was greater when these snacks were healthy, while increasing %TEI from unhealthy snacks consumed between meals was negatively associated with dietary adequacy. Consumption of snacks between meals was not associated with mean BMIZ among the children. These findings indicate that the provision of and nutritional quality of snacks are important considerations to communicate to caregivers. Discouragement of unhealthy, nutrient-poor snacks is critical for complementary feeding dietary guidelines in contexts experiencing nutrition transition.
... females), because they more frequently went out with their friends and ate junk food. Moreover, similar fi ndings have been reported among adolescents from Saudi Arabia [28,29] , Britain [30] , and the United States (US) [31] . It is possible that these diff erences are related to greater consumption of sugar and sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages among male adolescents, compared to female adolescents [29] . ...
Article
Obesity affects children’s physical and psychological well-being. In this study we investigated the associations of obesity with physical activity, socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle among Saudi children and adolescents. A stratified sample of 729 school children and 794 adolescent students was recruited. Waist circumference and body mass index were used to categorize the participants as obese and non-obese, and a structured mixed questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic, physical activity, and lifestyle data. The results revealed that obese adolescent males (33.5%) were significantly more common than obese adolescent females (13.6%, P < 0.001). Body mass index-based and waist circumference-based obesity was significantly more common in private schools compared to public schools among school children and adolescents (P = 0.013 and P = 0.002, respectively). Student obesity was associated with higher parental education, especially among the school children (P = 0.006). Among adolescents, obesity was strongly associated with family income (P = 0.002) and time spent watching television (P = 0.004). Non-obese children and adolescents were considered subjectively more active than their obese counterparts (P < 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, obesity was common among school children and adolescents, and was associated with private schooling, adolescent male sex, parental education, and family income. Physical inactivity and time spent watching television were important risk factors for obesity among Saudi school children and adolescents.
... The influence of family eating patterns on dietary intake stays strong even after controlling for other variables such as television viewing and physical activity. Eating away from home also increases the consumption of soft drinks which is related to problems with weight (French, Lin et al, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Children are seen as large flourishing consumer market. The purpose of the study is to review the available literature and assess how children act as consumers. Focusing on the food choices made by the children this study reveals the developmental sequence characterizing the growth of consumer knowledge, skills, and values as children mature throughout childhood and adolescence. Children place higher level of trust in interpersonal information sources, especially in their parents who are perceived as the most credible information source with respect to their learning about new food products. The food choices made by children seemed to involve cognitive self-regulation where conflicting values for food choices were integrated and brought into alignment with desired consequences. Children's perceptions of the value of their parents' efforts to use television advertisements make a positive contribution to their consumer socialisation. Based on the evidence reviewed, implications are drawn for future research in the field of children's consumer behavior
... Around 20% was from desserts, snacks, candy, amongst others [33]. The prevalence of soft drink consumption among 6-16 year olds increased from 37% in 1977 to 56% in1998 with an increasing share obtained from restaurants, fast-food establishments and vending machines.The mean amounts of the intake more than doubled [34]. Nearly half of American adults drink sugar sweetened beverage daily [34b]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The globally increasing incidences of Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) can have a common background. If challenged by the contemporary high level of nutritional glucose stimulation, the β-cells in genetically predisposed individuals are at risk for damage which can lead to the diseases. The fat to carbohydrate dietary shift can also contribute to the associated obesity epidemic.
... Hasil serupa dari sebuah data survey nasional di Amerika Serikat menunjukkan adanya peningkatan asupan energi dari makanan minuman berkalori tinggi dengan pemanis sebesar 3,9 kalori pada tahun 1977 menjadi 9,2% di tahun 2001 (Nielsen SJ, 2004). Hasil studi lain menyebutkan bahwa prevalensi konsumsi minuman ringan di antara pemuda usia 6 hingga 17 tahun meningkat 48%, dari 37% di 1977/1978menjadi 56% di 1994/1998(French SA, 2003. Produk High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) sebagai inovasi perkembangan teknologi industri makanan yang merupakan pemanis buatan utama pada makanan maupun minuman kemasan dikarenakan harga murah dan rasa yang manis (Walker RW, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
p> Background : Several epidemiological data’s reported significant correlation between fructose consumption and diabetes mellitus type 2 by inducing insulin resistance. Leptin resistance induced by fructose was proposed as one novel mechanism that induce insulin resistance but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that fructose diminish the type b leptin receptors in hypothalamus and intestine. Aim : This study was aimed to elucidate fructose effect on the expression of leptin receptor type b in hypothalamus and intestine of Rattus novergicus. Method : twenty eight rats were used and divided into 4 groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was given fructose 10%, group 3 was given fructose 30% and group 4 was given fructose 55% for 2 months. At the end of treatment, the animal were sacrificed and then the hypothalamus and intestine were collected. The expression of type b leptin receptor were measured by immunohistochemistry technique with primary antibody from Bioss antibodies type Leptin receptor polyclonal antibody bs-0109R using Staining kit Skytec Laboratories and DAB chromogen. A positive expression can be seen as a brown colour in cell cytoplasm and counted in 100 cell. The expression then analysed using SPSS 18 with anova one way tes (p<0,05) followed by post hoc test after the data showed normality and homogeneity using Saphiro wilk and Levene test (p>0,05). Result : There was significant differences in type b leptin receptors found in hypothalamus between each group (p<0.05). The significant differences also could be seen in the expression between control and group fructose 30 and 50% in intestinal cell (p<0.05). Conclusion : the consumption of Fructose 55% for 2 months attenuates the expression of type b leptin receptors in hypothalamus and intestine of R at novergicus . </p
... [57][58][59] Regarding nutrition, as children get older, there is a greater probability of following correct guidelines for fruit and vegetable intake but also a greater probability of consuming sugary drinks. 60,61 Other factors, such as parents' university education, lead to a better nutrition although it does not significantly increase the intake of fruits and vegetables. 62,63 Conclusion An adequate nutrition together with moderate-intense PA according to age is essential to maintain the child and adolescent's health and an optimum performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Child athletes require a healthy and balanced nutrition according to the type and intensity of the sport activity. This review aims to provide integrated and updated information to establish adequate nutritional guidelines for these children, essentially avoiding deficiencies or unbalances that can be harmful for their health. A lack of vitamins and minerals can affect their health especially at long term and depending on the type of sport and age of the child. The diet must be controlled without any nutritional supplements. It is also important to know which nutrients can improve performance of the child athlete during both training and competition. In conclusion, the contribution of macro- and micronutrients to the diet, together with an adequate hydration according to the energy expenditure must be controlled for child athletes to ensure a good status of health.
... This change has brought about the replacement of nutritious snacks with worthless and junk food (1-2), such as carbonated drinks (3). Drinks and fast foods are rich in sugar, fat and calories and are abundantly found in schools (4-6) with high popularity among students (7). Iran has one of the highest rates of carbonated drink consumption in the world, with some 48 liters (equal to 144 bottles) consumed annually per capita (8). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: There is a high tendency for consumption of soft drinks in Iran and worldwide. Scientific and medical community is concerned about the harmful side effects of such drinks. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with soft drink consumption in secondary school students in Farooj city in 2010. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study. A convenience sample included 222 students studying in secondary schools in Farooj city. They were selected through multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through two questionnaires made by the researcher. Reliability and validity of the scales were estimated. The data were analyzed using SPSS software for Windows. Results: The results showed that 94.1% of the students regularly consume soft drink. The majority of the students are drinking it at home and then in the parties. About half of the students reported that soft drink consumption can increase obesity, osteoporosis, teeth decay and reduce the appetite. Important reasons for soft drink consumption among the students were consumption of soft drink by friends, enjoying soft drink with meals, interest in flavored soft drinks and receiving pocket money of parents. Conclusion: The rate of consumption of soft drinks among the students is high. Interventional programs focusing on the most important factors affecting its consumption are recommended to be held.
... It is also difficult to determine secular trends in caffeine consumption, as the evidence appears mixed. [95][96][97][98][99][100][101] Social trends, involving increased technology use and shift work, are thought to not only affect sleep time, but also impair sleep quality and increase day-to-day sleep time variability. Circadian disruption in the form of night shift work alternating with days off work will contribute to poor sleep quality. ...
Article
Sleep is important for the physical, social and mental well-being of both children and adults. Over the years, there has been a general presumption that sleep will inevitably decline with the increase in technology and a busy 24-hour modern lifestyle. This narrative review discusses the empirical evidence for secular trends in sleep duration and the implications of these trends.
... Evidence of the adverse effects of added sugars on weight gain and obesity has fueled a debate about whether they should be replaced by artificial sweeteners [11]. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption, considered the main source of artificial sweeteners in the diet, has dramatically increased in the last 40 years in children and adults [12][13][14][15][16][17]. However, the replacement of added sugars with artificial sweeteners to prevent and control obesity is controversial, due to safety concerns [18][19][20] and conflicting evidence on their effect on weight [7,21,22]. ...
... Children's dietary intake is influenced by both physical and social home environments 5 (eg, home food environment). Parents and other caregivers contribute to children's eating habits and diet quality through physical environments by making healthful foods available in the home [6][7][8][9][10] and serving them at meals and snacks. [11][12][13][14] Almost 70% of calories and 80% of snacks consumed by children are eaten at home. ...
Article
Background Research has demonstrated a significant positive association between frequent family meals and children’s dietary intake; however, the promotion of healthful family meals has not been rigorously tested for key food environment and nutrition-related behavioral outcomes in a randomized trial. Objective To describe family home food environment and nutrition-related parent and child personal and behavioral outcomes of the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program, the first rigorously tested family meals intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention. Design Randomized controlled trial. Baseline, postintervention (12 months, 93% retention), and follow-up (21 months, 89% retention) data (surveys and dietary recalls) were collected. Participants/setting Children aged 8 to 12 years (N=160) and their parents were randomized to intervention (n=81) or control (n=79) groups. Intervention The intervention included five parent goal-setting calls and 10 monthly sessions delivered to families in community settings that focused on experiential nutrition activities and education, meal planning, cooking skill development, and reducing screen time. Main outcome measures Family home food environment outcomes and nutrition-related child and parent personal and behavioral outcomes. Statistical analyses performed Analyses used generalized linear mixed models. Primary comparisons were contrasts between intervention and control groups at postintervention and follow-up, with adjustments for child age and parent education. Results Compared with control parents, intervention parents showed greater improvement over time in scores of self-efficacy for identifying appropriate portion sizes, with significant differences in adjusted means at both post-intervention (P=0.002) and follow-up (P=0.01). Intervention children were less likely to consume at least one sugar-sweetened beverage daily at post-intervention than control children (P=0.04). Conclusions The Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment Plus program involved the entire family and targeted personal, behavioral, and environment factors important for healthful changes in the home food environment and children’s dietary intake. The intervention improved two nutrition-related behaviors and this may inform the design of future family meal interventions.
... Various medicinal uses of infusions of leaves or calyces have been reported such as being a diuretic, cholerectic, febrifugal, hypertensive, anti-helminthic, and antimicrobial, decreasing viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (Morton, 1987; Delgado-Vargas and Paredes-López, 2003). The increasing level of soft drink consumption by children and teens is one of many barriers to their achieving an adequate diet and a healthy lifestyle and changes in beverage consumption patterns over the past several decades may be related to the high prevalence of obesity related diseases (Harnack et al., 1999;Ludwig et al., 2001;French et al., 2003;Forshee and Storey, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The nutritional composition, sensory attributes and bacterial quality of two varieties of locally prepared zobo drinks was investigated. Dry calyces of H. sabdariffa and fresh wet form of ginger rhizomes and garlic bulbs were obtained. The dark red zobo (DRZ) had the highest percentage of vitamin C (8%) and calcium (4.5 ppm) when compared to vitamin C (5.5%) and calcium (2.5 ppm) in bright red zobo (BRZ). The BRZ recorded high value in magnesium (13.75 ppm) while DRZ, had high values of sodium (36.28 ppm) and potassium (220.5 ppm). Protein and iron were the same (0.5875 and 1.17 ppm) in both products. The pH values were all on the low side (3.03), confirming the high acidity usually noticed in zobo drink. The DRZ had 73.3% colour and 80% taste acceptability while the BRZ drink gave 26.7% colour with a 20% taste acceptance level. An average total heterotrophic bacterial counts of 1.87E+06 and 1.49E+05 CFU/g were obtained for dark red and bright red samples with total coliform counts of 1.63E+04 CFU/ml (DRZ) and 1.56E+03 CFU/ml (BRZ). The DRZ variety with high retention vitamin C content and its acceptance by evaluators should be consumed more. The DRZ is cheaper and produced more quality of zobo than the BRZ at the same concentration. Although, DRZ had significantly (p<0.05) higher bacterial counts, both met the ICMSF limit of 1x10 7 CFU/ml set for total aerobic plate counts and so, should be consumed to boost local production and a healthy lifestyle. [Ezekiel, T., Solomon, L., Oforibika, A.G. and Daminabo, V. Nutritional, Sensory and Bacteriological Quality of Two Varieties of Locally Prepared Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drink. World Rural Observ 2016;8(3):99-104].
... Diabetic people have difficulty in controlling their blood sugar levels and prefers AS because they can enjoy a varied diet while scheming their sugar intake [14]. However, recent research published in "Nature" reveals that AS increases unwanted pounds and disrupts the metabolic function [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial Sweeteners (AS) having low/non-calorific value are among the most widely used food additives worldwide and also regularly consumed by lean and obese individuals alike. AS consumption is considered safe and beneficial owing to their low caloric content, yet supporting scientific data remains sparse and controversial. The objective of the present study was to review whether consumption of artificial sweetners is boon or bane to human health. It has outlined the health effects of AS with respect to their association with weight gain and other metabolic health effects. Consumption of AS in the form of carbonated beverages may cause excessive weight gain. A case control study reveals the fact that AS can induce glucose intolerance by altering gut microbiota associated with the development of metabolic syndrome such as type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, sugar based sweeteners have long been suspected as the cause of obesity and consequent cardiovascular risk.
... Evidence of the adverse effects of added sugars on weight gain and obesity has fueled a debate about whether they should be replaced by artificial sweeteners [11]. Artificially sweetened beverage consumption, considered the main source of artificial sweeteners in the diet, has dramatically increased in the last 40 years in children and adults [12][13][14][15][16][17]. However, the replacement of added sugars with artificial sweeteners to prevent and control obesity is controversial, due to safety concerns [18][19][20] and conflicting evidence on their effect on weight [7,21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has steadily increased in the last 40 years. Several reviews examining the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight outcomes have discrepancies in their results and conclusions. Objectives: To determine whether risk of bias, results, and conclusions of reviews of effects of artificially sweetened beverage consumption on weight outcomes differ depending on review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest. Methods: We performed a systematic review of reviews of the effects of artificially sweetened beverages on weight. Two assessors independently screened articles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias. We compared risk of bias, results and conclusions of reviews by different industry sponsors, authors' financial conflict of interest and journal sponsor. We also report the concordance between review results and conclusions. Results: Artificial sweetener industry sponsored reviews were more likely to have favorable results (3/4) than non-industry sponsored reviews (1/23), RR: 17.25 (95% CI: 2.34 to 127.29), as well as favorable conclusions (4/4 vs. 15/23), RR: 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.06). All reviews funded by competitor industries reported unfavorable conclusions (4/4). In 42% of the reviews (13/31), authors' financial conflicts of interest were not disclosed. Reviews performed by authors that had a financial conflict of interest with the food industry (disclosed in the article or not) were more likely to have favorable conclusions (18/22) than reviews performed by authors without conflicts of interest (4/9), RR: 7.36 (95% CI: 1.15 to 47.22). Risk of bias was similar and high in most of the reviews. Conclusions: Review sponsorship and authors' financial conflicts of interest introduced bias affecting the outcomes of reviews of artificially sweetened beverage effects on weight that could not be explained by other sources of bias.
... The low consumption of milk by both genders raises concerns about adequate calcium consumption, needed during this critical period of bone and tooth development [27,28]. Calcium was likely consumed through other sources not assessed, but adequacy remains a concern as milk is one of the primary sources of calcium intake in children [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives. While obesity is common in the US, disparities exist. Orthodontic samples are assumed to be more affluent than the general population and not in need of assistance in developing or maintaining healthy lifestyles. This paper evaluates the need of the orthodontic population for intervention by examining diet and weight status of an orthodontic patient sample and describes a role for dental clinicians in obesity prevention efforts. Methods. 552 patients age 8-14 years, 54% female, 51% non-Hispanic white, 26% Hispanic were recruited from orthodontic practices in Southern California to participate in a randomized controlled trial of clinician-delivered health promotion. Height, weight, demographics, and diet were recorded. Chi-Square analyses were used to test for differences at baseline by gender, age, ethnicity, and income. Results. 13% of the sample was overweight and 9% was obese. Males had a higher rate of obesity than females. Lower income youth had a higher rate than higher income youth. Hispanic youth had a higher rate than non-Hispanic white youth. Failure to meet national dietary guidelines was common, differing significantly by demographic group. Conclusions. Within a sample not typically thought of as needing assistance, nearly 25% were overweight or obese and the majority failed to meet dietary recommendations. While most patients could benefit from intervention, male, Hispanic, and lower income groups were in greatest need of assistance. Dental providers, who see youth frequently and already discuss nutrition in the context of oral health, have the opportunity to contribute to obesity prevention.
Chapter
While hunger and micronutrient deficiencies remain a persistent problem affecting millions worldwide, obesity has also become a global epidemic. Despite an on-going debate regarding whether the substantial public expenditures on medical and health measures resulting from poor diets warrant policy interventions, the United States and Europe have seen a dramatic rise in policies designed to influence consumer diets over the last two decades. We provide a summary of the underlying arguments for addressing this issue via policy and complement this with a review of the existing literature on a variety of demand-side oriented policies, including nutritional labeling policies, fiscal policies, child-focused policies, and place-based policies. We point out how results are often contradictory and inconclusive partially due to the approach that was taken by the researcher in the analysis of the policy. This issue of robust findings leads us to a discussion of different data and methods typically used in economics to make inferences about the efficacy of policies. We follow-up on this by providing insights from the behavioral economics literature, which offers policy solutions that have the potential to complement more traditional policy designs. In a last step we provide an outlook and recommendations for future research directions.
Article
US per capita milk consumption has been falling since the 1940s and falling at an accelerated rate in recent years. One possible reason is competition between it and other types of beverages. In this study, we determine whether changes in beverage prices are in a direction and of a sufficient magnitude for consumption trends to be explained by price competition between milk and other beverages. They are not. We also estimate a vector autoregressive model using data on households' average weekly purchases of milk and four other, major beverage categories for a very general test of whether any increase in sales of those other beverages would come at milk's expense. Results again suggest that competition between milk and the identified other major beverages is not responsible for milk's accelerated decline, and there is a need for the research community to investigate other possible explanations. [EconLit Citations: D12, Q11, Q18].
Article
Objective This is a cross-sectional study that compares the sales of “healthy” and “unhealthy” vending machines following the introduction of healthier vending machines on a university campus. Method: Healthy (“green” and “amber” category), competitively priced snacks and beverages in vending machines (n = 4) called Grab Goodness were placed alongside standard vending machines (n = 11). The monthly sales data from all vending machines were captured electronically for 20 months. Results: Assortment of snacks and beverages offered by standard vending machines were of low nutritional quality, with only 16% of all products categorized as “green.” The new Grab Goodness machines accounted for 28% of all vending machine purchases over 20 months, and 50% of all products purchased through these machines were “green” category items. Conclusions: The purchases of healthier snack options demonstrate encouraging patterns that support more nutritious and healthy alternatives in vending machines.
Thesis
La carie dentaire est l’une des pathologies chronique d’origine multifactorielle la plus répandue dans le monde. Elle résulte d’un changement dans la composition de la plaque dentaire, avec un passage d’un état de symbiose à un état de dysbiose. Notre recherche clinique a permis de caractériser qualitativement et quantitativement, par réaction de polymérisation en chaine en temps réel, le microbiote interdentaire de 50 adolescents âgés de 15 à 17 ans en fonction du risque carieux. Parmi les 26 pathogènes analysées, aucune des bactéries cariogènes testées ne présentait de différences significatives selon le risque carieux. Seul 3 bactéries connues principalement pour leur implication dans les maladies parodontales (Streptococcus sobrinus, Eikenella corrodens et Tannerella forsythia) étaient significativement surexprimées chez les adolescents à risque carieux élevé. Ces 3 bactéries orales apparaissent comme des marqueurs prédictifs du risque carieux. Leur quantification interdentaire, permettrait d’améliorer les classifications de risque carieux, de prévenir les lésions carieuses débutantes et de stabiliser les lésions déjà établies. De plus, certains agents pathogènes oraux dont Eikenella corrodens et Tannerella forsythia sont connus pour être des facteurs de risques, des facteurs d’aggravation voir des facteurs déclencheurs de certaines maladies systémiques. Ainsi, la mise en place d’une prophylaxie interdentaire quotidienne via les brossettes interdentaires semble primordiale dès l’adolescence pour rétablir la symbiose du microbiote, prévenir les maladies orales et systémiques comme nous l’avons démontré chez des adultes âgés de 18 à 35 ans
Chapter
Violation or neglect of human rights jeopardizes health by interfering with physical, mental, and social well-being. This chapter considers the relevance of human rights to public health as legal standards and obligations of governments, as a conceptual framework of analysis and advocacy, and as guiding principles for designing and implementing policies and programs. It recommends institutionalizing perspectives on social justice and human rights in all health-sector actions, monitoring implications of policies in all sectors that affect health, and building public consensus for equitable financing of healthcare. The authors assert that human rights principles provide a framework that can guide health workers and others in achieving social justice in health and that health workers should be aware that human rights norms, standards, laws, and accountability mechanisms are relevant tools to help achieve social justice in health. A text box focuses on promoting the rights of “undocumented immigrants” in the United States.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low calorie soda beverages on the enamel of primary teeth. Study Design: Fifty enamel slabs were prepared from twenty primary extracted teeth and were equally divided into five groups: a) 0.9% NaCl (Control), b) Coca-Cola Classic (Sucrose), c) Diet Coke (Aspartame), d) Zevia Cola (Erythritol), e) Coca-Cola Life (Stevia). Each specimen was exposed to the beverage for a total of sixty minutes. Enamel surface roughness was measured before and after the exposures using a LEXT OLS4000 3D Laser Measuring Microscope. Results: All tested sodas resulted to a statistically significant change on the surface roughness of the enamel (p =.000). However, this effect did not differ significantly between the different treatment groups (p =.103). Conclusions: Both regular soda and low calorie soda containing different commercial sweeteners appear to have an effect on the surface morphology of primary tooth enamel. Thus, it is important to discourage the intake of any type of soda as part of the dietary advice provided in the dental office. © 2019 Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on a state-of-the-art study quantifying resource consumption, health, and human impacts of LEED credits achieved in K-12 schools on student's health and performance of educational environments. The study attempts to quantify an important yet not scientifically proven assumption concerning the relationship between green building certification and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) strategies in schools and their impacts on number of metrics concerning children's activity levels, obesity rates, disruptive behavior, indoor comfort, and sick building syndrome complaints. The specific hypothesis tested is; that children with more livable and connected school sites as well as better IEQ strategies in their classrooms will have more activity levels, better health metrics, have fewer obesity rates, are more comfortable, and have fewer Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms than those with poorer connected schools and in classrooms with poor IEQ metrics. A corollary hypothesis is whether LEED credits related to sustainable sites, energy and Atmosphere, and indoor environmental quality could also play a role in explaining the number of SBS symptoms and body mass index disparities related to poor IEQ conditions and poor activity levels of children in both elementary and middle schools. This is an objective to answer and quantify a long debated hypothesis regarding the importance of green schools and LEED credits earned on the triple bottom line impacts for people, profit, and planet. This paper reports on a comprehensive multi-year comparative study evaluating the performance of 16 LEED and non-LEED schools in the Pacific Northwest. For the first systematic study of this scale, we assessed LEED credits earned of schools, land use and site variables, transportation patterns, indoor environmental quality together with their impact on school's resource operations data, carbon expenditure, obesity rates, activity levels of children, health, and human performance. To control for organizational and economic variables, the comparative pairs of LEED/non-LEED schools were matched to control for climatic, organizational, as well as socioeconomic disparities between schools within the same districts. The paper will report on the findings from a statistical correlational model of performance data across the 16 comparative schools (8 LEED and 8 non-LEED), impact of LEED credits achieved, as well as lessons learned in design, construction, and operation of green schools to deliver evidence-based strategies for green schools of the future.
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper reports on a state-of-the-art study quantifying resource consumption, health, and human impacts of LEED credits achieved in K-12 schools on student's health and performance of educational environments. The study attempts to quantify an important yet not scientifically proven assumption concerning the relationship between green building certification and indoor environmental quality (IEQ) strategies in schools and their impacts on number of metrics concerning children's activity levels, obesity rates, disruptive behavior, indoor comfort, and sick building syndrome complaints. The specific hypothesis tested is; that children with more livable and connected school sites as well as better IEQ strategies in their classrooms will have more activity levels, better health metrics, have fewer obesity rates, are more comfortable, and have fewer Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms than those with poorer connected schools and in classrooms with poor IEQ metrics. A corollary hypothesis is whether LEED credits related to sustainable sites, energy and Atmosphere, and indoor environmental quality could also play a role in explaining the number of SBS symptoms and body mass index disparities related to poor IEQ conditions and poor activity levels of children in both elementary and middle schools. This is an objective to answer and quantify a long debated hypothesis regarding the importance of green schools and LEED credits earned on the triple bottom line impacts for people, profit, and planet. This paper reports on a comprehensive multi-year comparative study evaluating the performance of 16 LEED and non-LEED schools in the Pacific Northwest. For the first systematic study of this scale, we assessed LEED credits earned of schools, land use and site variables, transportation patterns, indoor environmental quality together with their impact on school's resource operations data, carbon expenditure, obesity rates, activity levels of children, health, and human performance. To control for organizational and economic variables, the comparative pairs of LEED/non-LEED schools were matched to control for climatic, organizational, as well as socioeconomic disparities between schools within the same districts. The paper will report on the findings from a statistical correlational model of performance data across the 16 comparative schools (8 LEED and 8 non-LEED), impact of LEED credits achieved, as well as lessons learned in design, construction, and operation of green schools to deliver evidence-based strategies for green schools of the future.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on a state-of-the-art study quantifying resource consumption, health, and human impacts of LEED credits achieved in K-12 schools on student’s health and performance of educational environments. The study attempts to quantify an important yet not scientifically proven assumption concerning the relationship between green building certification and sustainable sites (SS) strategies in schools and their impacts on number of metrics concerning children’s activity levels, obesity rates, commuting behavior, and sick building syndrome complaints. The specific hypothesis tested is; that children with more livable and connected school sites as well as better sustainable site strategies will have more activity levels, better health metrics, have fewer obesity rates, are more comfortable, and have fewer Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms than those with poorer connected schools and livable sites metrics. A corollary hypothesis is whether LEED credits related to energy and Atmosphere could also play a role in explaining the number of SBS symptoms and body mass index disparities related to poor site conditions and poor activity levels of children in both elementary and middle schools. This is an objective to answer and quantify a long debated hypothesis regarding the importance of green schools and LEED credits earned on the triple bottom line impacts for people, profit, and planet. This paper reports on a comprehensive multi-year comparative study evaluating the performance of 16 LEED and non-LEED schools in the Pacific Northwest. For the first systematic study of this scale, we assessed LEED credits earned of schools, land use and site variables and transportation patterns together with their impact on school’s resource operations data, carbon expenditure, obesity rates, activity levels, health, and human performance. To control for organizational and economic variables, the comparative pairs of LEED/non-LEED schools were matched to control for climatic, organizational, as well as socio-economic disparities between schools within the same districts. The paper will report on the findings from a statistical correlational model of performance data across the 16 comparative schools (8 LEED and 8 non-LEED), impact of LEED credits achieved, as well as lessons learned in design, construction, and operation of green schools to deliver evidence-based strategies for green schools of the future.
Article
Objective: To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Study design: Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Results: The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. Conclusions: HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.
Chapter
Understanding the determinants of obesity and developing appropriate prevention and treatment strategies require an in-depth examination of behavioral risk factors for obesity. The goal of this chapter is to review available data regarding the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the modifiable dietary and physical activity behavioral determinants of obesity that are potential targets for obesity prevention and treatment interventions. We begin with an examination of dietary factors that contribute to the development of overweight and obesity. Multiple factors that influence food intake will be discussed, including total energy intake, specific eating patterns, and environmental and societal influences. We then discuss physical activity factors, including exercise self-efficacy, social support, and access to exercise opportunities. The review will focus on behavioral risk factors for obesity in both children and adults.
Chapter
Among disorders of circadian rhythm, Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Syndrome is common in adolescents and young adults, a population that has a natural endogenous shift towards later bedtimes. In the current edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-3) it is now listed as Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD). Genetic, environmental, social, and behavioral factors play important roles in the development and perpetuation of this disorder. Delay in the ability to fall asleep at conventional times in affected individuals gives the appearance of sleep-onset insomnia. However, the affected individuals sleep for a normal amount of time if they do not have a social obligation to wake up at a conventional time. Usually, no problems with sleep maintenance are described. If sleep is curtailed due to social obligations, daytime consequences of DSWPD may occur, including sleep inertia, excessive daytime sleepiness, mood changes, cognitive deficits, or decline in academic performance. These may trigger excessive caffeine intake or substance use. A comprehensive sleep history with sleep logs and actigraphy (if available) are essential for an appropriate diagnosis of DSWPD. A number of treatment options exist including phase shifting (advancing or delaying), melatonin, bright light therapy, and improvement in sleep hygiene. Comorbid sleep disorders must be carefully screened for and excluded. Successful outcomes hinge very much on school and family cooperation as well as the patient?s motivation for change.
Article
Campus recreation programs and the national professional organization expect continued growth in the years to come, however, the future of the health of college students is troublesome. With the increase in childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity, attracting the nonuser to campus recreation programs could become more challenging than in the past. Campus recreation professionals will need to raise their awareness of the factors that influence overweight and obesity, and leisure-time physical activity in college students. This knowledge can subsequently be used to increase programming and service options to attract nonusers, create a culture of healthy living on campus, and increase the likelihood of future student participation.
Article
Full-text available
This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of environmental interventions (excluding taxation) targeted at sugar-sweetened beverages or low-calorie alternatives to sugar-sweetened beverages on consumption levels, diet-related anthropometric measures and health outcomes, and on any reported unintended consequences or adverse outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
To determine the possible association between carbonated beverage consumption and bone fractures among teenaged girls given the awareness of the concern about the impact of carbonated beverage consumption on children's health. An urban high school. A cross-sectional (retrospective) study. Four hundred sixty 9th- and 10th-grade girls attending the high school participated in this study by completing a self-administered questionnaire relating to their physical activities and personal and behavioral practices. The school system and the Harvard School of Public Health Institutional Review Boards approved the study. The girls' self-reports on physical activity, carbonated beverage consumption, and bone fractures are analyzed. In the total sample, carbonated beverage consumption and bone fractures are associated: odds ratio = 3.14 (95% confidence limit, 1.45, 6.78), P = .004. Among physically active girls, the cola beverages, in particular, are highly associated with bone fractures: odds ratio = 4.94 (95% confidence limit, 1.79, 13.62), P = .002. The results reported confirm previous findings, but the mechanism by which cola drinks are associated with bone fractures in physically active girls has neither been fully explored nor determined. Nevertheless, national concern and alarm about the health impact of carbonated beverage consumption on teenaged girls is supported by the findings of this study. The results have policy implications for improving the dietary practices and health of children.
Article
Full-text available
Dietary factors related to body weight and chronic disease risk are of interest because of recent increases in the prevalence of overweight. Secular trends in energy and fat intakes of youths aged 2-19 y were assessed. Current intakes were compared with recommendations. Dietary 24-h recall data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and earlier national surveys were examined. Mean energy intake changed little from the 1970s to 1988-1994 except for an increase among adolescent females. Over the same time period, the mean percentage of energy from total and saturated fat decreased, but remained above recommendations, with overall means of 33.5% of energy from fat and 12.2% of energy from saturated fat. In 1988-1994, approximately 1 in 4 youths met the recommendations for intakes of fat and saturated fat and 3 in 4 met the recommendation for cholesterol intake. Beverages contributed 20-24% of energy across all ages and soft drinks provided 8% of energy in adolescents. Except for adolescent girls, beverage energy contributions were generally higher among overweight than nonoverweight youths; soft drink energy contribution was higher among overweight youths than among nonoverweight youths for all groups. The lack of evidence of a general increase in energy intake among youths despite an increase in the prevalence of overweight suggests that physical inactivity is a major public health challenge in this age group. Efforts to increase physical activity and decrease nonnutritive sources of energy may be important approaches to counter the rise in overweight prevalence.
Article
Full-text available
To determine the trends in locations and food sources of Americans stratified by age group for both total energy and the meal and snack subcomponents. Nationally representative data was taken from the 1977 to 1978 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey and the 1989 to 1991 and 1994 to 1996 (and 1998 for children age 2 through 9) Continuing Surveys of Food Intake by Individuals. The sample consisted of 63,380 individuals, age 2 and up. For each survey year, the percentage of total energy intake from meals and snacks was calculated separately for 2- to 18-year-olds, 19- to 39-year-olds, 40- to 59-year-olds, and those 60 years and older. The percentage of energy intake by location (at-home consumption or preparation, vending, store eaten out, restaurant/fast-food, and school) and by specific food group was computed for all age groups separately. The trends in location and food sources were almost identical for all age groups. Key dietary behavior shifts included greater away-from-home consumption; large increases in total energy from salty snacks, soft drinks, and pizza; and large decreases in energy from low- and medium-fat milk and medium- and high-fat beef and pork. Total energy intake has increased over the past 20 years, with shifts away from meals to snacks and from at-home to away-from-home consumption. The similarity of changes across all age groups furthers the assertion that broad-based environmental changes are needed to improve the diets of Americans.
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of overweight among children in the United States increased between 1976-1980 and 1988-1994, but estimates for the current decade are unknown. To determine the prevalence of overweight in US children using the most recent national data with measured weights and heights and to examine trends in overweight prevalence. Survey of 4722 children from birth through 19 years of age with weight and height measurements obtained in 1999-2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage probability sample of the US population. Prevalence of overweight among US children by sex, age group, and race/ethnicity. Overweight among those aged 2 through 19 years was defined as at or above the 95th percentile of the sex-specific body mass index (BMI) for age growth charts. The prevalence of overweight was 15.5% among 12- through 19-year-olds, 15.3% among 6- through 11-year-olds, and 10.4% among 2- through 5-year-olds, compared with 10.5%, 11.3%, and 7.2%, respectively, in 1988-1994 (NHANES III). The prevalence of overweight among non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American adolescents increased more than 10 percentage points between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000. The prevalence of overweight among children in the United States is continuing to increase, especially among Mexican-American and non-Hispanic black adolescents.
Article
Full-text available
While general consensus holds that food portion sizes are increasing, no empirical data have documented actual increases. To determine trends in food portion sizes consumed in the United States, by eating location and food source. Nationally representative data from the Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (1977-1978) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1998). The sample consists of 63 380 individuals aged 2 years and older. For each survey year, average portion size consumed from specific food items (salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, pizza, and Mexican food) by eating location (home, restaurant, or fast food). Portion sizes vary by food source, with the largest portions consumed at fast food establishments and the smallest at other restaurants. Between 1977 and 1996, food portion sizes increased both inside and outside the home for all categories except pizza. The energy intake and portion size of salty snacks increased by 93 kcal (from 1.0 to 1.6 oz [28.4 to 45.4 g]), soft drinks by 49 kcal (13.1 to 19.9 fl oz [387.4 to 588.4 mL]), hamburgers by 97 kcal (5.7 to 7.0 oz [161.6 to 198.4 g]), french fries by 68 kcal (3.1 to 3.6 oz [87.9 to 102.1 g]), and Mexican food by 133 kcal (6.3 to 8.0 oz [178.6 to 226.8 g]). Portion sizes and energy intake for specific food types have increased markedly with greatest increases for food consumed at fast food establishments and in the home.
Article
Objective To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota.Design Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies.Subjects/Setting Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n=610; response rate: 463/610=75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal and school included at least one of the grades of 9 through 12).Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics examined the prevalence of specific policies and practices. χ2 analysis examined associations between policies and practices and school variables.Results Among principals, 65% believed it was important to have a nutrition policy for the high school; however, only 32% reported a policy at their school. Principals reported positive attitudes about providing a healthful school food environment, but 98% of the schools had soft drink vending machines and 77% had contracts with soft drink companies. Food sold at school fundraisers was most often candy, fruit, and cookies.Applications Dietetics professionals who work in secondary school settings should collaborate with other key school staff members and parents to develop and implement a comprehensive school nutrition policy. Such a policy could foster a school food environment that is supportive of healthful food choices among youth. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:1785–1789.
Article
Objective To examine trends in beverage consumption and evaluate the impact of beverage choices on the nutrient intakes of females ages 12 to 19 years.Design Dietary intake data from the USDA's Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, including the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), were assessed for trends in beverage consumption. The CSFII 1994-1996 data was used to examine the diets of young females grouped based on their milk and soda consumption status. Mean energy, nutrient, and beverage intakes were compared.Subjects Females with complete dietary intake information on Day 1 of the survey were included in the study. There were 732 females ages 12 to 19 years in the CSFII 1994-1996.Statistical Analysis Percentages of females consuming specific beverages were estimated. Pairwise mean comparisons were made between groups based on milk and soda consumption status.Results Milk intakes decreased by 36% whereas that of sodas and fruit drinks almost doubled from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s. The CSFII 1994-1996 data showed that between ages 12 and 19 years, intakes of fruit juices, soda, tea, fruit drinks, and alcoholic beverages either increased or remained relatively steady, while milk intakes decreased with an increase in age. At age 12 years, 78% drank milk and had the lowest soda intake (276g), while at age 19-years, only 36% drank milk and drank a high amount of soda (423g). Those who did not drink milk had inadequate intakes of vitamin A, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium.Application A rapid decrease in milk intake during the early adolescent years indicates a need for interventions at this age. Dietitians should identify barriers to drinking milk and recommend strategies for including appropriate food sources to increase calcium intakes during growing years. Nutrition educators should provide parents of adolescent children with ideas for ensuring the adequacy of their children's calcium intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 1234–1239.
Article
any health professionals are concerned about the quality of children's diets in the United States. A varied diet is one of the keys to good nutrition, but many children are choosing foods high in fat or added sugars at the expense of nutrient-dense fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other foods. These diet choices may be exacerbating the trend toward increasing obesity and other health problems among the Nation's young
Article
LEARNING OUTCOME: To better understand what changes in dietary patterns are contributing to decreasing overall fat intake for children 2-17 years of age between 1989-91 and 1994. The U.S Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) 1989–91 and 1994 data indicate that fat intakes by children 2–17 years of age declined from 34 percent of calories in 1989–91 to 33 percent of calories in 1994. Using descriptive statistics with weighted data, this study investigated fat intakes of these children by selected age and sex groups to determine which age-sex groups have experienced the largest declines in fat intakes. In addition to examining total fat intake, we examined fat intakes from selected food groups to obtain knowledge of what changes in dietary patterns are contributing to decreasing overall fat intake. The sample included 5,632 children 2–17 years of age who provided valid 24-hour dietary recall data from either CSFII 1989–91 or CSFII 1994. One child was randomly selected from each survey household to avoid household clustering effects. Results suggest that male children ages 12–17 experienced the largest decline in fat intake between 1989–91 and 1994. Their fat intake declined from 35 percent of calories in 1989–91 to 32 percent of calories in 1994. For all children ages 2–17 whole milk consumption declined substantially, while skim milk consumption rose. Consumption of grain mixtures increased from 1989–91 to 1994 while fat density of grain mixtures decreased slightly. Other lowfat products such as beverages increased, contributing to a decreased fat density of the diet. Although overall fat density decreased, total calories increased. Consumption rates and fat density of selected food groups are compared for selected age and sex groups within the 2–17 age range between 1989–91 and 1994. Overall food group consumption patterns are examined, and implications of the findings for overall diet quality are considered.
Article
• We studied 164 healthy, white children aged 2 to 16 years; there were 88 boys and 76 girls. By the method of single photon absorptiometry, we found that age, height, and weight correlated positively with bone mineral content of the radius bone. In the children's diet, most of those aged 2 to 11 years met the recommended dietary allowance (800 mg daily) for calcium. Children older than 11 years had low dietary calcium intake; only 15% met the recommended dietary allowance for calcium (1200 mg daily). Dietary calcium intake was associated with bone mineral status. Children ingesting more than 1000 mg of calcium daily had higher bone mineral content than those ingesting less. Almost all serum determinations of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were within normal limits and had no correlation with children's bone mineral status. (AJDC. 1991;145:631-634)
Article
Calcium intake is one of a number of factors that affect peak bone mass. Low bone mass is related to increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures. Data from the USDA 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey were used to determine populations most at risk of less than optimal calcium intake and food sources of calcium intake. Mean per capita daily consumption of calcium for the total U.S. population was 737 mg and varied by region of the country, household income, ethnic group, sex, and age. For most groups of females, intake was substantially less than the RDA. About 50% of total dietary calcium was supplied by milk and milk products. Milk and cheese used as ingredients in meat, grain, and vegetable mixtures contributed another 20% of dietary calcium. The remaining 30% of calcium was provided by grains and grain products, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes, nuts, and seeds.
Article
Osteoporosis is characterized by the reduction of bone mass and damage of the microarchitecture of bone tissue, with a consequent increase of bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. In women, osteoporosis is associated with menopause, as the reduction of estrogens accelerates bone loss. Apart from the hormonal component, this illness can have other causes, amongst them: mechanical, genetic and nutritional. One of the nutritional components of great importance is calcium. About 99% of the corporeal calcium content is found in the skeleton, conferring rigidity and being a readily available source for the maintenance of the normal levels of plasma calcium concentration. Therefore, calcium is the most studied nutrient in the area of bone health and it is considered important for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Some studies have shown a positive relation between calcium supplementation and reduction of bone loss in postmenopausal women. However, some doubts concerning this effect still persist. The objective of this work is to revise the relation between calcium intake and bone health,
Article
Dietary compensation for energy provided as ethanol is reportedly limited. Whether this is a function of the ethanol or other aspect of the medium in which it is ingested is not known. Eight male and eight female adults ingested 1.08 liters of beer (5.0% ethanol w/v, 1891kJ), light beer (2.9% ethanol w/v, 1197kJ), no-alcohol beer (0.1% ethanol w/v, 816kJ), cola (1749kJ) or carbonated water (0kJ) every 3-4 days with a midday meal. Diet records were kept the preceding day and day of beverage ingestion. Energy intake was significantly higher each day an energy-bearing beverage was consumed relative to its preceding day. A literature review revealed dietary compensation for modifications of energy intake via fluids is less precise than when solid foods are manipulated. These findings demonstrate dietary adjustment for energy derived from ethanol is imprecise, but also indicate energy from carbohydrate elicits little dietary response when ingested in a beverage.
Article
To investigate the degree of bias in under-reporting of food intake in obese and non-obese subjects, hypothesising that under-reporting may be selective for either macronutrient content (carbohydrate (CHO), fat, protein, alcohol), specific food types or eating occasions (meals, snacks). Thirty-three women (18 obese, 15 non-obese) were recruited to a long-stay metabolic facility for 24h. Ad libitum food intake was covertly measured throughout the study and a reported food intake completed at the end of 24h. Reported total daily energy intake was significantly lower than measured intake. Whilst meals were accurately reported, energy from snack foods eaten between meals was significantly under-reported. (P< 0.001) Reported total carbohydrate and added sugar intakes were significantly lower than measured, whilst reported protein and fat intakes were not significantly different from measured. Reported alcohol intake was also considerably lower than measured, but high variability prevented significance. In both obese and non-obese women the major cause of under-reporting, as assessed by covert study design in subjects restricted within a metabolic facility, is the failure to report between-meal snack foods. There is some evidence for increased under-reporting in high CHO, but no evidence of a bias in under-reporting towards high fat or high protein foods.
Article
To determine whether carbonated soft drink consumption is associated with consumption of milk, fruit juice, and the nutrients concentrated in these beverages. Data collected as part of the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were analyzed. Information on food and nutrient intake was derived from 2 days of dietary recall data collected via an in-person interview. SUBJECTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative sample of people of all ages residing in the United States (response rate = 76.2%). Analyses were restricted to children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 1,810). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to predict the odds of low milk and juice consumption by soft drink consumption level. To determine whether intake of select nutrients varied by soft drink consumption, multiple linear regression modeling was conducted. Analyses were conducted using sample weights and software appropriate for the survey design. Energy intake was positively associated with consumption of nondiet soft drinks. For example, mean adjusted energy intake was 1,830 kcal/day for school-aged children who were nonconsumers of soft drinks compared with 2,018 kcal/day for children in this age group who consumed an average of 9 oz of soda or more per day. Those in the highest soft drink consumption category consumed less milk and fruit juice compared with those in the lowest consumption category (nonconsumers). Nutrition education messages targeted to children and/or their parents should encourage limited consumption of soft drinks. Policies that limit children's access to soft drinks at day care centers and schools should be promoted.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese adolescents eat more high-calorie low-nutrient-dense foods than non-obese adolescents. Using a cross-sectional design, 22 non-obese and 21 obese adolescents kept 14-day food records. Records provided estimates of total daily energy intake and caloric intake from five categories of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense (HC) foods: candy, chips, soda, baked goods, and ice cream. Body composition was determined by 18O dilution and daily energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Percentage of energy intake reported (%report) was calculated as the ratio of reported energy intake to measured energy expenditure (x 100%). Both groups underreported energy intake, but the percentage reported was significantly greater in the non-obese group (78.2+/-20.5% non-obese vs. 55.5+/-21.8% obese, p<0.001). Consumption of calories from chips and soda was similar among non-obese and obese adolescents. However, total energy intake from all HC foods was higher in the non-obese group than among the obese (617+/-356 kcal/day vs. 362+/-223 kcal/day; p<0.01) and represented 27.2+/-10.5% and 19.9+/-9.6% of reported energy intake in the non-obese and obese groups, respectively. After adjustment for under-reporting, the percentage of calories provided by each of the HC foods was similar in the obese and non-obese groups except for ice cream, which remained significantly greater in the non-obese group (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that both non-obese and obese adolescents consume a substantial portion of reported calories from HC foods and that obese adolescents do not consume more calories from these foods than non-obese adolescents. These data offer no evidence to support the widespread notion that obese adolescents eat more "junk food" than non-obese adolescents. Health professionals who treat obese adolescents must be aware that the excess calories in their diets may come from a variety of food sources and not solely from high-calorie snack foods.
Article
To identify food sources of added sweeteners in the US diet. A descriptive study using data from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Each subject provided one 24-hour dietary recall. Intake of added sweeteners was calculated using the USDA Food Guide Pyramid servings database. A national sample of noninstitutionalized persons aged 2 years and older (N = 15,010). Mean intakes of added sweeteners from all food sources and from specific food categories; percentage contribution of added sweeteners to total energy intake; and percentage contribution of each food category to total intake of added sweeteners. All analyses were conducted for the total sample and for 12 age-gender groups. During 1994 to 1996, Americans aged 2 years and older consumed the equivalent of 82 g carbohydrate per day from added sweeteners, which accounted for 16% of total energy intake. In absolute terms, adolescent males consumed the most; as a percentage of energy, male and female adolescents had the highest intakes (averaging 20% of total energy from added sweeteners). The largest source of added sweeteners was regular soft drinks, which accounted for one third of intake. Other sources were table sugars, syrups, and sweets; sweetened grains; regular fruitades/drinks; and milk products. Intakes of added sweeteners exceed levels compatible with meeting current dietary recommendations. Knowing food sources of added sweeteners for the overall population and for specific age-gender groups can help dietitians provide appropriate nutrition education.
Article
The rising prevalence of obesity in children has been linked in part to the consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks. Our aim was to examine this relation. We enrolled 548 ethnically diverse schoolchildren (age 11.7 years, SD 0.8) from public schools in four Massachusetts communities, and studied them prospectively for 19 months from October, 1995, to May, 1997. We examined the association between baseline and change in consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks (the independent variables), and difference in measures of obesity, with linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for potentially confounding variables and clustering of results within schools. For each additional serving of sugar-sweetened drink consumed, both body mass index (BMI) (mean 0.24 kg/m2; 95% CI 0.10-0.39; p=0.03) and frequency of obesity (odds ratio 1.60; 95% CI 1.14-2.24; p=0.02) increased after adjustment for anthropometric, demographic, dietary, and lifestyle variables. Baseline consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was also independently associated with change in BMI (mean 0.18 kg/m2 for each daily serving; 95% CI 0.09-0.27; p=0.02). Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks is associated with obesity in children.
Article
Obesity has increased dramatically over the past two decades and currently about 50% of US adults and 25% of US children are overweight. The current epidemic of obesity is caused largely by an environment that promotes excessive food intake and discourages physical activity. This chapter reviews what is known about environmental influences on physical activity and eating behaviors. Recent trends in food supply, eating out, physical activity, and inactivity are reviewed, as are the effects of advertising, promotion, and pricing on eating and physical activity. Public health interventions, opportunities, and potential strategies to combat the obesity epidemic by promoting an environment that supports healthy eating and physical activity are discussed.
Article
To describe food-related policies and practices in secondary schools in Minnesota. Mailed anonymous survey including questions about the secondary school food environment and food-related practices and policies. Members of a statewide professional organization for secondary school principals (n = 610; response rate: 463/610 = 75%). Of the 463 surveys returned, 336 met the eligibility criteria (current position was either principal or assistant principal and school included at least one of the grades of 9 through 12). Descriptive statistics examined the prevalence of specific policies and practices. Chi2 analysis examined associations between policies and practices and school variables. Among principals, 65% believed it was important to have a nutrition policy for the high school; however, only 32% reported a policy at their school. Principals reported positive attitudes about providing a healthful school food environment, but 98% of the schools had soft drink vending machines and 77% had contracts with soft drink companies. Food sold at school fundraisers was most often candy, fruit, and cookies. Dietetics professionals who work in secondary school settings should collaborate with other key school staff members and parents to develop and implement a comprehensive school nutrition policy. Such a policy could foster a school food environment that is supportive of healthful food choices among youth.
Article
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recently issued recommendations for 100% fruit juice consumption for children and adolescents. National survey data (1994-1996, 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals) were used to evaluate intake of 100% fruit juice for comparison with AAP recommendations. Mean daily intakes of 100% fruit juice were 0.9, 4.6, and 3.4 ounces in children aged <6 months, 6 months-6 years, and 7-18 years, respectively, which fall within AAP recommendations for these age groups. At age 5, mean intake of fruit drinks and ades exceeded that of 100% fruit juice (P=.009). Carbonated soft drink intake exceeded that of 100% fruit juice at age 5 and of milk at age 13 (P<.04). By age 13, adolescents drank more carbonated soft drinks than 100% fruit juice, milk, or fruit drinks and ades. Increased consumption of nutrient-dense beverages (100% fruit juice, milk) and water as part of a varied diet should be encouraged.
Article
To compare quantities consumed per eating occasion in 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 was the objective of this study. This study was a comparison over time. Subjects/setting Subjects were respondents in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) in 1989-1991 or 1994-1996. Intake data were processed and analyzed to provide estimates of amounts of commonly eaten foods consumed per eating occasion. Statistical analyses performed Approximate t tests were used to compare quantities of foods consumed by 1989-1991 and 1994-1996 survey respondents. Analyses were conducted for all persons aged 2 years and over and for 10 age and sex groups. Significance was set at.001. Significant differences in amounts consumed were reported for approximately one third of the 107 foods examined. Larger amounts were reported in 1994-1996 by all persons aged 2 years and over and selected age/sex subgroups for several foods including soft drinks, coffee, tea, and ready-to-eat cereal. Smaller amounts were reported for fewer foods: margarine, mayonnaise, chicken, macaroni and cheese, and pizza. Amounts of foods consumed per eating occasion are widely used for the formation of public policy, counseling, and dietary assessment. Changes in amounts consumed should be monitored to evaluate the need for revisions in policy and diet assessment protocols.
Article
To examine trends in beverage consumption and evaluate the impact of beverage choices on the nutrient intakes of females ages 12 to 19 years. Dietary intake data from the USDA's Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys, including the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), were assessed for trends in beverage consumption. The CSFII 1994-1996 data was used to examine the diets of young females grouped based on their milk and soda consumption status. Mean energy, nutrient, and beverage intakes were compared. Females with complete dietary intake information on Day 1 of the survey were included in the study. There were 732 females ages 12 to 19 years in the CSFII 1994-1996. Statistical Analysis Percentages of females consuming specific beverages were estimated. Pairwise mean comparisons were made between groups based on milk and soda consumption status. Milk intakes decreased by 36% whereas that of sodas and fruit drinks almost doubled from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s. The CSFII 1994-1996 data showed that between ages 12 and 19 years, intakes of fruit juices, soda, tea, fruit drinks, and alcoholic beverages either increased or remained relatively steady, while milk intakes decreased with an increase in age. At age 12 years, 78% drank milk and had the lowest soda intake (276g), while at age 19-years, only 36% drank milk and drank a high amount of soda (423g). Those who did not drink milk had inadequate intakes of vitamin A, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. A rapid decrease in milk intake during the early adolescent years indicates a need for interventions at this age. Dietitians should identify barriers to drinking milk and recommend strategies for including appropriate food sources to increase calcium intakes during growing years. Nutrition educators should provide parents of adolescent children with ideas for ensuring the adequacy of their children's calcium intakes. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002; 102: 1234-1239.
Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1970-97
  • Putnam Jj Allshouse
  • Je
Putnam JJ, Allshouse JE. Food Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures, 1970-97. Washington, DC: US Dept Agriculture, Economic Research Service;
Inadequate peak bone mass Osteoporosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management
  • R Heaney
  • Matkovic
Heaney R, Matkovic V. Inadequate peak bone mass. In: Riggs B, Melton L, Eds. Osteoporosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management, 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Raven Press, 1995.
Calcium intake and osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Nutritional aspects
  • Nilas
Nilas L: Calcium intake and osteoporosis. In: Simopoulas AP, Galli C, Eds. Osteoporosis: Nutritional aspects. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Switzerland: Karger, 1993;vol 73:pp 1-26.
Design and operation: The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, 1994-96
  • Tippett Ks
  • Ys
Tippett KS, Cypel YS, Eds. Design and operation: The Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the Diet and Health Knowledge Survey, 1994-96. Riverdale, MD: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, May 1998. NFS Report No. 91-1.
SUDAAN user's manual. Professional software for survey data analysis for multi-stage sample designs Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents
  • Shah Bv
  • Barnwell
  • Bg
  • Pn Hunt
  • Lavange
  • Lg Bandini
  • D Vu
  • A Must
  • H Cyr
  • A Goldberg
  • Dietz
Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Hunt PN, Lavange LM. SUDAAN user's manual. Professional software for survey data analysis for multi-stage sample designs. Research Triangle Institute, 1996. 31. Bandini LG, Vu D, Must A, Cyr H, Goldberg A, Dietz WH. Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents. Obes Res. 1999;7:438-443.
Assessment of selective underreporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility
  • Sd Poppitt
  • D Swann
  • Ae Black
  • Am Prentice
Poppitt SD, Swann D, Black AE, Prentice AM. Assessment of selective underreporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility. Int J Obes 1998;22:303-311.
MD: US Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service
  • Hyattsville
Hyattsville, MD: US Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Information Service. 1984. Report No. I.
SUDAAN user's manual. Professional software for survey data analysis for multi-stage sample designs Research Triangle Institute
  • Bv Shah
  • Bg Barnwell
  • Pn Hunt
  • Lm Lavange
Shah BV, Barnwell BG, Hunt PN, Lavange LM. SUDAAN user's manual. Professional software for survey data analysis for multi-stage sample designs Research Triangle Institute, 1996.
Trends in energy intake in US between 1977 and 1996
  • Nielsen
Consumption of calcium in the U.S
  • Fleming
Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States
  • Troiano
Assessment of selective underreporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility
  • Poppitt