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Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion


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A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress. ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC activity.
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DOI: 10.1126/science.1089134
, 290 (2003); 302Science et al.Naomi I. Eisenberger,
Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social (this information is current as of September 30, 2008 ):
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subtilis (fig. S2). The RLP of B. subtilis
includes both those amino acid residues of
RuBisCO that are responsible for binding
the phosphate on C1 of RuBP and those
required for activation by CO
. However,
the residues of RuBisCO that are responsi-
ble for binding the other phosphate group
of RuBP and the residues of loop 6, which
are essential for RuBisCO activity (2,3),
are replaced by different amino acids in
RLP (Fig. 1B). The reaction catalyzed by
RuBisCO consists of three sequential, par-
tial reactions: enolization, carboxylation or
oxygenation, and hydrolysis (2,3,26). De-
letion of loop 6 from RuBisCO prevents it
from catalyzing the carboxylation/oxygen-
ation reactions (27). However, it retains the
ability to catalyze the enolization reaction
(27). This observation supports the hypoth-
esis that the RLP-catalyzed enolization of
DK-MTP-1-P does not require the amino
acid residues that bind the phosphate group
on C5 of RuBP and the loop 6. Moreover,
the structure of DK-MTP-1-P is very sim-
ilar to that of RuBP. In photosynthetic
RuBisCO, these additional structures may
hinder the DK-MTP-1-P enolase reaction,
and they may also explain the slow growth
of ykrW
cells (Fig. 4C). In this
context, our results with the RLP of B.
subtilis suggest that RLPs of other bacteria
may also catalyze a reaction similar to one
of the partial reactions of RuBisCO in a
bacterial metabolic pathway.
Our analysis shows that RLP of B. sub-
tilis functions as a DK-MTP-1-P enolase,
which has no RuBP-carboxylation activity,
in the methionine salvage pathway. More-
over, this function of RLP is conserved in
the RuBisCO from a photosynthetic bacte-
rium. In a standard phylogenetic tree of the
large subunits of RuBisCO, the RLP from
B. subtilis is not included on any branches
that include RuBisCO or on branches that
include other RLPs with RuBP-carboxyla-
tion activity (Fig. 1A). The codon usage
and the G C content of the gene for RLP
are typical of the organism. The literature
(28) suggests that genes such as the gene
for RLP were probably not derived by lat-
eral transfer of a gene for a RuBP-carbox-
ylating enzyme from another unrelated or-
ganism, for example, in this case, an ar-
chaeon or photosynthetic bacterium. Thus,
it is possible that the gene for RLP, which
in B. subtilis is part of the methionine
salvage pathway, and the gene for photo-
synthetic RuBisCO originated from a com-
mon ancestral gene (supporting online
text). However, bacteria and Archaea that
have RLPs first appeared on Earth (29)
long before the Calvin cycle developed in
photosynthetic bacteria (30), thus we sug-
gest that RLPs may be the ancestral en-
zymes of photosynthetic RuBisCO.
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31. We thank W. L. Ogren and A. R. Portis Jr., for review-
ing the manuscript. We also thank M. Inui, RITE, for
providing the plasmid pRR2119, and J. Tsukamoto for
assistance with mass analysis. This study was sup-
ported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no.
10460043) from the Ministry of Education, Science,
Sports and Culture of Japan, and by the “Research for
the Future” programs (JSPS-RFTF97R16001 and
JSPS-00L01604) of the Japan Society for the Promo-
tion of Science.
Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
SOM Text
Figs. S1 and S2
19 May 2003; accepted 26 August 2003
Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI
Study of Social Exclusion
Naomi I. Eisenberger,
* Matthew D. Lieberman,
Kipling D. Williams
A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and
tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those
of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-
tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results
from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more
active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with
self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active
during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress.
ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that
RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC
It is a basic feature of human experience to
feel soothed in the presence of close others
and to feel distressed when left behind.
Many languages reflect this experience in
the assignment of physical pain words
(“hurt feelings”) to describe experiences of
social separation (1). However, the notion
that the pain associated with losing some-
one is similar to the pain experienced upon
physical injury seems more metaphorical
than real. Nonetheless, evidence suggests
that some of the same neural machinery
recruited in the experience of physical pain
may also be involved in the experience of
pain associated with social separation or
Department of Psychology, Franz Hall, University of
California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095–1563,
Department of Psychology, Macquarie Univer-
sity, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-
10 OCTOBER 2003 VOL 302 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org290
on September 30, 2008 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
rejection (2). Because of the adaptive value
of mammalian social bonds, the social at-
tachment system, which keeps young near
caregivers, may have piggybacked onto the
physical pain system to promote survival
(3). We conducted a functional magnetic
resonance imaging (fMRI) study of social
exclusion to determine whether the regions
activated by social pain are similar to those
found in studies of physical pain.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is
believed to act as a neural alarm system
or conflict monitor, detecting when an au-
tomatic response is inappropriate or in con-
flict with current goals (46). Not surpris-
ingly, pain, the most primitive signal that
something is wrong,activates the ACC
(7,8). More specifically, dorsal ACC ac-
tivity is primarily associated with the affec-
tively distressing rather than the sensory
component of pain (79).
Because of the importance of social
bonds for the survival of most mammalian
species, the social attachment system may
have adopted the neural computations of
the ACC, involved in pain and conflict
detection processes, to promote the goal of
social connectedness. Ablating the cingu-
late in hamster mothers disrupts maternal
behavior aimed at keeping pups near (10),
and ablating the cingulate in squirrel mon-
keys eliminates the spontaneous production
of the separation cry, emitted to reestablish
contact with the social group (11). In hu-
man mothers, the ACC is activated by the
sound of infant cries (12). However, to
date, no studies have examined whether the
ACC is also activated upon social separa-
tion or social rejection in human subjects.
Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC)
has been implicated in the regulation or
inhibition of pain distress and negative af-
fect (1316). The primate homolog of
VPFC has efferent connections to the re-
gion of the ACC associated with pain dis-
tress (17,18), suggesting that RVPFC may
partially regulate the ACC. Additionally,
electrical stimulation of VPFC in rats di-
minishes pain behavior in response to pain-
ful stimulation (19). More recently in hu-
mans, heightened RVPFC activation has
been associated with improvement of pain
symptoms in a placebo-pain study (16).
Given that even the mildest forms of
social exclusion can generate social pain
(20), we investigated the neural response
during two types of social exclusion: (i)
explicit social exclusion (ESE), in which
individuals were prevented from participat-
ing in a social activity by other players
engaged in the social activity, and (ii) im-
plicit social exclusion (ISE), in which par-
ticipants, because of extenuating circum-
stances, were not able to join in a social
activity with other players.
fMRI scans were acquired while partic-
ipants played a virtual ball-tossing game
(CyberBall) with what they believed to
be two other players, also in fMRI scan-
ners, during which the players eventually
excluded the participant (21). In reality,
there were no other players; participants
were playing with a preset computer pro-
gram and were given a cover story to en-
sure that they believed the other players
were real (22).
In the first scan (ISE), the participant
watched the other playersplay Cyber-
Ball. Participants were told that, because of
technical difficulties, the link to the other two
scanners could not yet be made and thus, at
first, they would be able to watch but not play
with the other two players. This cover story was
intended to allow participants to view a
scene visually identical to ESE without par-
ticipants believing they were being exclud-
ed. In the second scan (inclusion), partici-
pants played with the other two players. In
the final scan (ESE), participants received
seven throws and were then excluded when
the two players stopped throwing partici-
pants the ball for the remainder of the scan
(45 throws). Afterward, participants
filled out questionnaires assessing how ex-
cluded they felt and their level of social
distress during the ESE scan (22).
Behavioral results indicated that partic-
ipants felt ignored and excluded during
ESE (t5.33, P0.05). As predicted,
group analysis of the fMRI data indicated
that dorsal ACC (Fig. 1A) (x8, y20,
z40) was more active during ESE than
during inclusion (t3.36, r0.71, P
0.005) (23,24). Self-reported distress was
positively correlated with ACC activity in
this contrast (Fig. 2A) (x6, y8, z
45, r0.88, P0.005; x4, y31,
z41, r0.75, P0.005), suggesting
that dorsal ACC activation during ESE was
associated with emotional distress parallel-
ing previous studies of physical pain (7,8).
The anterior insula (x42, y16, z1)
was also active in this comparison (t
4.07, r0.78, P0.005); however, it was
not associated with self-reported distress.
Two regions of RVPFC were more ac-
tive during ESE than during inclusion (Fig.
1B) (x42, y27, z11, t4.26, r
0.79, P0.005; x37, y50, z1, t
4.96, r0.83, P0.005). Self-reported
distress was negatively correlated with
RVPFC activity during ESE, relative to
inclusion (Fig. 2B) (x30, y34, z3,
r0.68, P0.005). Additionally,
RVPFC activation (x34, y36, z3)
was negatively correlated with ACC activ-
ity (x6, y8, z45) during ESE,
relative to inclusion (r0.81, P0.005)
(Fig. 2C), suggesting that RVPFC may play
a self-regulatory role in mitigating the dis-
tressing effects of social exclusion.
ACC activity (x6, y8, z45)
mediated the direct path from RVPFC (x
34, y36, z3) to distress (Sobel test,
Z3.16, P0.005). After controlling for
ACC activity, the remaining path from
RVPFC to distress was no longer signifi-
cant (␤⫽0.17, P0.5). This mediation-
al model is nearly identical to the results
from previous research on the self-regula-
tion of physical pain (16).
ISE, relative to inclusion, also produced
significant activation of ACC (x6, y
21, z41; (z41, t4.34, I 0.78, P
0.005). To preserve the cover story, self-
reported distress was not assessed after this
condition, and thus we could not assess the
relation between ACC activity during ISE
and perceived distress. However, no
RVPFC activity was found in this compar-
ison, even at a P.05 significance level,
suggesting that the ACC registered this ISE
but did not generate a self-regula-
tory response.
In summary, a pattern of activations very
similar to those found in studies of physical
pain emerged during social exclusion, pro-
viding evidence that the experience and reg-
ulation of social and physical pain share a
common neuroanatomical basis. Activity in
dorsal ACC, previously linked to the experi-
ence of pain distress, was associated with
increased distress after social exclusion. Fur-
thermore, activity in RVPFC, previously
linked to the regulation of pain distress, was
associated with diminished distress after so-
cial exclusion.
The neural correlates of social pain were
also activated by the mere visual appear-
Fig. 1. (A) Increased
activity in anterior cin-
gulate cortex (ACC)
during exclusion rela-
tive to inclusion. (B) In-
creased activity in
right ventral prefron-
tal cortex (RVPFC)
during exclusion rela-
tive to inclusion.
on September 30, 2008 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
ance of exclusion in the absence of actual
exclusion. The pattern of neural activity
associated with ISE and ESE provides
some challenges to the way we currently
understand exclusion and its consequences.
Although the neural correlates of distress
were observed in both ISE and ESE, the
self-regulation of this distress only oc-
curred in response to ESE. Explicit aware-
ness of exclusion may be required before
individuals can make appropriate attribu-
tions and regulate the associated distress.
Dorsal ACC activation during ESE
could reflect enhanced attentional process-
ing, previously associated with ACC activ-
ity (4,5), rather than an underlying distress
due to exclusion. Two pieces of evidence
make this possibility unlikely. First, ACC
activity was strongly correlated with per-
ceived distress after exclusion, indicating
that the ACC activity was associated with
changes in participantsself-reported feel-
ing states. Second, although inclusion is
likely to require greater attentional process-
ing than does ISE to facilitate participation
in the game, there was greater ACC activity
during ISE than during inclusion, indicat-
ing that the ACC activity was not fully
attributable to heightened attention.
Because of the need to maintain a realistic
situation in which participants would genu-
inely feel excluded, the study did not contain
some of the controls typical of most neuro-
imaging studies. For instance, the conditions
were always implemented in the same order
so as to keep expectations consistent from
one scan to the next across participants. It
was especially critical that ESE came last to
prevent expectations of possible exclusion
from contaminating the other conditions.
There was only a single ESE period to pre-
serve ecological validity. This modification,
however, diminishes, rather than increases,
the likelihood of Type I errors.
This study suggests that social pain is
analogous in its neurocognitive function to
physical pain, alerting us when we have
sustained injury to our social connections,
allowing restorative measures to be taken.
Understanding the underlying commonalities
between physical and social pain unearths
new perspectives on issues such as why phys-
ical and social pain are affected similarly by
both social support and neurochemical inter-
ventions (2,3,25), and why it hurtsto lose
someone we love (1).
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of California, Los Angeles, Brain Mapping Center
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grant from the National Institutes of Mental
Health (R21MH66709-01) to M.D.L.
Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
14 July 2003; accepted 15 August 2003
Fig. 2. Scatterplots showing the
relation during exclusion, rela-
tive to inclusion, between (A)
ACC activity and self-reported
distress, (B) RVPFC and self-
reported distress, and (C) ACC
and RVPFC activity. Each point
represents the data from a single
10 OCTOBER 2003 VOL 302 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org292
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... One possible explanation is that individuals who frequently used OTCA experienced reduced feelings of loneliness due to the medication blunting or diminishing such emotions. Social pain, like the unpleasant emotional state of loneliness, shares similarities with the discomfort felt in response to physical pain (54), and research has demonstrated that brain activation patterns in response to social pain overlap signi cantly with those observed in studies of physical pain (55). Thus, it seems plausible that adolescents might turn to painkillers when feeling lonely, and that these pills may have an analgesic effect on the social pain. ...
Full-text available
Background The use of over-the-counter analgesics (OTCA) is common among adolescents, particularly females. Previous research has linked symptoms of anxiety and depression (AD) with OTCA usage, even after controlling for pain. AD encompasses a wide array of both psychological and physiological symptoms, and little is known about which of these symptoms are most strongly connected to OTCA usage. In the current study we assessed differences in associations between specific AD symptoms and OTCA usage in a large sample of adolescents. Furthermore, we examined whether the associations between AD symptoms and OTCA usage differed across genders. Method We included 626,581 participants from the Ungdata survey. AD symptoms were measured with an adapted version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-10 and the Depression Mood Inventory, while a 5-point scale assessed OTCA usage. Non-regularized partial-correlation networks were constructed to explore conditional dependent relations between the use of OTCA and AD symptoms, including a separate network controlling for symptoms of pain. Gender-specific networks containing all symptoms were created. The networks were visualized and described statistically in terms of edge weights and bridge centrality (bridge expected influence). Results OTCA usage demonstrated associations with most AD symptoms, with the strongest links to “sleep problems”, “stiff or tense”, “everything is a struggle” and “suddenly scared”. When including pain symptoms as covariates, OTCA-AD edges weakened, but most edges persisted as significant. The strongest links were observed between OTCA usage and pain symptoms. Key bridging nodes between communities included “headache” and “stiff or tense”. OTCA usage demonstrated higher bridge expected influence in the female network than in the male. Further, “sleep problems” and “hopeless” showed stronger links to OTCA usage among females, whereas “stiff or tense” was more strongly related to OTCA usage among males. Conclusion Our study assessed the relationship between OTCA usage and specific symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents. Our results indicate that somatic expressions of AD, such as sleep disturbances and tension, displayed stronger associations with OTCA usage than more conventional AD symptoms. This pattern might be even more pronounced in males than females.
... Loss of support and reduced resources for emotional coping(Bjorkmark, Nynas, and Koskinen, 2021) may be responsible for much of the emotional pain disaffiliates report, since social rejection has a detrimental effects on many important domains of functioning and registers in the same neural regions as physical injury(Eisenberger et al., 2003).12 Alienation involving meaninglessness and social isolation is negatively correlated with numerous psychological well-being variables, including feelings of chronic loneliness, existential meaninglessness, and resilience to stress(Osin, 2009;Zavaleta et al., 2014); whilst also linked to psychopathology and physical illnesses(Lambert et al., 2013).13 ...
Full-text available
Abstract Whilst religious affiliation may be viewed as adaptive behaviour beneficial to an individual‘smental health, the phenomenon of disaffiliation has been associated with deleterious mental health effects. Yet, despite being associated with particularly harmful negative psychological costs, disaffiliation from high-demand and high-cost religious groups appears to be increasing; an example of which is the Jehovah‘s Witnesses (JW). As part of a fundamentalist religion, members are required to devote a great deal of time to religious activities whilst severely limiting social interaction with non-members. The limited yet insightful existing literature on the subject suggests that JW disaffiliates face serious challenges to their mental health including meaninglessness, with those raised JW especially vulnerable. This study therefore used interpretative phenomenological analysis to consider the lived experiences of four disaffiliates raised JW, and despite heterogeneous aspects of their journeys, the participants all shared accounts of a traumatic nature. Personal research was claimed to facilitate engagement with sources of profound fear and guilt, and thus expressed as vital in ameliorating negative psychological effects associated with existential crisis; whilst the intergenerational effects of ostracisation through shunning were found to have a continuing negative effect on the participants‘ lives. Nonetheless, participants described a highly-nuanced, evolving, and freeing process of post-disaffiliation identity construction, including a search for empathy and continuous refutation of their former religion. With the primary aim of enabling mental health professionals to better support JW disaffiliates, and in light of existing research, the implications of this study for future research and practice are considered.
... Participants were asked to play a virtual ball-tossing game with two other players who were presented as being in another room. In reality, the game was pre-programmed, and participants played with a computer [14,46]. Participants were represented by a hand at the bottom of the screen, and they could pass the ball to the other players by pressing a corresponding button. ...
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Background Interpersonal difficulties of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are closely related to rejection sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to gain further insight into the experience and cerebral processing of social interactions in patients with BPD by using fMRI during experimentally induced experiences of social exclusion, inclusion, and overinclusion. Methods The study involved 30 participants diagnosed with BPD (29 female and 1 male; age: M = 24.22, SD = 5.22) and 30 healthy controls (29 female and 1 male; age: M = 24.66, SD = 5.28) with no current or lifetime psychiatric diagnoses. In the fMRI session, all participants were asked to complete a Cyberball task that consisted of an alternating sequence of inclusion, exclusion, and overinclusion conditions. Results Compared to healthy controls, participants with BPD reported higher levels of inner tension and more unpleasant emotions across all experimental conditions. At the neural level, the participants with BPD showed lower recruitment of the left hippocampus in response to social exclusion (relative to the inclusion condition) than the healthy controls did. Lower recruitment of the left hippocampus in this contrast was associated with childhood maltreatment in patients with BPD. However, this difference was no longer significant when we added the covariate of hippocampal volume to the analysis. During social overinclusion (relative to the inclusion condition), we observed no significant differences in a group comparison of neural activation. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that patients with BPD experience more discomfort than do healthy controls during social interactions. Compared to healthy participants, patients with BPD reported more inner tension and unpleasant emotions, irrespective of the extent to which others included them in social interactions. At a neural level, the participants with BPD showed a lower recruitment of the left hippocampus in response to social exclusion than the healthy controls did. The reduced activation of this neural structure could be related to a history of childhood maltreatment and smaller hippocampal volume in patients with BPD.
... For example, the experience of rejection may often be emotionally painful-but there is evidence that it may also physiologically emulate pain. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that neural system responses associated with social rejection resemble those resulting from physical pain (Eisenberger et al., 2003(Eisenberger et al., , 2006Kross et al., 2011). ...
Professional rejection is a widespread phenomenon—most, if not all, of us have or will experience it in our lifetimes. However, some are more adept at handling it than others. This paper examines individual differences in how people interpret and handle professional rejection, proposing a construct called professional rejection sensitivity. We focused on whether this construct predicts decreased self‐promoting behaviors and increased self‐silencing behaviors and, subsequently, whether that impacts career success for junior faculty. Moreover, we investigated whether women may be disproportionally predisposed to professional rejection sensitivity because they tend to experience more discrimination in the workplace than men. We collected self‐report data (i.e., individual differences) and biodata (i.e., curriculum vitae) from 300 junior faculty and found evidence of gender differences, such that women perceive more discrimination and report higher professional rejection sensitivity than men. We also found that individuals who are higher in professional rejection sensitivity are more likely to practice self‐silencing behaviors, and individuals who perceive more discrimination have lower career success. This paper serves as the first step in demonstrating the existence of professional rejection sensitivity, which can guide future research that addresses how individuals can overcome this disposition. To support this path of research, we conclude with suggestions for potential interventions.
... Neuroscientific research has shown that feelings of humiliation associated with violations of dignity are exceptionally intense, and arouse extended cortical activation and consume increased levels of processing attention relative to other emotions (Otten and Jonas 2014). In this regard, the human response to social pain shows similarities to that of physical pain (Lieberman 2013), and there is partial overlap in the areas of the brain that are activated in relation to social and physical pain (Eisenberger 2012;Eisenberger et al. 2003). ...
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Despite the commonality of moral injury (MI) across diverse work settings, it has received limited attention within business and management research, and such research has tended to focus upon post-injury moral repair or recovery, rather than on primary prevention. Additionally, despite the relational and spiritual dimensions and harms of MI, there has been limited attention to relational-spiritual perspectives for its prevention. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to elucidate the relational and spiritual dimensions of MI, and identify the potential of a relevant, related perspective for the primary prevention of MI within organizational settings, namely that of agape. First, an overview of the nature and types of MI is provided, including discussion of its relational and spiritual dimensions and harms. Second, Gilligan’s (Gilligan, Journal of Social Philosophy 45:89–106, 2014; Gilligan and Snider Gilligan and Snider, Why does patriarchy persist?, Polity, New York, 2018) care ethics framework for understanding MI as an outcome of relational and spiritual violation involving the fear-based betrayal of love is described. Third, given this conceptualization of MI as a fear-based betrayal of love, consideration is given to the potential of agape as a form of spiritual love for the prevention of MI within organizations. This includes consideration of three interrelated areas: intentional cultivation of an agapeic organizational culture; the development of an agapeic organizational conscience; and, agapeic responsiveness to healthy and health-sustaining, politically aware and engaged forms of relational resistance against potentially morally injurious events. Directions for future research are discussed.
... This theory shows a connection to ostracism due to likeness to a phenomenon and process in which a person's need for belonging and connection is hindered because of rejection or ostracism by a social group or individual (Chen et al., 2022;Williams, 2007;Xia, 2008). The effect of social exclusion is rooted in the need-threat model as seen in Figure 3 (Williams, 2009) which states that people who are excluded go through a reflexive period in which neural pain responses like physical pain appear (Eisenberger et al., 2003) and are experiencing less happiness with basic needs like belonging, self-esteem, control, and purposeful existence (Williams, 2007). ...
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Amid pandemic outbreaks, many jobs that were once thought to be safe are now considered potentially harmful since the virus can be easily spread from one person to another. Albeit vaccination program, the fear of infections at the workplace is still alarming as getting vaccinated is a voluntary act and the virus keeps evolving from time to time. As everyone must keep their working life at risk since social distancing and wearing face masks are no longer being forcefully practiced, people are taking safety precautions into their own hands, leading to changes in ostracized behavior in the workplace. Following the Theory of Protection Motivation, this paper made attempts to conceptually model workplace ostracism to understand why some workforces are changing their behavior towards ostracism during a pandemic outbreak. Towards the end, the findings from this study are expected to contribute towards achieving mentally stable workforces and sustainable human resources.
... Lebih jauh, beberapa penelitian telah menyelidiki aktivitas otak yang terlibat dalam proses yang berkorelasi dengan volunteering, seperti proses social acceptance atau penerimaan sosial (Eisenberger et al., 2003) dan empati (Singer et al., 2008). Studi-studi tersebut menemukan adanya peningkatan fungsi kognitif pada para volunteer. ...
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Studi ini merupakan sebuah reviu teoritis yang membahas tentang volunteering dari aspek-aspek psikologi, fisiologi, dan budaya. Kegiatan sukarela atau volunteering merupakan kegiatan apa pun yang mengalokasikan waktu, materi, dan tenaga secara gratis kepada orang lain, kelompok, atau organisasi. Volunteer atau sukarelawan mencurahkan waktu, materi, dan energi mereka melalui banyak cara. Volunteering kemudian menjadi populer di berbagai negara termasuk Indonesia yang menjadi salah satu negara dengan tingkat volunteering tertinggi di dunia. Faktor budaya (kolektivistik vs individualistik) berpengaruh terhadap volunteering meskipun masih terdapat hasil yang inkonsisten. Selain itu, religiusitas dan level kepercayaan sosial berkontribusi terhadap hal ini. Proses fisiologis seperti genetik, hormonal, dan neurobiologis melandasi perilaku prososial. Interaksi dari ketiga hal tersebut berdampak pada aspek psikologis seperti ekspresi emosi positif dan well-being, terlepas dari berbagai rentang usia. Manfaat yang dirasakan oleh volunteer salah satunya adalah memiliki kondisi kesehatan mental dan kondisi kesehatan yang lebih baik daripada non-volunteer. Mengingat banyaknya manfaat dari kegiatan volunteering, diharapkan adanya langkah persuasif dengan melibatkan berbagai stakeholder untuk mengajak lebih banyak orang terlibat dengan segala bentuk kegiatan sukarela, baik yang sifatnya perseorangan maupun kolektif.
... Respect is very close to SDT inasmuch as it is grounded in relatedness. Said differently, disrespectful treatment activates the brain alarm system (Eisenberger et al., 2003) which causes actors to feel very strong negative emotions. A fourth principle is Care, refers to individuals' needs being cared for and for carer to manifest good intentions and preoccupation for the person and his/her circumstances. ...
The literature has yet to study the ideal type of prison leadership in the eyes of frontline staff. Methodologically, most studies draw upon written questionnaires distributed to governors, not to their staff and analyse their data without using management or human needs theories. This study contrasts with the extant literature inasmuch as it is comparative (France/Canada) and draws upon Appreciative Inquiry interviews. It also draws upon three strands of literature and their variables: the general theory of management, self-determination theory and legitimacy of justice-procedural justice theories. The study finds that French and Canadian prison officers have needs in areas uncovered in this literature: competence, relatedness, autonomy, general fairness, respect/dignity and care. Our samples have mixed feelings about their local hierarchy; they are very critical regarding their national hierarchies. Prison officers describe their managers as being essentially either laissez-faire or as transactional. Limitations and institutional policy implications are explored.
... We have adapted a task that participants perform while in the MRI scanner so as to identify the brain systems that support the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral requirements of the task. This fMRI task, called "Cyberball" [90], is a computer game in which participants believe they are playing with real people in another room of the building. It is designed to manipulate the independent variable of social exclusion, via including and then suddenly excluding the participant in the ball-tossing. ...
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Background Whether and how psychotherapies change brain structure and function is unknown. Its study is of great importance for contemporary psychotherapy, as it may lead to discovery of neurobiological mechanisms that predict and mediate lasting changes in psychotherapy, particularly in severely mentally ill patients, such as those with chronic depression. Previous studies have shown that psychoanalytic psychotherapies produce robust and enduring improvements in not only symptom severity but also personality organization in patients who have chronic depression and early life trauma, especially if therapy is delivered at a high weekly frequency. Methods/design Patients with chronic major depression and a history of early life trauma will be recruited, assessed, and treated across 3 international sites: Germany, Switzerland, and the United States. They will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: either (1) once weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapies, or (2) 3–4 times weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapies. They will have full clinical characterization as well as undergo MRI scanning at study baseline prior to randomization and again one year later. A group of matched healthy controls will undergo similar assessments and MRI scanning at the same time points to help discern whether study treatments induce brain changes toward or away from normal values. Primary study outcomes will include anatomical MRI, functional MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging measures. Study hypotheses will be tested using the treatment-by-time interaction assessed in multiple general linear models with repeated measures analyses in an intent-to-treat analysis. Discussion MODE may allow the identification of brain-based biomarkers that may be more sensitive than traditional behavioral and clinical measures in discriminating, predicting, and mediating treatment response. These findings could help to personalize care for patients who have chronic depression patients and early life trauma, and they will provide new therapeutic targets for both psychological and biological treatments for major depressive illness.
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Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). (from the journal abstract)
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Previous studies have shown that the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) is extensively connected with medial temporal and cingulate limbic structures. In this study, the organization of these projections was defined in relation to architectonic areas within the OMPFC. All of the limbic structures were substantially connected with the following posterior and medial orbital areas: the posteromedial, medial, intermediate, and lateral agranular insular areas (Iapm, Iam, Iai, and Ial, respectively) and areas 11m, 13a, 13b, 14c, and 14r. In contrast, lateral orbital areas 12o, 12m, and [12] and medial wall areas 24a, b and 32 were primarily connected with the amygdala, the temporal pole, and the cingulate cortex. Data were not obtained on the poateroventral medial wall. Three distinct projections were recognized from the basal amygdaloid nucleus: (1) The dorsal part projected to area 121; (2) the ventromedial part projected to most areas in the posterior and medial orbital cortex except for areas Iai, 12o, 13a, and 14c; and (3) the ventrolateral part projected to orbital areas 12o, Iai, 13a, 14c, and to the medial wall areas. The accessory basal and lateral amygdaloid nuclei projected most strongly to areas in the posterior and medial orbital cortex. The medial, anterior cortical, and central amygdaloid nuclei and the periamygdaloid cortex were connected with the posterior orbital areas. The projection from the hippocampus originated from the rostral subiculum and terminated in the medial orbital areas. The same region was reciprocally connected with the anterornedial nucleus of the thalamus, which received input from the rostral subiculum. The parahippocampal cortical areas (including the temporal polar, entorhinal, perirhinal, and posterior parahippocampal cortices) were primarily connected with posterior and medial orbital areas, with some projections to the dorsal parr of the medial wall. The rostral cingulate cortex sent fibers to the medial wall, to the medial orbital areas, and to lateral areas 12o, 12r, and Iai. The posterior cingulate gyrus, including the caudomedial lobule, was especially strongly connected with area 11 m. © 1995 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
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Recent evidence demonstrating multiple regions of human cerebral cortex activated by pain has prompted speculation about their individual contributions to this complex experience. To differentiate cortical areas involved in pain affect, hypnotic suggestions were used to alter selectively the unpleasantness of noxious stimuli, without changing the perceived intensity. Positron emission tomography revealed significant changes in pain-evoked activity within anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with the encoding of perceived unpleasantness, whereas primary somatosensory cortex activation was unaltered. These findings provide direct experimental evidence in humans linking frontal-lobe limbic activity with pain affect, as originally suggested by early clinical lesion studies.
Abundant proteins found within the spore core (the small, acid-soluble proteins, or SASP) as well as surrounding the spore (the coat proteins) help to protect the spore from these assaults such as extremes of temperature, radiation, desiccation, and attack by a wide variety of toxic molecules. The SASP and coat proteins have been studied for many years, and much is known about their roles in resistance. The predominant proteins of the spore core are the SASP, making up as much as 20% of total spore protein. YrbB, which has been localized to the cortex and to the inner coat, and SspG , which is synthesized in the mother cell, may also be coat proteins. Measuring the effects of the loss of a single protein might require highly sensitive and specific assays. Given their unique roles in spore dormancy and survival, it will be of great interest to compare SASP and coat protein genes of the various spore-forming bacteria as their genome sequences become available. At the moment, relatively little information is available, making a detailed comparative analysis difficult. Homologues of CotE are encoded in three of the genomes of endospore-forming bacteria (Bacillus anthracis, B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis) for which data are available, and homologues of SpoIVA are encoded by these genomes as well as those of two Clostridium species (C. acetobutylicum and C. difficile). Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the formation of a basement layer by SpoIVA is a universal early step in coat assembly.
Examines the dark side of relating, an inevitable part of interacting with others. How is it that we need others so much, indeed rely on them for our survival and well-being, yet often find it so difficult to maintain satisfying relationships? How can the loved one who raises your spirits by leaving flowers for you one day be the same individual who the next day acts like an insensitive jerk? Relationships provide us with meaning and psychological well-being, but are the source of many, perhaps most, of life's greatest frustrations. Some the most commonly experienced aversive phenomena are explored in this book, including teasing, swearing, gossip, and betrayal. Rich in research and vivid examples, the chapters of this volume explore these behaviors through the eyes of both victims and perpetrators, often revealing the hidden benefits of aversive behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Provides an overview of what is currently known about hurt feelings and speculates regarding its causes and functions. The chapter begins with an examination of the status of hurt feelings as an emotion. Given that the emotions of hurt feelings have not been widely studied and do not appear in most taxonomies of emotion, the authors have only partial answers regarding the characteristics of hurt feelings and how they relate to other emotions. After discussing the features of hurt feelings, the authors offer a theoretical perspective that attempts to explain why people's feelings are hurt, and then they review the sparse empirical findings that bear on this theory. Common behavioral reactions to being hurt are introduced, followed by a discussion of why people hurt one another's feelings in the 1st place. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The typical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study presents a formidable problem of multiple statistical comparisons (i.e, > 10,000 in a 128 x 128 image). To protect against false positives, investigators have typically relied on decreasing the per pixel false positive probability. This approach incurs an inevitable loss of power to detect statistically significant activity. An alternative approach, which relies on the assumption that areas of true neural activity will tend to stimulate signal changes over contiguous pixels, is presented. If one knows the probability distribution of such cluster sizes as a function of per pixel false positive probability, one can use cluster-size thresholds independently to reject false positives. Both Monte Carlo simulations and fMRI studies of human subjects have been used to verify that this approach can improve statistical power by as much as fivefold over techniques that rely solely on adjusting per pixel false positive probabilities.
Since the separation of mammals serves to maintain (1) mother-offspring contanct and (2) contact between members of a group, it probably ranks as a basic mammalian vocalization. The present study is part of an investigation concerned with identifying the cerebral representation of the separation call in squirrel monkeys. For this purpose, monkeys are tested for their ability to produce spontaneous calls in isolation before and after ablations of different parts of the brain. Because of the subject's auditory and visual isolation, the call emitted during testing is referred to as the isolation call. In a preceding study, it was shown that lesions at the thalamomidbrain junction and in the ventral central gray interfere with the structure and/or production of the call. The present study focuses on the rostral midline limbic cortex, known to be one of the two cortical areas where stimulation elicits vocalization in monkeys. Evidence derived by the process of elimination indicates that the spontaneous call depends on the concerted action of a continuous band of rostral limbic cortex comprising parts of areas 24, 25, and 12. The midline frontal neocortex peripheral to this limbic zone does not appear to be essential for the call.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Los Angeles, 2001. Typescript (photocopy). Vita. Includes bibliographical references.
Hamsters deprived from birth of the neocortex developed normally and displayed the usual hamster-typical behavioral patterns. With the additional concurrent destruction of midline limbic convolutions (cingulate and underlying dorsal hippocampal), there were deficits in maternal behavior and a lack of development of play behavior. These findings demonstrate in a rodent (i) that the striatal complex and limbic system, along with the remaining neuraxis, are sufficient for giving expression to a wide range of unlearned forms of species-typical behavior and (ii) that midline limbic structures are required for the expression of play behavior and the integrated performance of maternal behavior.