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Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion


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A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress. ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC activity.
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DOI: 10.1126/science.1089134
, 290 (2003); 302Science
et al.Naomi I. Eisenberger,
Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social (this information is current as of September 30, 2008 ):
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subtilis (fig. S2). The RLP of B. subtilis
includes both those amino acid residues of
RuBisCO that are responsible for binding
the phosphate on C1 of RuBP and those
required for activation by CO
. However,
the residues of RuBisCO that are responsi-
ble for binding the other phosphate group
of RuBP and the residues of loop 6, which
are essential for RuBisCO activity (2, 3),
are replaced by different amino acids in
RLP (Fig. 1B). The reaction catalyzed by
RuBisCO consists of three sequential, par-
tial reactions: enolization, carboxylation or
oxygenation, and hydrolysis (2, 3, 26). De-
letion of loop 6 from RuBisCO prevents it
from catalyzing the carboxylation/oxygen-
ation reactions (27). However, it retains the
ability to catalyze the enolization reaction
(27 ). This observation supports the hypoth-
esis that the RLP-catalyzed enolization of
DK-MTP-1-P does not require the amino
acid residues that bind the phosphate group
on C5 of RuBP and the loop 6. Moreover,
the structure of DK-MTP-1-P is very sim-
ilar to that of RuBP. In photosynthetic
RuBisCO, these additional structures may
hinder the DK-MTP-1-P enolase reaction,
and they may also explain the slow growth
of ykrW
cells (Fig. 4C). In this
context, our results with the RLP of B.
subtilis suggest that RLPs of other bacteria
may also catalyze a reaction similar to one
of the partial reactions of RuBisCO in a
bacterial metabolic pathway.
Our analysis shows that RLP of B. sub-
tilis functions as a DK-MTP-1-P enolase,
which has no RuBP-carboxylation activity,
in the methionine salvage pathway. More-
over, this function of RLP is conserved in
the RuBisCO from a photosynthetic bacte-
rium. In a standard phylogenetic tree of the
large subunits of RuBisCO, the RLP from
B. subtilis is not included on any branches
that include RuBisCO or on branches that
include other RLPs with RuBP-carboxyla-
tion activity (Fig. 1A). The codon usage
and the G C content of the gene for RLP
are typical of the organism. The literature
(28) suggests that genes such as the gene
for RLP were probably not derived by lat-
eral transfer of a gene for a RuBP-carbox-
ylating enzyme from another unrelated or-
ganism, for example, in this case, an ar-
chaeon or photosynthetic bacterium. Thus,
it is possible that the gene for RLP, which
in B. subtilis is part of the methionine
salvage pathway, and the gene for photo-
synthetic RuBisCO originated from a com-
mon ancestral gene (supporting online
text). However, bacteria and Archaea that
have RLPs first appeared on Earth (29)
long before the Calvin cycle developed in
photosynthetic bacteria (30), thus we sug-
gest that RLPs may be the ancestral en-
zymes of photosynthetic RuBisCO.
References and Notes
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31. We thank W. L. Ogren and A. R. Portis Jr., for review-
ing the manuscript. We also thank M. Inui, RITE, for
providing the plasmid pRR2119, and J. Tsukamoto for
assistance with mass analysis. This study was sup-
ported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no.
10460043) from the Ministry of Education, Science,
Sports and Culture of Japan, and by the “Research for
the Future” programs (JSPS-RFTF97R16001 and
JSPS-00L01604) of the Japan Society for the Promo-
tion of Science.
Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
SOM Text
Figs. S1 and S2
19 May 2003; accepted 26 August 2003
Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI
Study of Social Exclusion
Naomi I. Eisenberger,
* Matthew D. Lieberman,
Kipling D. Williams
A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and
tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those
of physical pain. Participants were scanned while playing a virtual ball-
tossing game in which they were ultimately excluded. Paralleling results
from physical pain studies, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was more
active during exclusion than during inclusion and correlated positively with
self-reported distress. Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC) was active
during exclusion and correlated negatively with self-reported distress.
ACC changes mediated the RVPFC-distress correlation, suggesting that
RVPFC regulates the distress of social exclusion by disrupting ACC
It is a basic feature of human experience to
feel soothed in the presence of close others
and to feel distressed when left behind.
Many languages reflect this experience in
the assignment of physical pain words
(“hurt feelings”) to describe experiences of
social separation (1). However, the notion
that the pain associated with losing some-
one is similar to the pain experienced upon
physical injury seems more metaphorical
than real. Nonetheless, evidence suggests
that some of the same neural machinery
recruited in the experience of physical pain
may also be involved in the experience of
pain associated with social separation or
Department of Psychology, Franz Hall, University of
California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095–1563,
Department of Psychology, Macquarie Univer-
sity, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia.
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-
10 OCTOBER 2003 VOL 302 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org290
on September 30, 2008 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
rejection (2). Because of the adaptive value
of mammalian social bonds, the social at-
tachment system, which keeps young near
caregivers, may have piggybacked onto the
physical pain system to promote survival
(3). We conducted a functional magnetic
resonance imaging (fMRI) study of social
exclusion to determine whether the regions
activated by social pain are similar to those
found in studies of physical pain.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is
believed to act as a neural alarm system
or conflict monitor, detecting when an au-
tomatic response is inappropriate or in con-
flict with current goals (46). Not surpris-
ingly, pain, the most primitive signal that
something is wrong, activates the ACC
(7, 8). More specifically, dorsal ACC ac-
tivity is primarily associated with the affec-
tively distressing rather than the sensory
component of pain (79).
Because of the importance of social
bonds for the survival of most mammalian
species, the social attachment system may
have adopted the neural computations of
the ACC, involved in pain and conflict
detection processes, to promote the goal of
social connectedness. Ablating the cingu-
late in hamster mothers disrupts maternal
behavior aimed at keeping pups near (10),
and ablating the cingulate in squirrel mon-
keys eliminates the spontaneous production
of the separation cry, emitted to reestablish
contact with the social group (11). In hu-
man mothers, the ACC is activated by the
sound of infant cries (12). However, to
date, no studies have examined whether the
ACC is also activated upon social separa-
tion or social rejection in human subjects.
Right ventral prefrontal cortex (RVPFC)
has been implicated in the regulation or
inhibition of pain distress and negative af-
fect (1316). The primate homolog of
VPFC has efferent connections to the re-
gion of the ACC associated with pain dis-
tress (17, 18), suggesting that RVPFC may
partially regulate the ACC. Additionally,
electrical stimulation of VPFC in rats di-
minishes pain behavior in response to pain-
ful stimulation (19). More recently in hu-
mans, heightened RVPFC activation has
been associated with improvement of pain
symptoms in a placebo-pain study (16).
Given that even the mildest forms of
social exclusion can generate social pain
(20), we investigated the neural response
during two types of social exclusion: (i)
explicit social exclusion (ESE), in which
individuals were prevented from participat-
ing in a social activity by other players
engaged in the social activity, and (ii) im-
plicit social exclusion (ISE), in which par-
ticipants, because of extenuating circum-
stances, were not able to join in a social
activity with other players.
fMRI scans were acquired while partic-
ipants played a virtual ball-tossing game
(CyberBall) with what they believed to
be two other players, also in fMRI scan-
ners, during which the players eventually
excluded the participant (21). In reality,
there were no other players; participants
were playing with a preset computer pro-
gram and were given a cover story to en-
sure that they believed the other players
were real (22).
In the first scan (ISE), the participant
watched the other players play Cyber-
Ball. Participants were told that, because of
technical difficulties, the link to the other two
scanners could not yet be made and thus, at
first, they would be able to watch but not play
with the other two players. This cover story was
intended to allow participants to view a
scene visually identical to ESE without par-
ticipants believing they were being exclud-
ed. In the second scan (inclusion), partici-
pants played with the other two players. In
the final scan (ESE), participants received
seven throws and were then excluded when
the two players stopped throwing partici-
pants the ball for the remainder of the scan
(45 throws). Afterward, participants
filled out questionnaires assessing how ex-
cluded they felt and their level of social
distress during the ESE scan (22).
Behavioral results indicated that partic-
ipants felt ignored and excluded during
ESE (t 5.33, P 0.05). As predicted,
group analysis of the fMRI data indicated
that dorsal ACC (Fig. 1A) (x 8, y 20,
z 40) was more active during ESE than
during inclusion (t 3.36, r 0.71, P
0.005) (23, 24 ). Self-reported distress was
positively correlated with ACC activity in
this contrast (Fig. 2A) (x 6, y 8, z
45, r 0.88, P 0.005; x 4, y 31,
z 41, r 0.75, P 0.005), suggesting
that dorsal ACC activation during ESE was
associated with emotional distress parallel-
ing previous studies of physical pain (7, 8).
The anterior insula (x 42, y 16, z 1)
was also active in this comparison (t
4.07, r 0.78, P 0.005); however, it was
not associated with self-reported distress.
Two regions of RVPFC were more ac-
tive during ESE than during inclusion (Fig.
1B) (x 42, y 27, z 11, t 4.26, r
0.79, P 0.005; x 37, y 50, z 1, t
4.96, r 0.83, P 0.005). Self-reported
distress was negatively correlated with
RVPFC activity during ESE, relative to
inclusion (Fig. 2B) (x 30, y 34, z 3,
r 0.68, P 0.005). Additionally,
RVPFC activation (x 34, y 36, z 3)
was negatively correlated with ACC activ-
ity (x 6, y 8, z 45) during ESE,
relative to inclusion (r 0.81, P 0.005)
(Fig. 2C), suggesting that RVPFC may play
a self-regulatory role in mitigating the dis-
tressing effects of social exclusion.
ACC activity (x 6, y 8, z 45)
mediated the direct path from RVPFC (x
34, y 36, z 3) to distress (Sobel test,
Z 3.16, P 0.005). After controlling for
ACC activity, the remaining path from
RVPFC to distress was no longer signifi-
cant (␤⫽ 0.17, P 0.5). This mediation-
al model is nearly identical to the results
from previous research on the self-regula-
tion of physical pain (16).
ISE, relative to inclusion, also produced
significant activation of ACC (x 6, y
21, z 41; (z 41, t 4.34, I 0.78, P
0.005). To preserve the cover story, self-
reported distress was not assessed after this
condition, and thus we could not assess the
relation between ACC activity during ISE
and perceived distress. However, no
RVPFC activity was found in this compar-
ison, even at a P .05 significance level,
suggesting that the ACC registered this ISE
but did not generate a self-regula-
tory response.
In summary, a pattern of activations very
similar to those found in studies of physical
pain emerged during social exclusion, pro-
viding evidence that the experience and reg-
ulation of social and physical pain share a
common neuroanatomical basis. Activity in
dorsal ACC, previously linked to the experi-
ence of pain distress, was associated with
increased distress after social exclusion. Fur-
thermore, activity in RVPFC, previously
linked to the regulation of pain distress, was
associated with diminished distress after so-
cial exclusion.
The neural correlates of social pain were
also activated by the mere visual appear-
Fig. 1. (A) Increased
activity in anterior cin-
gulate cortex (ACC)
during exclusion rela-
tive to inclusion. (B) In-
creased activity in
right ventral prefron-
tal cortex (RVPFC)
during exclusion rela-
tive to inclusion.
on September 30, 2008 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
ance of exclusion in the absence of actual
exclusion. The pattern of neural activity
associated with ISE and ESE provides
some challenges to the way we currently
understand exclusion and its consequences.
Although the neural correlates of distress
were observed in both ISE and ESE, the
self-regulation of this distress only oc-
curred in response to ESE. Explicit aware-
ness of exclusion may be required before
individuals can make appropriate attribu-
tions and regulate the associated distress.
Dorsal ACC activation during ESE
could reflect enhanced attentional process-
ing, previously associated with ACC activ-
ity (4, 5), rather than an underlying distress
due to exclusion. Two pieces of evidence
make this possibility unlikely. First, ACC
activity was strongly correlated with per-
ceived distress after exclusion, indicating
that the ACC activity was associated with
changes in participants self-reported feel-
ing states. Second, although inclusion is
likely to require greater attentional process-
ing than does ISE to facilitate participation
in the game, there was greater ACC activity
during ISE than during inclusion, indicat-
ing that the ACC activity was not fully
attributable to heightened attention.
Because of the need to maintain a realistic
situation in which participants would genu-
inely feel excluded, the study did not contain
some of the controls typical of most neuro-
imaging studies. For instance, the conditions
were always implemented in the same order
so as to keep expectations consistent from
one scan to the next across participants. It
was especially critical that ESE came last to
prevent expectations of possible exclusion
from contaminating the other conditions.
There was only a single ESE period to pre-
serve ecological validity. This modification,
however, diminishes, rather than increases,
the likelihood of Type I errors.
This study suggests that social pain is
analogous in its neurocognitive function to
physical pain, alerting us when we have
sustained injury to our social connections,
allowing restorative measures to be taken.
Understanding the underlying commonalities
between physical and social pain unearths
new perspectives on issues such as why phys-
ical and social pain are affected similarly by
both social support and neurochemical inter-
ventions (2, 3, 25), and why it hurts to lose
someone we love (1).
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grant from the National Institutes of Mental
Health (R21MH66709-01) to M.D.L.
Supporting Online Material
Materials and Methods
14 July 2003; accepted 15 August 2003
Fig. 2. Scatterplots showing the
relation during exclusion, rela-
tive to inclusion, between (A)
ACC activity and self-reported
distress, (B) RVPFC and self-
reported distress, and (C) ACC
and RVPFC activity. Each point
represents the data from a single
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... Another reference experiment is that conducted by Eisenberger et al. (Eisenberger et al., 2003) on social exclusion and published in Science Journal. In this experiment, they examined the brain activity of those suddenly excluded from the cooperative game they were participating in. ...
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Gut microbiota is suggested to regulate the host’s mental health via the gut-brain axis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the microbiome and psychological pain due to social exclusion. Adult individuals with (n = 14) and without (n = 25) social exclusion experience were assessed for the psychological status using self-reported questionnaires: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatics. The exclusion group had a 1.70-fold higher total BAI score and 2.16-fold higher levels of anxiety-related physical symptoms (p < 0.05). The gut microbial profiles also differed between the two groups. The exclusion group showed higher probability of having Prevotella-enriched microbiome (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.65–2.75; p < 0.05), a significantly reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and decreased abundance of Faecalibacterium spp. (p < 0.05) which was associated with the duration and intensity of social exclusion (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that the psychological pain due to social exclusion is correlated with the gut microbiota composition, suggesting that targeting social exclusion-related microorganisms can be a new approach to solving psychological problems and related social issues.
... ALK kunnen ook tot hoge maatschappelijke kosten leiden. [10][11][12] Wanneer huisartsen het aanhouden van de klachten tijdig kunnen uitleggen en verklaren, kan dit bij patiënten met ALK tot acceptatie leiden. Ze blijven dan ook niet langer zoeken naar een diagnose en gaan met de klachten aan de slag. ...
Math anxiety (MA) seems to result from an interaction of genetic vulnerability with negative experiences learning mathematics. Although mathematics achievement does not substantially differ between the sexes, MA levels are usually higher in girls. Molecular genetic markers of MA vulnerability have been seldom explored. This article examines the contribution of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) to MA and to sex differences in MA. Five hundred and sixty‐eight third to fifth graders were genotyped for the MAOA‐LPR polymorphism (a repetitive element in MAOA promoter that has been associated with MAOA enzymatic activity), and assessed on general cognitive ability, mathematics achievement, and the cognitive and affective dimensions of MA. MAOA‐LPR genotypes were classified as high (MAOA‐H) or low (MAOA‐L) according to their predicted enzymatic activity. Mixed models controlling for effects of school, sex, general cognitive ability, and mathematics achievement were evaluated. The best fitting model included school, math achievement, sex, MAOA‐LPR, and the MAOA‐LPR by sex interaction. This indicated that under the MAOA‐H dominant model, anxiety toward mathematics interacted with the MAOA genotype: girls with an MAOA‐L genotype exhibited higher levels of MA, with a small but significant effect. The association between MAOA‐L genotype and MA in girls may represent an example of developmental plasticity. Third to fifth graders self‐reported on the cognitive and affective dimensions of math anxiety (MA) and were genotyped for the MAOA‐LPR polymorphism, a repetitive element in the MAOA promoter associated with MAOA enzymatic activity. Interactions between genotype, sex, and MA were analyzed under different genetic models. Girls with the low activity (MAOA‐L), as opposed to boys and girls with the high activity (MAOA‐H) genotype, reported higher levels of affective MA.
The study aims to discover the probable roles of cultural characteristics in the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace ostracism which is a critical phenomenon among employees. It was designed in a causal model claiming that there are moderating effects of collectivism and belief in collective emotions in the relationship between OCB and workplace ostracism. 309 employees were included randomly in Turkey, and correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis. Unlike similar studies and the expected relationship in our hypotheses, OCB and workplace ostracism were found negatively correlated. Moreover, neither organizational collectivism nor employees’ belief in collective emotions had a moderating role in this relationship. The study showed that the dark side of the OCB does not work for the Turkish culture, although its collectivist features. It is evident that globalization makes the collectivist organizations’ strict norms and rules more flexible and loosens the employees’ collectivist beliefs. Regardless of the cultural characteristics, the study also underlines that workplace ostracism should be prevented with appropriate management strategies like encouraging employees to be engaged in citizenship behaviors.
Thanks to the developments in neuroscientific measurement techniques, it has become possible to observe abstract phenomena that form the basis of human behavior.This opportunity has attracted the attention of researchers from the field of management and organization, as in many areas of social sciences, and neuromanagement has emerged as a multidisciplinary field of study in which neuroscience and management sciences collaborate.Within the scope of our study, which examines neuromanagement as a relatively new field of study, neuroscience, neuroscientific measurement techniques, the ethical dimension of these techniques are conceptually discussed and the concept of neuromanagement is defined.In the research part of our study, neuroscientific studies in the field of management and organization were subjected to bibliometric analysis and the current state of the neuromanagement field was made visible.In the conclusion part of our study, evaluations are made on the future of neuromanagement studies in the light of the findings.
Development and validation of pain biomarkers has become a major issue in pain research. Recent advances in multimodal data acquisition have allowed researchers to gather multivariate and multilevel whole-body measurements in patients with pain conditions, and data analysis techniques such as machine learning have led to novel findings in neural biomarkers for pain. Most studies have focused on the development of a biomarker to predict the severity of pain with high precision and high specificity, however, a similar approach to discriminate different modalities of pain is lacking. Identification of more accurate and specific pain biomarkers will require an in-depth understanding of the modality specificity of pain. In this review, we summarize early and recent findings on the modality specificity of pain in the brain, with a focus on distinct neural activity patterns between chronic clinical and acute experimental pain, direct, social, and vicarious pain, and somatic and visceral pain. We also suggest future directions to improve our current strategy of pain management using our knowledge of modality-specific aspects of pain.
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Previous studies have shown that the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) is extensively connected with medial temporal and cingulate limbic structures. In this study, the organization of these projections was defined in relation to architectonic areas within the OMPFC. All of the limbic structures were substantially connected with the following posterior and medial orbital areas: the posteromedial, medial, intermediate, and lateral agranular insular areas (Iapm, Iam, Iai, and Ial, respectively) and areas 11m, 13a, 13b, 14c, and 14r. In contrast, lateral orbital areas 12o, 12m, and [12] and medial wall areas 24a, b and 32 were primarily connected with the amygdala, the temporal pole, and the cingulate cortex. Data were not obtained on the poateroventral medial wall.
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Recent evidence demonstrating multiple regions of human cerebral cortex activated by pain has prompted speculation about their individual contributions to this complex experience. To differentiate cortical areas involved in pain affect, hypnotic suggestions were used to alter selectively the unpleasantness of noxious stimuli, without changing the perceived intensity. Positron emission tomography revealed significant changes in pain-evoked activity within anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with the encoding of perceived unpleasantness, whereas primary somatosensory cortex activation was unaltered. These findings provide direct experimental evidence in humans linking frontal-lobe limbic activity with pain affect, as originally suggested by early clinical lesion studies.
Abundant proteins found within the spore core (the small, acid-soluble proteins, or SASP) as well as surrounding the spore (the coat proteins) help to protect the spore from these assaults such as extremes of temperature, radiation, desiccation, and attack by a wide variety of toxic molecules. The SASP and coat proteins have been studied for many years, and much is known about their roles in resistance. The predominant proteins of the spore core are the SASP, making up as much as 20% of total spore protein. YrbB, which has been localized to the cortex and to the inner coat, and SspG , which is synthesized in the mother cell, may also be coat proteins. Measuring the effects of the loss of a single protein might require highly sensitive and specific assays. Given their unique roles in spore dormancy and survival, it will be of great interest to compare SASP and coat protein genes of the various spore-forming bacteria as their genome sequences become available. At the moment, relatively little information is available, making a detailed comparative analysis difficult. Homologues of CotE are encoded in three of the genomes of endospore-forming bacteria (Bacillus anthracis, B. stearothermophilus, B. subtilis) for which data are available, and homologues of SpoIVA are encoded by these genomes as well as those of two Clostridium species (C. acetobutylicum and C. difficile). Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the formation of a basement layer by SpoIVA is a universal early step in coat assembly.
Examines the dark side of relating, an inevitable part of interacting with others. How is it that we need others so much, indeed rely on them for our survival and well-being, yet often find it so difficult to maintain satisfying relationships? How can the loved one who raises your spirits by leaving flowers for you one day be the same individual who the next day acts like an insensitive jerk? Relationships provide us with meaning and psychological well-being, but are the source of many, perhaps most, of life's greatest frustrations. Some the most commonly experienced aversive phenomena are explored in this book, including teasing, swearing, gossip, and betrayal. Rich in research and vivid examples, the chapters of this volume explore these behaviors through the eyes of both victims and perpetrators, often revealing the hidden benefits of aversive behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Provides an overview of what is currently known about hurt feelings and speculates regarding its causes and functions. The chapter begins with an examination of the status of hurt feelings as an emotion. Given that the emotions of hurt feelings have not been widely studied and do not appear in most taxonomies of emotion, the authors have only partial answers regarding the characteristics of hurt feelings and how they relate to other emotions. After discussing the features of hurt feelings, the authors offer a theoretical perspective that attempts to explain why people's feelings are hurt, and then they review the sparse empirical findings that bear on this theory. Common behavioral reactions to being hurt are introduced, followed by a discussion of why people hurt one another's feelings in the 1st place. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The typical functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study presents a formidable problem of multiple statistical comparisons (i.e, > 10,000 in a 128 x 128 image). To protect against false positives, investigators have typically relied on decreasing the per pixel false positive probability. This approach incurs an inevitable loss of power to detect statistically significant activity. An alternative approach, which relies on the assumption that areas of true neural activity will tend to stimulate signal changes over contiguous pixels, is presented. If one knows the probability distribution of such cluster sizes as a function of per pixel false positive probability, one can use cluster-size thresholds independently to reject false positives. Both Monte Carlo simulations and fMRI studies of human subjects have been used to verify that this approach can improve statistical power by as much as fivefold over techniques that rely solely on adjusting per pixel false positive probabilities.
Since the separation of mammals serves to maintain (1) mother-offspring contanct and (2) contact between members of a group, it probably ranks as a basic mammalian vocalization. The present study is part of an investigation concerned with identifying the cerebral representation of the separation call in squirrel monkeys. For this purpose, monkeys are tested for their ability to produce spontaneous calls in isolation before and after ablations of different parts of the brain. Because of the subject's auditory and visual isolation, the call emitted during testing is referred to as the isolation call. In a preceding study, it was shown that lesions at the thalamomidbrain junction and in the ventral central gray interfere with the structure and/or production of the call. The present study focuses on the rostral midline limbic cortex, known to be one of the two cortical areas where stimulation elicits vocalization in monkeys. Evidence derived by the process of elimination indicates that the spontaneous call depends on the concerted action of a continuous band of rostral limbic cortex comprising parts of areas 24, 25, and 12. The midline frontal neocortex peripheral to this limbic zone does not appear to be essential for the call.
Ostracism is such a widely used and powerful tactic that the authors tested whether people would be affected by it even under remote and artificial circumstances. In Study 1, 1,486 participants from 62 countries accessed the authors' on-line experiment on the Internet. They were asked to use mental visualization while playing a virtual tossing game with two others (who were actually computer generated and controlled). Despite the minimal nature of their experience, the more participants were ostracized, the more they reported feeling bad, having less control, and losing a sense of belonging. In Study 2, ostracized participants were more likely to conform on a subsequent task. The results are discussed in terms of supporting K. D. Williams's (1997) need threat theory of ostracism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). (from the journal abstract)
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Los Angeles, 2001. Typescript (photocopy). Vita. Includes bibliographical references.
Hamsters deprived from birth of the neocortex developed normally and displayed the usual hamster-typical behavioral patterns. With the additional concurrent destruction of midline limbic convolutions (cingulate and underlying dorsal hippocampal), there were deficits in maternal behavior and a lack of development of play behavior. These findings demonstrate in a rodent (i) that the striatal complex and limbic system, along with the remaining neuraxis, are sufficient for giving expression to a wide range of unlearned forms of species-typical behavior and (ii) that midline limbic structures are required for the expression of play behavior and the integrated performance of maternal behavior.